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2-554 




6—3 



I 



IP 

THE 



Electric Railway 

Journal 




INDEX TO VOLUME XXXVII 



— o 



January to June, 1911 



McQraw Publishing Company 
239 West 39th Street 
New York 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXVII 



PAGES BY WEEKS 



Jan. 7 pages i to 58 

Jan. 14 " 59 to 100 

Jan. 21 " 101 to 144 

Jan. 28 " 145 to 190 

Feb. 4 " 191 to 246 

Feb. ii " 247 to 288 

Feb. 18 " 289 to 324 

Feb. 25 " 325 to 358 

Mar. 4 359 to 404 

Mar. 11 " 405 to 444 

Mar. 18 " 445 to 486 

Mar. 25 " 487 to 544 

April 1 " 545 to 622 

April 8 " 623 to 656 

April 15 " 657 to 696 

April 22 " 697 to 734 

April 29 " 735 to 774 

May 6 " 775 to 826 

May 13 " 827 to 862 

May 20 " 863 to 902 

May 27 " 903 to 940 

June 3 " 941 to 1000 

June 10 " 1001 to 1044 

June 17 " 1045 to 1094 

June 24 " 1095 to 1136 



A 



Accelerometer and gradient meter combined 

(Trotter), 429 
Accident claim department: 
Campaigns against accidents: 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus 

Ry. 

Reduction in costs, 122 
School children, 138 
"Southwestern creed," 94 
Talks to employees [Schneider], 
379; Comment, 361 
Indianapolils & Louisville Traction 
Co., 137 

Kansas City, Metropolitan Street Ry., 
1129 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., 351 
Portland, Ore., 264, 538, 1087 
Tacoma Railway & Power Co., Safety 
league, 282 

Cause and prevention of accidents [Kel- 
logg], 790; Discussion, 798; Com- 
ment, 776 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 

Reduction in costs, 192 
Comments on safe operation of railways 

[Dye], 265 

Committees of employees on safety, 290 

Free transportation of employees, Legal 

status, 779 

Freight claims, Method of accounting 

[Davis], 463 
— ' — Human element [Kellogg], 791 

Index information bureau [Odell], 1022 

Liability of employees [Peck], 159; Dis- 
cussion, 156 

Medical department [Cole], 1024 

Prevention of accidents by claim agents 

[Carson], 1022 

Prevention, Portland, Ore., Advertising, 

538 

Prize article on "How to avoid accidents," 

Portland, Ore., 264 
Reducing boarding and alighting accidents 

[Hone], 1023 
Safety league, Tacoma Railway & Power 

Co., 282 

Settling physicians' bills. 1024 

Accidents: 

Collisions on interurban roads and theii 

causes [Peck], 159; Discussion, 156 
Comparison of accidents on pay-within and 

other cars, 1065 
Conference on. (See New York State 

Public Service Commission) 

First aid to the injured [Moorhead], 419 

Indiana, for three months, 352 

New York City, 73, 615, 819, 1038 

New York State, Report of Public Service 

Commission, 301 
Open cars vs. closed cars, Texas experience 

[Kellogg, Jr.], 790; Comment, 776 

Staunton, 111., Crew indicted, 352 

Texas street railways [Kellogg], 790; 

Discussion, 798; Comment, 776 

Accountants' Association: 

Committee on standard classification of 

accounts, Meeting of, 169 

Committees, List of, 210 

Executive committee meeting, 210 



JANUARY TO JUNE, J9II 



Accountants' Association: (Continued) 

Joint committee on freight and express 

accounting, 501 

Joint committee on shop accounting, Meet- 
ings, 215, 795, 1111; Comment, 776 

Progress of [Forse], 28 

Accounting: 

Auditor, The traveling [White], 467; Dis- 
cussion, 502 

Depreciation [Edwards], 972 

Depreciation account proposed in Nebraska, 

919 

Depreciation in New York. (See New 

York City, Metropolitan Street Ry., 
Reorganization.) 

Depreciation appropriation in St. Louis, 

315; Comment, 247 

Engineering, Sub-committee meeting of 

joint committee, 795; Comment, 776 

Freight claims [Davis], 463 

General accounting of public utility cor- 
porations [Tharp], 842 

Interline accounting [Hixson], 503 

Maintenance, in Chicago, 547 

New York Public Service Commission, Re- 
port on uniform accounts, 301 

Renewals as defined by Chicago Board of 

Supervising Engineers, 374; Comment, 
547 

Shop, Inter-department charges, 193 

Shop, Meeting of joint committee of En- 
gineering and Accountants' Associa- 
tions, 215 

Standard classifications adopted by New 

Jersey Commission, 273 
Accounting Conference. (See Central Electric 

Accounting Conference) 

Advertising : 

Ilinois Traction System, Signal equip- 
ment, 719 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry.. 

138 

Summer traffic [Smith], 514; Comment, 

487; Discussion, 521 
Aerial monorailway (Fawkes), *1028 
Aeroplanes at street railway parks, *980 
Air-brakes. (See Brakes, Air.) 
Akron, Ohio: 

Brick paving with pitch filler, *718 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 1127 
Cars, One-side convertible, *1074 
Improvements, 304, 396, 648 
Officers, 239 
Alabama, Legislation, 313 

Alaska-Northern R. R., Gasoline motor car, 
*984 

Albany Southern R. R. (See Hudson, N. Y.) 
Albany, N. Y., United Traction Co. 

A conscience letter, 757 

Improvements planned, 1114 

Rensselaer fare case, Court decision, 479, 

767, 895 

Reply to Report of Commission on cars, 

183 

Allentown, Pa., Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Accident prevention campaign, 351 

Accident record, 689 

■ Annual report, 435 

Improvements during 1910. *250 

Alliance, Ohio. Stark Electric R. R., Tele- 
phone train dispatching, *428 

Alternating- versus direct-current for railway 
operation, 7 

Alton, Jacksonville & Peoria Ry. (See Jersey- 
ville, 111.) 

American Cities Railway & Light Co. (See 
New York City) 

American Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation. (See Accountants' Associa- 
tion) 

American Electric Railway Association: 

Banquet at Hotel Astor, New York, 223 

Circular on associate membership and affil- 
iated associations, 72 

Committee on education, Meeting, 759 

— ■ — Committee on Electric Railway Dictionary, 
Meeting, 215 

Committees, List of, 219 

Committees on various subjects, Meetings, 

214 

Condition and work of [Brady], 26; Com- 
ment, 12 

Convention : 

Exhibit arrangements, * 1 1 1 8 
Location, Announcement of committee, 

803; Comment, 775 
Location, Meetings of committee, 604, 

623, 419 
Morning sessions, 1003 

Development and work of TBrady], 216 

Executive committee meeting, 214 

Insurance expert appointed, 1073 

— —Mid-year meeting, 191, 214, 223 
American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation : 

Committee on buildings and structures, 

Meeting, 917 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



American Electric Railway Engineering As- 
sociation: (Continued) 

Committee for conference with American 

Society for Testing Materials, Meet- 
ing, 468 

Committee on engineering appren- 
tices, Meeting, 1117. 
Committee on equipment, Meetings, 218, 

800 

Committee on power distribution, Meet- 
ings, 414, 453, 880 

Committee on power generation, Meeting, 

508 

Committees, List of, 118 

loint committee on block signals, Meet- 
ings, 169, 501, 599, 1114; Comment, 
360, 624 

Joint committee on shop accounting, 

Meetings, 215, 795, 1111; Comment, 
776 

Letter ballot on standards, 1028 

Progress of [Harvie], 28 

Question Box, Discontinuance proposed, 13 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' As- 
sociation : 

Banquet announcement, 127 

Executive committee meetings, 210, 1072, 

1119 

American Electric Railway Transportation and 

Traffic Association: 
Committee on city rules: 

Meeting, 713 

Recommendations, 963 
Committee on freight and express traffic, 

340 

— — Committee on interurban rules: 

Meetings, 170, 493, 675, 716; Com- 
ment, 445, 698 
Organization, 82 

Committee on passenger traffic, Meeting, 

635 

Committee on schedules and time-tables, 

Meetings, 169, 639, 758 
Committee on transfers and transfer in- 
formation, Meeting of, 169 

Committees, List of, 167 

Executive committee meetings, 209 

Joint committee on block signals, Meet- 
ings, 169, 599, 1114; Comment, 366, 
624 

Joint committee on freight and express 

accounting, Meeting, 501 

Transfer law suggested, 635 

Work of association [Page], 29 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Annual meeting in New York, 879 

Meeting at Toronto, 676 

San Francisco Section entertained by 

Southern Pacific Co., *978 

American Railway Engineering & Maintenance 
of Way Association: 

Annual convention, 497, 524 

Committee on electricity, 783 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion, Convention, 1001, 1031, 1111, 
1115 

Ampere-hour meter for car service (Chamber- 
lain & Hookham), *308 

Anderson, Ind., Indiana Union Traction Co., 
Annual report, 536 * 

Anderson, S. C, Greenville, Spartanburg & 
Anderson Ry. : 

Merger, 281 

■ Stock issue, 766 

Angola (Ind.) Railway & Power Co., Receiver- 
ship, 853 

Anti-climbing devices. (See Bumpers) 

Appraisal of railway property: 

"Going value," Diagram showing method 

of computing, 165 

Logical basis for valuations of interurban 

street railways [Young], 115; Discus- 
sion, 162 

■ Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, 123, 

422, 708, 756, 798, 828, 876, 916, 976 

Principles established by Wisconsin Rail- 
road Commission, 164 

Apprentice courses, Value of. in electric rail- 
way shops, 363 

Arbitration in industrial disputes, 103 

Argentina, S. A., Rosario Electric Tramway 
Co., Extension, 221 

Arkansas Association of Public Utility Opera- 
tions, Convention, *839 

Armature guard, *925 

Armature winding, Long Island R. R., 1007 
Arnold, Bion J., Honorary degree conferred 

upon, by University of Nebraska, 168 
Ash-handling system, "Geco" pneumatic (Green 

Engineering Co.), *341 
Ash hoist and dump, Syracuse shops, *560 
Asphaltic oils as economical wood preservatives 

[Cherrington], 504 
Atchison (Kan.) Railway, Light & Power Co., 

Notes, 687 

Athol (Mass.) & Orange Street Ry., Control 

of, and officers, 817 
Atlanta, Ga., Georgia Railway & Electric Co.: 

Cars, Pay-as-you-enter, *416 

Redemption of bonds, 239 



IV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXVII. 



Atlanta, Ga., Georgia Railway & Electric Co.: 
(Continued) 

Service conditions, 396, 537 

Shop notes, *383 

Track construction standards, *78 

Atlantic City. (See American Electric Rail- 
way Association, Convention) 

Auditor, The traveling [White], 467; Discus- 
sion, 502 

Augusta-Aiken (Ga.) Railway & Electric Cor., 

Sale of bonds, 817 
Austin (Tex.) Street Ry., Bonds, 181 
Austria, Single-phase railway developments, 

308 

Austrian Street Railway Association, Operat- 
ing and maintenance rules adopted by, 
40 

Automobile 'bus line of Indianapolis, New 
Castle & Toledo Ry., 369 



B 

Babylon (N. V.) R. R., Receivership, 181 
Baggage handling, Recommendations of In- 
diana Railroad Commission, 225 
Baggage rules on Western Ohio R. R., 538 
Baltimore : 

Storage-battery plant. Largest of its 

kind in the world, 387 

United Railways & Electric Co.: 

Annual report, 767, 851 

Block signal system on North Street 

viaduct, *41 
Booming Baltimore, 894 
Bulletin to motormen on care of spe- 
cial work, *841 ; Comment, 828 
Cars, Pay-as-you-enter, *626 
Instruction prints, *760 
Power contract, 345 

Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern R. R., De- 
cision on joint rates with electric 
roads, 637 

Bearings. (See Roller bearings) 

Beaumont (Tex.) Traction Co., Issue of re- 
ceiver's certificates, 435 

Bell pull, Double signal, Boston prepavment 
car, *580 

Belton (Tex.) & Temple Traction Co., Sale, 

687 

Berkshire Street Ry. (See Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Berlin, Germany: 

Grosse-Berliner Strassenbahn, Annual 

report, 639 

Instruction room for motormen, *799 

Schoneberg Electric Underground Rail- 
way opened to public, 19 

Birmingham (Eng.) Tramways, Report, 915 

Blanks and forms: 

Car failure record, Richmond, Va., *81 

Car overhauling in shops, Syracuse, N. 

Y., 553 

■ Inspection forms, Scranton, Pa., 603 

Long Island R. R., 1005 

Manager's loose-leaf pocket record, 172 

Ohmer register, 510 

Philadelphia instruction system, 830 

Piece-work records, Boston, 370 

Shop practice 

Savannah, Ga., 299 

Syracuse, N. Y., 562 
Wheel records, Shops of Chicago Rys., 

567 

Block signals. (See Signals) 

Bloomsburg, Pa., Columbia Power, Light & 
Railways , Co., Merger, 1086 

Boards of trade, Interest of railway compa- 
nies in, Discussion, 635 

Boiler economy and the application of flue- 
gas analysis [Hibbard] 794; Discus- 
sion, 797 

Boise (Idaho) & Interurban Railway, Double- 
truck city cars, *1029 

Boring mill for motor frames, Metropolitan 
Street Ry., New York, *589 

Boring tool, Expansion (Davis), *429 

Boston: 

Electrification of terminals: 

Boston Society of Civil Engineers, 
Discussion by, 501 

Hearing before Massachusetts Joint 
Board, 466 

Report of Massachusetts Joint Board, 
225; Comment, 192; Discussion, 
[Crocker], [Swain], 672 
Elevated Ry. : 

Acquisition of stocks and bonds of 
other railway companies, 279 

Annual report, 47; Comment, 145 

Cable order, 1028 

Cars, Pay-within, *579 

Efficiency Club and Efficiency Com- 
mittee, Work of, 597; Comment, 
548 

Piece-work records in armature shop, 
370 

Railings at elevated stations. 1072 
Relations with employees, 51 
Signs for cars, New, * 1 1 1 9 
Stations of Riverbank subway, 235 
Transfers, Hearing on petition for ad- 
ditional, 666 

Joint commission on transit matters, Spe- 
cial reports by, 153 

Public Service Investment Co., Issue of 

stock, 350 



Boston: (Continued) 

Subways: 

Joint Commission recommends new 
plan, 812 

Riverbank subway, Location of sta- 
tions, 235 

Boston & Northern & Old Colony Street Rys.: 

Bond issue, 238, 435 

Express cars, *872 

— 1 — Fare petition of West Newbury, 1120 
Issue of stock, 50, 648 

Boston & Western Electric R. R., Proposed, 

927 

Boston Society of Civil Engineers Electrifica- 
tion of railroads discussed at March 
meeting, 501 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies, An- 
nual report, 92 

Boston & Worcester Street Ry., Stock issue, 
280. 435, 478 

Bow collector, London, Brighton & South 
Coast Ry., *786 

Bowling Green, Ohio, Lake Erie, Bowling 
Green & Napoleon Ry., Receivership, 
853 

Bradford (Eng.) Tramways: 

Annual report, 980 

Increased pay for employees, 124 

Parcel business, 458 

Brake rigging, Shop instruction prints and 
jigs for gaging, Philadelphia, *454 

Brake setting and energy consumption, Ex- 
perience of Third Avenue R. R., 488 

Brake shoe practice, Lehigh Valley Transit 
Co., 252 

Brake slack adjuster, Automatic ratchet-type 

(Duffy), *307 
Brake troubles, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 

1102 

Brakes, Air: 

Inspection, Need of, 545 

Repair department, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit, *586 

Repair work, Chicago Rys., 567 

Standardization, Central Electric Rail- 
way Association, 70, *633; Comment, 
102 

Brakes, Hand, Maintenance of, 147 
Brakes, Indiana law, 462 

Bridge standards discussed by New Jersey 
Commission, 750 

Bridges: 

Concrete, Indianapolis, New Castle & 

Toledo Electric Ry., *366 

Reinforced concrete [Denman], 962 

Brill Co., J. G., Report, 316 

Bristol (Conn.) & Plainville Tramway Co., 
Supply of sand on cars, 676 

British Columbia Electric Ry. (See Van- 
couver, B. C.) 

Brooklyn : 

Conev Island & Brooklyn R. R.: 

Bond issue, 350 

Fare case, Decision of Public Service 

Commission, 459 
Issue of notes, 49 

Rapid Transit Co.: 

Advertisements on subway question, 
977 

Air brake and compressor depart- 
ments, *586 
Cable crossing. Temporary high-ten- 
sion overhead, *336 
Car defects, Tabulation of, 838 
Car maintenance, Specializing on con- 
centration of, 446 
Heater maintenance, *305 
Officers and directors, 135, 238, 280 
Oil cups, Integral, *83, *168 
Overhead construction on Brooklyn 

Bridge loops, *789 
Physical examination of employees, 95 
Proposal to build subwav and elevated 
lines, 430,_ 722, 762, 811, 977; 
Comment, 736 
Publicity campaign, *719, 977 
Resistances, Improving, 306 
Seating and curtain departments, 
*629 

Snow-fighting equipment, *255 
Transit; a monthly publication, 768 
Wheel handling carriage, *371 
Wheels, Solid rolled-steel, *414, 979 
Windows, Order for reconstruction, 
137 

Brooklyn Bridge terminal, Iron-bar overhead 

construction, *789 
Brushes, Carbon. (See Carbon brushes) 
Buffalo, N. Y. : 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., Train 

dispatching. [Wade], 158 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg Ry., Gas- 
electric car, *807 

International Traction Co.: 

Bondholders' plan, 181 
Near-side single plattorm car, * 1 1 12 ; 
Comment, 1095 

Investigation of surface railway condi- 
tions by B. J. Arnold, 333 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry. (See 
Rochester, N. Y.) 

Bumpers, Anti-climbing devices discussed by 
Central Electric Railway Association 
Committee, *70 

Burlington, N. C, Piedmont Railway & Elec- 
tric Co., 992 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Burn-off work, Gasoline and compressed air 

outfit, Syracuse shops, *560 
Bus lines of Havana Electric Ry., 949 
Bushing armature leads, Chicago Rys., 841 
Byllesby & Co., Convention in Chicago, 150 



c 



Cable laying, Submarine: 

New London & East Lyme Street Ry., 

under Connecticut River, *418 

Union Railway Co., New York, across 

Harlem River, *328 

Cables, Large order for, Boston Elevated Ry., 
1028 

California, Legislation, 236, 313, 392, 533, 610 
Canlaguey (Cuba) Co., Annual report, 535 
Canada, Development of electric railways in. 

[Payne], 37 
Canadian Street Railway Association, Annual 

meeting, r045, 1062 
Capitalization, Report by New York Public 

Service Commission, 302 
Car cleaner. Need of modern, 1095 
Car design: 

Business car, Michigan United Rys., *739 

Dimensions and other data of represen- 
tative types of cars, 21 (Table) ; 
Comment, 2 

Discussion by committee of Engineering 

Association, 218 

Express car, Old Colony Street Ry., *873 

— ■ — -Framing developments, 25 

Light-weight cars [Sullivan], 790 

Light-weight cars, Discussion by commit- 
tee of Engineering Association, 801 

Near-side single-platform car, Buffalo, 1113 

■ Parabolic front, Indianapolis, New Castle 

& Toledo Electric Ry., *368 
Pay-as-you-enter cars: 

Atlanta, Ga., *417 

Baltimore, *626 

Quincy, 111., 387 
— — Pay-within cars, Boston Elevated Ry., 

*579 

Pennsylvania Commission report on, 1016 

Semi-convertible cars, Boston Elevated 

Ry., *579 

— ■ — Single-truck pay-as-you-enter car, Quincy, 
111., 387 

Steel cars: 

Long Island R. R., 1056 
Southern Pacific Ry., *1049 

Weight of steel cars, 248 

Car doors, Report of Pennsylvania Commis- 
sion, 1018 

Car framing: 

Pay-as-you-enter car, Atlanta, Ga., *417 

■ Shore Line Electric Ry., *870 

Car houses: 

Construction details discussed by commit- 
tee of Engineering Association, 918 

■ Corsicana, Tex., Concrete, *331 

■ Denver City Tramway Co. [Evans]. 

•660 

Havana Electric Rv. [Hild], *946, 947 

Newark, N. J., Public Service Ry., 758 

Ogden, Utah, *700 

San Diego, Cal., Reinforced concrete, 717 

Saybrook, Conn.. *867 

South Bend, Ind., Murdock lines, *575 

Car loads, Report of Ford, Bacon & Davis on 

Philadelphia service and equipment, 

456, 1066; Comment, 446 
Car maintenance records in Philadelphia, 106S 
Car maintenance, specializing in concentration 

of, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 446 
Car painting. (See Painting cars) 
Car pilot, Home-made, *915 
Car platforms: 
Arrangements of, 25 

Platform bars in Chattanooga, Tenn., 

*717 

Size of, Report of Pennsylvania Commis- 
sion, 1017 

Turn-in aevice (Ohmer), Dayton, Ohio, 

388 

Car run-ins: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit System, 838 

New York City, 674 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit, 1065 

Car seats: 

■ Arrangements of seats, 24 

Report of Pennsylvania Commission, 1018 

Car steps, Height of: 
• Connecticut Co., 397 

Report of Pennsylvania Commission, 1017 

Car weights: 

Shore Line Electric Ry., *869 

■ Steel cars, 248. 1047 

■ Unit weights of cars on various railways, 

25 ; Comment. 2 
Car wiring: 
Baltimore, *628 

Denver City Tramway methods, 952 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., 

•787 

■ T ong Island R. R., 1056 

Specifications for, 697 

Cars : 

Business and office, Michigan United 

Rys., *738 



January — June, 191 i .] 



INDEX. 



V 



Cars: (Continued) 

Closed : 

Boise, Idaho, *1029 

Galveston-Houston Ry., *413 
Georgia Railway & Electric Co., 383 
Salt Lake & Ogden R. R., *705 

Combination : 

Express-passenger, Illinois Traction 

bystem, *275 
Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo 

Electric Ry., *368 
Long Island R. R., Passenger and 

baggage, *1057 
Shore Line Electric Ry., *869 
Sweeper and baggage car, Michigan 
United Rys., "718 

Convertible : 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., *250 
One-side convertible, Northern Ohio 
Traction & Light Co., *1074 

Decorated, Manila, *594 

-Derrick, Third Avenue R. R., 1075 

Dump, Montreal, *l/5 

Excursion, Washington, Baltimore & 

Annapolis Ry., *914 

Express, Old Colony Street Ry., *872 

Havana Electric Ry. [Wild], 946 

Instruction, Philadelphia Rapid Transit 

Co., *835 

Life of, Report of Pennsylvania Commis- 
sion, 1016 

Near-side single-platform, Buffalo, * 1 1 1 2 ; 

Comment, 1095 

Observation, Havana Electric Ry., *949 

Outing, Detroit United Ry., *1030 

Pay-as-you-enter : 

Atlanta, Ga., *416 

Baltimore, United Railways & Elec- 
tric Co., *626 

Chattanooga, Tenn., *523 

Kansas City. Arch-roof cars, * 175 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Co., *642 

Origin and progress, 384 

Quincy, 111., *387 

San Francisco, United Rys., *679 
Pay-within : 

Boston Elevated Ry., *579 

Contracts for, Electric Service Sup- 
plies Co., 231 

History, 385 

Philauelphia, Criticism of, 457 

Prepayment : 

New Orleans, La., *84 
One-man cars, Missoula, Mont., *924 
Turn-in device (Ohmer), Dayton, 
Ohio, 388, *7I8 

Private, Washington, Baltimore & An- 
napolis R. R., *754 

Semi-convertible : 

Boston Elevated Ry., *579 
Coffeyville, Kan., *885 

Semi-steel, Milwaukee Electric Railway 

& Light Co., *642 

Side entrance, Shore Line Electric Ry., 

*869 

Single-truck, in large cities, 1016 

Single vs. double-truck cars, Experience 

of Havana Electric Ry. [Hild], 

*907; Comment, 905 
Steel: 

Long Island R. R., *1054; Comment, 
1046 

Painting, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 
1102 

Southern Pacific Ry., 1048; Com- 
ment, 1046 
Summer cars, 1045 

Trailers, Operation of, in Philadelphia, 

1067 

Turn-in, Dayton, Ohio, *718 

Cars ordered in 1910, 14; Comment, 3 
Carbon brushes: 
Atlanta, Ga., 383 

Life of, on Long Island R. R.. 1008 

Catenary construction: 

Galveston-Houston Ry., *409 

Hoosac tunnel [Murray], *669 

Proposed, with wood poles [Sekell], *455 

Shore Line, with looped hangers, 870 

Catskill (N. Y.) Traction Co., Control, 648 
Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Railway & Light 

Co., Sale of power [Young], 746 
Ceuarburg, Wis., Milwaukee Northern Ry., 

Bond issue, 478, 688 
Central California Traction Co. (See Stock- 
ton, Cal.) 

Central Electric Accounting Conference: 
Affiliation with Central Electric Railway 

Association proposed, 503, 602 
Alphabetical list of items of expense. 228, 

950 

Meeting in March, 502 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

■ Affiliation with Accounting Conference 

proposed, 506, 602 

Annual meeting, 162 

— — Brown hook, 267 

Committee on standardization, Report of, 

70, *633: Comment. 102 

Committees, Lists of, 262. 1072 

Consolidation with Illinois Electric Rail- 
ways Association proposed, 307, 337, 
360 

Meeting in March, "595 

Report of the secretary and treasurer, 

114 



Central Electric Railway Association: (Con- 
tinued) 

Standardization Committee meeting, 70, 

663; Comment, 102 

Central Electric Traffic Association: 

Annual meeting, 113, 158 

Committees, List of, 263 

Consolidation with Illinois Electric Rail- 
ways Association proposed, 307, 337 

Meeting in April, 707 

— — Meeting on rate checking, March, 522 

Report of the Chairman [Neereamer], 113 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co. (See 
Harrisburg, Pa.) 

Central States, Interurban construction in 
1910, *20 

Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynesboro 

Street Ry. (See Waynesboro, Pa.) 
Charleston, S. C., Transportation facilities, 

339 

Charleston (S. C.) Consolidated Railway, Gas 

& Electric Co., Stock issue, 436 
Charlotte, N. C: 

Manager's loose-leaf pocket record, 172 

Stop sign set in street pavement, *170 

Chattanooga (Tenn.) Railway & Light Co.: 

■ Advertising campaign, 609 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, *523 

Platform bars, *717 

— ■ — Transfer changes, 537 

Chester, Pa., Southern Pennsylvania Traction 

Co., Fare increase, 94 
Chicago, 111.: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., Sale of 

bonds, 1085 

Board of Supervising Engineers Renewals 

defined, 374; Comment, 547 

Calumet & South Chicago Ry., Renewals 

as defined by Board of Supervising 
Engineers, 374; Comment, 547 

Chicago City Ry. : 

Annual meeting and report, 535, 612 
Renewals as defined by Board of 
Supervising Engineers, 374; 
Comment, 547 
Suit to set aside settlement ord- 
inance, 90 
Trolley-adjusting device, 306 

Chicago City & Connecting Rys., Bond is- 
sue, 181 

Chicago Consolidated Traction Co.: 

Bondholders to receive securities and 

cash, 318 
Receivers discharged, 766 

Chicago Elevated Rys., Issue of notes, 

1085 

Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Commit- 
tees of employees on safety, 290 

Chicago Rys. : 

Annual report, 688 
Bond sale, 238, 280 
Bushing armature leads, 841 
Car building and repair shops, *490, 
*565 

Consolidation of, with Chicago Con- 
solidated Traction Co., 49, 93, 
135, 436 
Fare recorder (Dayton), *426 
Gear-washing machine, *590 
Jig for truck assembly, *740 
La Salle Street tunnel, 636 
Organization of car shops, *565 
Press for armature bearings, *587 
Purchase of Chicago Southern Trac- 
tion Co., 1128 
Reheater for speed roll insulator, 
*1028 

Renewals as defined by Board of Su- 
pervising Engineers, 374; Com- 
ment, 547 

Sand blast for cleaning steel cars, 
*578 

Screen-cleaning machine, *804 
Segregation of county traction lines, 
345 

Trollev wheels, Rapid finishing, *804 
Varnish handled bv air pressure, *760 
Waste cans, Safety, 578 
Consolidation of elevated railways pro- 
posed, 350, 648, 893, 931, 992, 942, 
1035 

Electric Club meeting, 108 

Electrification Committee, 530, 724 

Electrification, Plans of Chicago Asso- 
ciation of Commerce, 635 
— -. Locomotive smoke problem [Bird], 305; 

Comment, 327 
Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry. : 

Annual report, J94_ 
• Merger rumors denied, 239 
— — South Side Elevated: 

Annual report, 348 

Dividend, 436 
Southern Street Ry., Renewals as defined 

by Board of Supervising Engineers, 

374; Comment, 547 
Subways: 

Legal questions to he settled. 887 

Plans bv Arnold and by Jackson, 
988 

Policy, 325 

Public hearings, 927 

Report [Arnold], 272, 797 

Robinson plan, 1117 

St. John plan, 922; Comment, 904 

Shuttle system proposed by A. S. 
Robinson, 257 



Chicago, 111.; (Continued) 

Ticket office, Joint interurban, proposed, 

594 

Traffic commission advocated by C. V. 

Weston, 391 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R. : 
Consolidation with Northwestern Ele- 
vated, Rumors, Z38 

Court urges adjustment of affairs, 317 

Record of 13 years without fatal accident, 

353 

Reorganization plans, 395, 436, 1085 

■ Snow plow, *298 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. 

(See South Bend, Ind.) 
Chico, Cal., Northern Electric Ry. : 

Locomotive, 82-ton [EdwardsJ, * 1 01 1 

—Note issue, 932 

Chippewa Valley Railway, Light & Power Co. 

(See Eau Claire, Wis.) 
Choke coils, Air-cooled (Westinghouse). *983 
Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Co., De- 
cision on joint rates with steam roads, 
637 

Ohio Electric Ry.: 

Financial matters, 182 
Terminal improvements at Dayton, 
Ohio, *628 

Ohio Traction Co., Bond issue, 394 

Circuit breakers, Maintenance of car equip- 
ment, 60 

Citizens' Railwav & Light Co. (See Fort 
Worth, Texas) 

City planning and transportation, Arnold re- 
port, 262 

City & Suburban Ry. (See Washington, D. 

o . C ) 

Claim Agents' Association: 

Joint meeting of executive committee and 

index bureau committee, 169 
r Work of [Drown], 31 

Claim department. (See Accident claim de- 
partment) 

Cleaning cars, Lackawanna & Wyoming Val- 
ley R. R., 416 
Cleveland, Ohio: 

Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula R. R., 

Annual report, 535 
Cleveland Ry: 

Bond issue, Letter to City Council, 
276 

Chamber of Commerce inquiry into 
operating conditions, 431, 644, 
845 

Earnings, 177 

Fare question, 44, 90, 131, 235, 987, 

1032, 1082 
Ordinance, Proposed changes: 

Chamber of Commerce commit- 
tee meetings, 464, 607 

Dahl amendment to ordinance. 
682, 1124 

Discussion by President Stanley, 
266; Comment, 291 

Goff's opinions, in "Plain Dealer," 
311 

Suggestions of company, 531, 
813 

Report to stockholders by President 
Stanley, 266; Comment, 291 

Ticket counterfeiters arrested, 1123 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 

Campaign to reduce accidents: 

Reduction in costs of accidents, 192 

School children. Work with, 138 

"Southwestern creed," 94 

Talks to employees [Schneider], 379; 
Comment, 361 
Cleveland, Youngstown & Eastern Ry., 

Sale, 726 

Depot, Proposed interurban, 650 

Johnson, Tom L., Death of. 658 

Lake Shore Electric Ry. Annual report, 

612 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R. (See 

Willoughby, Ohio) 
CO' 2 recorders. (See Flue-gas analysis) 
Coal: 

Lignite deposits in United States, 881 

Purchasing, on a b. t. u. basis, Cleve- 
land, 508 

Storage pits, Illinois Traction System, 

*591 

Coasting recorders: 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 

385 

Third Avenue R. R., New York, 129 

Coffeyville, Kan., Flat-arch, semi-convertible 
car, *885 

Colorado Railwav, Light & Power Co. (See 

Trinidad, Col.) 
Columbia (S. C.I Electric Street Railway, 

Light & Power Co., Stock increase, 

766, 992 

Columbia Power, Light & Railways Co. (See 
Bloomsburg, Pa.) 

Columbus (Ohio), Delaware & Marion Ry. : 

Interest naid, 318. 612, 853 

Receivership, 931 

Voluntarv Relief Association, 729 

Columbus (Ohio), Marion & Bucyrus R. R. 
(See Delaware. Ohio) 

Columbus (Ohio), _ Mount Vernon & Mans- 
field Traction Co., Bond issue, 726 

Columbus (Ohio), New Albanv & Johnstown 
Traction Co., Sale, 238 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



VI 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXVII. 



Columbus (Ohio) Railway & Light Co. 

Stock increase, 992 

Strike, History of. 461 

Commutator grinder (Phillips), *604 
Commutator slotting: 

Long Island R. R., 1008 

Syracuse shops, *556 

Commutator slotting tools ( We'stinghouse) , 
*677 

Concrete in railway service, 1096 
Concrete mixer, Havana Electric Ry. [Hild], 
*909 

Condensers with aluminum tubes in station 
of Havana Electric Ry. [Hild], 
*910 

Cones, Charcoal, for grounding (Paragon), 
1030 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. (See Brook- 

Congestion problem in Philadelphia, Commit- 
tees to investigate 121 

Connecticut, Legislation, 179, 278, 313, 433, 
533, 929, 1034, 1083, 1126 

Connecticut Co. (See New Haven, Conn.) 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry. (See Green- 
field, Mass.) 

Controllers: 

Braking, effective in backward running 

(Thomson-Houston), *982 
Circuit, for rauroad signaling (Union), 

*524 
Converters : 

Commutating pole rotary (G. E.). * 1 1 22 

Regulating pole rotary (G. E.), Roches- 
ter, N. Y., *884 

Regulating pole rotary (G. E.), Potomac 

Power Co., Washington, D. C, 60S 

3000-kw rotary, in New York, *83 

Corsicana (Tex.) Gas & Electric Co., Im- 
provements, *331 

Cottage City, Mass., Martha's Vineyard Street 
Ry., Proposed lease of Oak Bluffs 
Street Ry., 818 

Counting attachment for band saw, *676 

Couplers : 

Discussion by committee of Engineering 

Association, 800 

M. C. B. (Tomlinson), *677 

(See also Draft rigging) 

Cranes : 

Jib, in Syracuse repair shops, *555 

Portable, for ornamenting iron poles, San 

Erancisco [Foster], *109 
Wrecking (Browning), Illinois Traction 

System, *874 
Criticisms of the service, 904 
Cross-arm statistics. (See Poles, Statistics) 
Cross arms, Recommendations of National 

Electric Light Association, 964 
Crossings, Railroad: 

Indiana, Red lights at crossings, 480 

Steam railroad crossings discussed by New 

Jersey Commission. 751 

Crossings, Transmission line: 

Committee meeting of Engineering Asso- 
ciation, 414, 880 

Maintenance of Way Association, Report 

by sub-committee, 500 

Shore Line Electric Ry., *872 

Crossover, Sliding portable, Detroit United 
Ry., *584 

Culverts, Concrete box, Oklahoma City 
[Hallerl, *449 

Cumberland, Md., South Penn Railways & 
Light Co., Merger. 182 

Curtain department. Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
System, *629 

Cut-out cocks. Safety, in train line, Discus- 
sion by Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation committee, 71 



D 

Dallas, Tex., Texas Traction Co., Dividend, 
1086 

Danville (Va.) Railway & Electric Co., 1128 
Date stamp, "Cosmo," for railway use (Joslin), 

♦128 
Davton, Ohio: 

City Ry., Dividend, 817 

Dayton Street Ry., Increase of capital 

=tock. 436 

People's Ry., Turn-in-car, *718 

Terminal improvement of Ohio Electric 

Ry.. *628 

"Deceleration" or "retardation,'' 247 
Definitions, Signal. 1108 
Delaware, Legislation, 278, 533, 929 
Delaware &* Hudson Co. (See New York 
Citv) 

Delaware. Ohio, Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus 
Ry.. Increase in capital stock, 93, 135 
Denver (Colo.) Citv Tramway Co.: 
Bond issue, 181 

Office building and car house [Evans], 

*660 

"Redemption of gold bonds, 49 

Steel tower and cable installation, * 1 73 

Depreciation. (See Accounting.) 
Derrick cars: 

Illinois Traction Svstem, *874 

Third Avenue R. R., New York, *1075 

Derrick for stringing feeder lines and setting 
poles. Salt Lake & Ogden R. R., -701 



Des Moines (la.) City Ry. : 

— — Council of city rejects proposal for sale, 

472 

Franchise matters, 345 

Reasons for sale, 608 

Report by city on value of property, 46 

Detention of trains, Washington, Baltimore & 
Annapolis Ry., 913 

Detroit, Mich. : 

Detroit United Ry. 

Annual report, 349 

Bond issue, 93, 135, 395 

Crossover, Sliding portable, *584 

Dividend, 318 

Extensions, Granted the right to 
make, 683 

Listed bonds, 726 

Newspaper handling, 1073 

Notes, 90, 130, 277, 238 

Outing car, *1030 

Power station improvements, 422 

Rental suit, Answer filed, 345; Armis- 
tice, 645; Trial, 888, 928, 1081 

Through service to Kalamazoo, 615 

Traffic contract with Michigan United 
Ry., Proposed, 283, 320 

Yards at Harper Avenue, *494 

Municipal ownership measures, 391. 609 

Detroit River tunnel, Electrical equipment, 

*62, *104 

Development charges, Chart of [Ford, Bacon 

& Davis], 710 
(See also New York City, Metropolitan 

Street Railway, Reorganization) 
Direct-current railways. (See High-tension 

direct-current railways) 
Dispatching trains: 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co. TWade], 

158 

Dispatcher's control of power circuits; Dis- 
cussion, Syracuse, 154 

Dispatcher-controlled train-order signal 

system (U. S. Electric Co.), *882 , 

Forgetfulness of conductor. Suggestions 

for correcting [Dye], 265 

Interurban mads [Lewis], 114 

Register stations, Discussion, Syracuse, 155 

Telephone, Stark Electric R. R., *428 

Training of dispatchers in New York, 156 

(See also New York State Public Service 

Commission, Conference) 
Doors. (See Car doors) 

Draft rigging, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 
*1 100 

Drawbar, Seamless steel tubing, Boston pre- 
payment car, *582 
-(See also Couplers) 

Drill, Portable electrically driven radial, for 

a.c. or d.c. circuits (Lamb), *605 
Duluth-Superior Traction Co., Annual report, 

687 

Dumping car, Havana Electric Ry., *950 



E 



East Liverpool, Ohio, Tn-State Railway & 

Electric Co., Organization, 725 
Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Co. (See 

Fond du Lac) 
Eau Claire, Wis., Chippewa Valley Railway, 

Light & Power Co., Issue of securities, 

181 

Edison Medal awarded to Frank T. Sprague, 
864, 879 

Efficiency engineering and piece work, 549 
Electric light and electric railway business, 

Difference in financial status, 1002 
Electric Railway Journal: 

Purpose of, 1 

Statistical number, Scope of, 1 

Electrical code, Revision of National, 640 
Elevated railways and subway systems, Relative 

advantages, 249 
Elizabeth & Trenton R. R. (See Trenton, 

N. T.) 

Elmira (N. Y.) Water. Light & Railroad Co., 

Bond issue, 238 
Emergency repair wagons, Third Avenue R. R., 

New York, *844 
— — (See also Tower wagon) 
Eminent domain in Massachusetts, 325 

Employees: 

Apprentices. (See Apprentice courses) 

Bonus paid motormen and conductors, 

Newark, N. J., 138 
Bonus question, 736 

Bulletin to motormen on care of special 

work, Baltimore, *841; Comment, 828 

Committees on safety, 290 

Educational plan of the Transportation and 

Traffic Association, 759 

Efficiency. Piece work and lost motion, 

549 

Employment, instruction and discipline of, 

on interurban lines [Choate],_ 120 
Employment of. Recommendations of 

Indiana Railroad Commission, 224 
— —Examination, Written, for trainmen on 

Cleveland. Painesville & Eastern 

R. R., 677 

Forgetfulness, Suggestions for correcting 

[Dye], 265 

Hours of labor, the "nine-hour in eleven" 

bill in Massachusetts, 602 



Employees: (Continued) 

Instruction, Philadelphia Rapid Transit 

Co., Motormen and conductors, *830; 

Comment, 829 
Instruction room for motormen, Berlin, 

Germany, *799 
Interurban service. Men to employ for, 

and their training, 79 

Lectures by officials, Kansas City, 636 

Liability of, for accidents [Peck], 159; 

Discussion, 156 
Loan fund, Metropolitan Street Ry., New 

York, 993 

— ■ — Merit system in Sheboygan, Wis., 240 

Motormen, Accurate judgment of running 

speeds, 406 

Pensions : 

American Railways Co., 894 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., Pension 

and sick benefit, 254 
Michigan United Rys., 728 
Public Service Corporation of New 
Jersey, 51 

Physical examination, Brooklyn, 95 

Prizes for motormen, Interborough Rapid 

Transit Co., New York, 283 
Prizes for suggestions from, Lehigh Valley 

Transit Co., 253 
Relations of company with, Boston Ele- 
vated Ry., 51 
Relief Association of Columbus, Delaware 

& Marion Ry., 729 

■ Scientific management of [Webster], 1027 

Stay-at-home master mechanic should visit 

other shops, 445 

Stockholders, Portland, Ore, 283 

Training of electric railway engineers, 943 

Training of employees, Practice in New 

York State, 156 
Training interurban trainmen, Need 

for, 60 

Transfer talks, Toronto Ry., 335 

Transportation free, Legal status, in West 

Virginia, 779 
Wages : 

Bradford (Eng.) Corporation Tram- 
ways, Increase, 124 

Prague Electric Ry., 369 

Syracuse, Increase, 993 
Employers' liability law of New Jersey, 763, 

1129 
Engineers: 

Efficiency, Criticisms of, 735 

— Training of electric railway, 943 

Escanaba (Mich.) Traction Co., Bond issue, 
1128 

Europe : 

Rush-hour conditions, 275 

Single-phase railways, Statistics, 382 

Evansville (Ind.) Electric Ry., Bond issue, 612 
Express. (See Freight and express) 



F 



Fairmont (W. Va.) & Clarksburg Traction Co.: 

Note sale, 395 

Purchase, 280 

Fare registers: 

Dayton, on Chicago Rys., *426 

(Onmer), Operation of, in city service 

[Duffy], *510; Discussion, 521 
Rhode Island decision authorizing use of 

Rooke registers, 102 

Fares : 

Adjustment of rates to the expansion of 

city areas [Davis], 211 
— — Basis of [Young], 118 
— —Cleveland Ry., 1082 

■ Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R., Decision 

of Commission, 459 
Division of five-cent fare in New York 

State, 1027 

Germany, 37 

Increase : 

Galesburg & Kewanee Electric Ry., 
437 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Ry., 
319 

Interchangeable mileage, Discussion _ by 

Illinois Electric Railways Association, 
919 

Massachusetts commutation rates, Report 

on, 151 

Maximum tender. Amount of, Various 

cases cited, 796 

Milwaukee : 

Insufficiency of present fares, 94 
Low-fare case, Brief of company, 
1025 

No-seat-no-fare : 

Portland, Ore., 1037 

San Francisco, 856, 933 

Trenton, N. J., 439, 479 
Overages, shortages and unregistered fares 

in Syracuse [Duffy], 512 
Pennsylvania fare act unconstitutional, 

988 

■ — —Reduction : 

Albany, United Traction Co., 479, 

767. 895 
Attleboro. Mass.. Hearing, 115 
Central Pennsylvania Traction Co., 
895 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



January — June, 191 i.] 



INDEX. 



VII 



Fares: 

Reduction: (Continued) 

Cleveland Ry., 987 

Milford & Uxbridge Street Ry., Hear- 
ing, 634 

Washington, Alexandria & Mount 

Vernon Ry., 614 
West Newbury, Mass., petition, 1120 

School fares: 

New Jersey, 856, 994 
Shreveport, La., 933 

Standees, Washington, D. C, Adverse re- 
port on bill to fix fares, 184 

Three-cent, Cleveland, 1032 

Washington, D. C. : 

City & Suburban Ry., Hearing, 151 
Complaint against railways, 855 

(See also Through routes and joint rates) 

Farmer, Relation of, to the transportation 
companies [Spring], 319 

Farmington, Mo., St. Francois County Ry., 
Officers, 50 

Farmington Street Ry, (See Hartford, Conn.) 
Federal Light & Traction Co. (See New York 
City) 

Fenders and wheel guards: 

New York City equipment, 352 

Philadelphia, 1020 

Portland, Ore., Supreme Court ruling, 

849 

Report on, in Baltimore, 875 

Tests in St. Louis, Rules, 460; Entries, 

640; Tests, 662, 764, 1029 
Financial: 

Comparison of returns from different 

cities [Arnold], 261 
Cost of interurban road with 6600-volt 

a.c. system, 1200-volt d.c. system and 

600-volt d.c. system [Parker], 167 

■ Cost of Toronto municipal railway, 927 

Costs, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 1099 

Earnings of Cleveland Ry., 177 

Earnings of New York State Railways, 

435 

Electric railway situation in 1910, 9 

Investment per capita for different classes 

of railways [Arnold], 261 
-Maintenance costs of electrical equipment, 

Third Avenue R. R., 878 
Mileage and capital investment of electric 

and steam roads, 776 
— — Receiverships and foreclosure sales in 

1910, 19 

Stability of earnings, 736 

Street railway bonds and Massachusetts 

savings banks, 49 
Ties, Steel, and concrete foundation, Costs, 

603 

Track construction costs: 

Atlanta, Ga., 78 

Concrete without ties, Cost of, 384 
Oklahoma City [Haller], 452 

Wood preservation with asphaltic oils, Cost 

table [Cherrington], 504 

Fire hose specifications, 978 

Fire insurance: 

Expert appointed by American Electric 

Railway Association, 1073 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. 

[Duffy], 166 
Fire protection in Syracuse maintenance shops, 

*552 

Fire risk from adjacent structures, 864 

Firemen, Free transportation of. in Massa- 
chusetts, 827 

Fishkill (N. Y.) Electric Ry., Sand hopper, 
Removable, 760 

Flange wear. (See Wheels) 

Floors, Car, Composition, "Monolith," (A. M. 
Co.), *310, 388 

Flue-gas analysis and boiler economy [Hib- 
bard], 794; Discussion, 797 

Fond du Lac, Wis., Eastern Wisconsin Rail- 
way & Light Co.: 

Bond issue, 726 

Repair shop practice [Kelsh], 122; Discus- 
sion, 165 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R. (See 

Gloversville, N. Y.) 
Fort Dodge (la.), Des Moines & Southern 

R. R.: 

Operation of line between Newton and 

Des Moines Junction, 318 

Receivers' certificates issued, 688 

Twelve hundred-volt equipment, 81 

Fort Smith (Ark.) Light & Traction Co.: 

Redemption of notes, 726 

Stock and bond issue, 350, 688 

Fort Wayne (Tnd.) & Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion Co. : 

Organization, 613 

Sale, 350. 

Fort Worth, Tex.: 

Citizens' Railway & Light Co., Receiver- 
ship, 931 

Northern Texas Traction Co.: 

Increase of capital stock, 182 
Sale of notes, 853 

Fountains, Drinking, in shops of Chicago 
Rys., *572 

France : 

— — Electric railway conditions, 373 

Single-phase electrification in Southern 

part, 962 
Franchises : 

Freight and express, Massachusetts, 333 

Valuation [Young], 117; Discussion, 162 

Frederick (Md.) Ry., Stock issue, 135 



Free transportation of employees, Legal status, 

779 

Free transportation of firemen in Massachu- 
setts, 827; in New Jersey, 1026 

Free transportation of letter carriers uncon- 
stitutional, 819, 827 

Freight claims, Method of accounting for 
[Davis], 463 

Freight and express: 

—Bradford, Eng., Parcel business, 458 

Coal delivery, Huddersfield, England, 333 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R., 

415 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., 253 

Massachusetts, Express development in, 

332 

Salt Lake & Ogden R. R., 707 

South Bend, Ind., Interurban-steam agree- 

ment, 728 

Fresno (Cal.), Hanford & Summit Lake Inter- 
urban Ry., Bond issue, 1128 
Fuses, Long Island R. R., *1009 



c 



Galesburg & Kewanee Electric Ry. (See 

Kewanee, 111.) 
Galveston causeway, 408, *413 
Galveston-Houston (Tex.) Electric Co., Stock 

increase, 817 
Galveston-Houston (Tex.) Interurban Ry., 

System, *408 
Gas-heating outfit for applying steel-tired 

wheels, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 

*1101 
Gasoline cars: 

Alaska-Northern R. R., *984 

Inspection car (Fairbanks-Morse), *385 

(May) direct-drive, *641 

Tulsa, Okla., *926 

Gasoline-electric cars: 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg Ry., *807 

Repair car, London. Brighton & South 

Coast Ry., *787 
Gear-case design, Discussion by committee of 

Engineering Association, 803 
Gear-washing machine, Chicago Rys., *590 
Gears, Life and cost of, Records of Nuttall 

Co., 310 

General Electric Co., Annual report, 766 
Generators, Direct-current interpole, ratings 
25 kw to 1000 kw (Westinghouse), 

*761 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co. (See Atlanta, 

Ga.) 
Germany : 

Development of electric railways in 1910, 

36 

— —Electrification of trunk lines, 912 
— - — Storage battery cars, Tests, 21 
Giovi Ry., Italy, Three-phase locomotives, *631 
Glass, Sanding and frosting, Syracuse shops, 
*558, 559 

Gloversville, N. Y-, Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville R. R.; 

Annual report, 477 

Bond issue. 182, 535 

Governor adjusting attachment, Electric pump 

(Westinghouse), *254 
Governors' messages, Abstracts of, 75, 125, 

229, 273; Comment, 101 
Grade crossings. (See Crossings, Railroad) 
Grain elevator, Illinois Traction System, at 

Glover, 111., *453 
Great Britain: 

Electric railway development, 33 

Tramway statistics, 454 

Greenfield, Mass., Connecticut Valley Street 
Ry., Strike of employees, 396 

Greenville, Spartanburg & Anderson Ry. (See 
Anderson, S. C.) 

Grip locking device (Western Electric), *1074 

Ground, Charcoal cone (Paragon), 1030 



H 

Halifax (N. S.) Electric Tramway, Dividend, 
436 

Handling materials and supplies economically, 
698 

Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co. : 

Dividend, 280 

Reduction of fare, 895 
—Valley Traction Co., Increase of stock, 

854 

Hartford, Conn., Farmington Street Ry., Pay- 
ment on bonds, 238 
Havana (Cuba) Electric Ry. : 
Bonds listed, 726 

Organization, track and power gen- 
erating system [Hild], *906; Com- 
ment, 905 

Redemption of bonds 478 

Shops, rolling stock, and operating prac- 
tice [Hild], *946 

Headlight rules discussed by New Jersey 
Commission, 750 

Headlights, Arc, for cars (G. E.) *982 

Heater switch on cars, Location of, 775 

Heaters Electric: 

Maintenance, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 

*305 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Heaters, Electric: (Continued) 

Wiring scheme of Consolidated 146 X 

Heater, *305 

Heating of car house, shops and waiting 
rooms, Discussion by committee of 
Engineering Association, 918 

Heating of cars: 

Discussion by committee of Engineering 

Association, 218, 802 

Report of Pennsylvania Commission, 1020 

Specialized maintenance of electric heat- 
ers, 192 

Heavy electric traction: 

Austria Single-phase developments, 308 

Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Dis- 
cussion by, 501 

Boston terminals: 

Hearing before Massachusetts Joint 

Board, 466 
Report of Massachusetts Joint Board, 
225; Comment, 192; Discussion 
[Crocker], [Swain], 672 

Central stations for [Darlington], 967; 

Comment, 942 

Costs of electrification [Murray], 670 

Germany, 37, 912 

Giovi Ry., Italy, *631 

Great Britain, 35 

London conditions, 362 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., 

*784 

Long Island R. R., Car inspection and 

maintenance, *1004; Comment, 1002; 
steel motor cars, *1054 

Maintenance of Way Association, Report 

by committee 499 

New England Street Railway Club, Dis- 
cussion, 1 66 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. experience 

[Murray], 667; Comment, 658; 
LGraftio], c979 

New York Railroad Club, Discussion by, 

at March meeting, 495; Comment, 
488 

-Paris, Present and proposed lines, 374 

Salt Lake & Ogden R. R. *700 

Single-phase for trunk line railroads 

[Murray], 667; Comment, 658 

Single-phase vs. other systems on trunk 

lines [Graftio], c979 

Southern Pacific R. R., Power station, 

*196: Rolling stock and shops. *1048 
— — Sweden, Kiruna-Riksgransen line, *788 
nign-tension condenser-type terminals (West- 
inghouse), *233 

High-tension direct-current railways: 

Lugano & Tesserete Ry., Single track, 

1000-volt 715 

Piedmont & Northern Ry., 885 

■ Warren & Jamestown Street Ry., 133 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry., 

Results, 913 
Hocking-Sunday Creek Traction Co. (See 

Nelsonville, Ohio) 
noist. Air, in bvracuse repair shops, *554 
Honolulu (Hawaii) Rapid Transit & Land Co., 

Dividend 726 
Hoosac tunnel catenary construction [Murray], 

*669 

Hudson, N. Y., Albany Southern R. R. : 

Annual report, 997 

Bond issue, 135 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. (See New York 
City) 

Huntington, W. Va., Ohio Valley Electric 
Ry., taken over by American Rail- 
ways Co., 992 

Hydro-aeroplane (Curtiss), *980 



I 



Illinois, Legislation, 346, 474, 533, 724, 850 
Illinois Central R. R., Scrap reclaimed and 

removed, 625, c757 
Illinois Electric Railways Association: 

Block signal committee 724 

Constitution and by-laws, 337 

Meeting, First regular, 337 

Meeting in March, 594 

Meeting in May, 919 

Proposed consolidation with Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association, 307, 337 
360 

Temporary organization of, 161 

Illinois Electric Railway Traffic Association 

proposed, 267 
Illinois Mileage Bureau 919 
Illinois Traction System. (See Peoria, 111.) 
Indiana : 

Accidents for three months. 352 

Electric railways [Brady], 132 

Laws relating to brakes and block sig- 
nals, 462" 

Legislation, 133, 179, 236, 278, 346, 392 

474 

Indiana Railroad Commission: 

Block signal committee, Report of, 377 

Circular on employees issued to inter- 
urban companies, 224 

Conference with officials of interurban 

railways, 75, 224, 506, 840 

-Report on signals delayed, 1028 

Indiana Union Traction Co. (See Anderson, 
Ind.) 



VIII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXVII. 



Indianapolis, Ind. : 

■ Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co.; 

Mortgage, 281 

Selector signals, 84 
Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western 

Traction Co., Receivership, 239 
Indianapolis Interurban Ticket Agency, 

Development of long-distance travel 

[Gore], 507; Discussion 595 
Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co. 

(See Louisville, Ky.) 
Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo Elec- 
tric Ry. : 

Sale of property, 613, 648, 818 

System [White], *364 
Inspection car, Gasoline (Fairbanks, Morse & 

Co.), *385 

Inspection costs, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 
1098, 1 100 

Inspection of high-tension oil switches 789 
Inspection of railway material discussed by 

New England Street Railway Club. 

378 

Inspection of rolling stock: 

Long Island R. R., 1005 

Possible improvements, 737 

Inspectors of ventilation, Connecticut Co., 
95 

Instruction of employees. (See Employees, 
Instruction) 

Insulating tape, Flexible asbestos (D. & W. 
Fuse Co.), 1122 

Insulation of high-tension lines, 195; [Mur- 
ray], 668; Comment, 659 

Insulator pin statistics. (See Poles, Statis- 
tics) 

Insulators: 

Porcelain strain (Westinghouse) *983 

Third-rail porcelain, *415 

Trolley line section (Westinghouse), 

*174, *1030 
Insurance (See Fire insurance) 
Interborough Bulletin, New York, 240 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (See New- 
York City) 

International Electrical Congress at Turin, 
Italy, 420 

International Traction Co. (See Buffalo, N. 
Y.) 

International Transit Co. (See Sault Ste. 

Marie, Mich.) 
Interstate Commerce Commission: 
Decision on through routes and joint 

rates between electric and steam 

roads, 360, 637 
Fare reduction ordered, Washington, 

Alexandria & Mount Vernon Ry., 614 
Hearing on rates on Washington, D. C, 

suburban line, 151 
Inspection of Illinois Traction System, 

319 

Interstate Rys. (See Philadelphia, Pa.) 
Interurban railways: 

Building up of a territory [Smith |, 513; 

Comment, 487; Discussion, 521 
Central States, Construction during 1910. 

*20 

Cost of stopping cars, 359 

Costs, with 660-volt a. c. system, 1200- 

volt d. c. system and 600-volt d. c. 

system, 167 

Dispatching of trains. (See Dispatching 

trains) 

Valuations, Logical basis for [Young], 

115; Discussion, 162 
Invention. (See Patents) 
Investment: 

Fair rate of return on [Young], 116; 

Discussion, 162: [McCarter], 221 

Proportionate, in supplies on hand. Phil- 
adelphia Rapid Transit Co., 420, 699 

Iowa, Legislation, 313, 433, 684 

Iowa Street & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion Convention. 741 

Italian State Rys., Use of electricity on, 879 



J 



Jack, Wrecking, applied at an angle (Bar- 
rett), *642 
Jackson, Mich., Michigan United Rys.: 

Cars: 

Business and office. *738 

Combination baggage and snow 
sweeper, *718 

Development plans, 763 

Organization chart, 738 

Pensions for employees. 728 

Jacksonville (Fla.) Electric Co., Service and 

improvements, 531 
Jacksonville (Fla.) Traction Co., 648, 818, 1128 
Janesville (Wis.) Traction Co., Bond issue. 

1086 

Jersey City, N. J., Yards and shops of Hud- 
son & Manhattan R. R. [Hazelton], 
*780. *Sup. 

Jerseyville, 111., Alton, Jacksonville & Peoria 

Ry., Bond issue, 49 
Jigs for gaging brake rigging, Philadelphia. 

*454 

Tigs for truck assembly, *740 
Johnson, Tom L., of Cleveland, 658 
Tolin-.town (Pa.) Traction Co., Dividend, 182 
Joint rates. (See Through routes and joint 
W' rates) '' 



Joliet (111.) & Southern Traction Co.: 

Bondholders' committee, 1086 

Receivership, 281. 1036 

Jones' Sons Co., J. M., Incorporation of, 605 
Journal boxes: 

Packing, Preparation and care (Galena), 

*469 

Rub irons for, Lackawanna & Wyoming 

Valley R. R., *415 



K 



Kansas : 

— —Legislation, 179, 474 

Public Utilities Commission, 683 

Kansas City, Mo.: 

Kansas City Railway & Light Co.: 

Dividend, 931, 992 

Transfer table, Flush, * 148 
Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Accident prevention campaign, 1129 

Bond sale, 395 

Conference on proposed improve- 
ments, 530 
Lectures to employees, 636 
Mayor's letter on proposed improve- 
ments, 472 
Office and substation at Walnut 

Street, *297 
Receivers, 1024. 1080 
Smoking prohibited, 1130 
Transfer talks, 767 
Turtle-back cars. * 175 

Missouri & Kansas Interurban Ry., Nego- 
tiations with McKinley interests, 281 

Kendallville, Ind., Toledo & Chicago Interur- 
ban Ry.: 

Fare increase, 319 

Receivers' certificates, 818 

Kennett Souare. Pa., West Chester, Kennett 
& Wilmington Electric Ry., Reorgani- 
zation, 50 

Kewanee. 111.. Galesburg & Kewanee Electric 

Rv., Fare increase. 437 
Kev Route. (See Oakland, Cal.) 
Kokomo (Ind.), Marion ft Western Traction 

Co., Annual report, 613 



L 



Lackawanna S: Wyoming Valley R. R. (See 

Scranton, Pa.) 
Lake Erie. Bowling Green & Napoleon Ry 

(See Bowling Green, Ohio) 
Lake Shore Electric Rv. (See Cleveland. 

Ohio) 

Lake Shore Interurban Traffic Association, 

Meeting. 728 
Lancaster, Pa.: 

Lancaster Countv Railway & Light Co., 

Purchase, 688 
-Lancaster & Southern Street Ry., Merger, 

182 

Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Dividend, 1128 

Lease of properties in Reading, 93 
Las Veg.->s (N. M.) Light & Power Co.. Sale, 
726 

Lawton (Okla.) & Fort Sill Electric Ry., Re- 
ceivership, 395 

Leeds (Eng.) Municipal Tramways, Annual 
report. 980 

Legal : 

Eminent domain for transmission lines in 

Massachusetts. 325 
Fare collection bv Rooke registers. Rhode 

Tsland Co., 102 
London decision i" underground railways 

arbitration, 218 
Maximum tender. Amount of. Various 

cases. 796 

Transportation of employees. Lecal status 

of free, in West Virginia, 779 
Legal notes; 

Assaults — ejectments, 809 

Charters, ordinances and franchises, 85, 

342, 527. 720, 808, 1076 
Negligence. Liability for, 86, 343. 528, 

720. 1076 

Legislation affectinc electric railways, 91, 133, 
179, 236, 278, 313, 346. 392. 433, 474, 
533. 610, 646, 684. 724. 764. 814, 850, 
890. 929. 989, 1034, 1083. 1126 

Legislation affecting electric railways in 1910, 
8 

(See also Governors' messages, 75 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, 

Pa.) 

Letter carriers. Free transportation of uncon- 
stitutional. 819, 227 

Lewiston (Me ). Augusta & Waterville Street 
Ry., Purchase, 478, 931 

Lexington, Ky. : 

Kentucky Securities Corporation, Stock 

and officers. 281 
Lexington & Interurban Rys., Sale of 

securities, 536 

Reorganization of companies, 1036 

Lighting of cars: 

— —Economies, 904 

Needed improvements, 778 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Lighting of cars: (Continued) 

Report of Pennsylvania Commission, 1020 

Switch for emergency lighting (Consoli- 
dated), *806 
Lightning arresters: 

Air-cooled choke coils for (Westinghouse), 

*983 

Electrolytic (Westinghouse), *884 

Lightning protection, 865 

-Report of committee of National Electric 

Light Association, 973 
Lignite. (See Coal) 
Lima, Ohio, Western Ohio R. R.: 

Baggage rules, 538 

— ■ — Bond agreement, 932 
Linemen's tools (Oshkosh), *844 
Little Rock Railway & Electric Co.: 

Changes in personnel, 874 

Track construction, 843 

Loan fund for employees, Metropolitan Street 

Ry., New York, 993 
Loan shark evil in New York, 976 
Locomotives, Electric: 

Capacity [Murray], 667 

Detroit River tunnel, *67 

Flange wear, St. Clair Tunnel locomotives 

[Hall], 707 

Flat car, Oklahoma Ry. [Haller], *451 

Havana Electric Ry., 946, *950 

Northern Electric Ry., 82-ton [Edwards], 

•1011 

Pennsylvania R. R., *338; Tests, 960 

Progress in design, 4 

Slow-speed, direct-current, for colliery 

service, South Shields, England, *925 

Swedish polar zone railway, *788 

Switching, N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., *668 

Three-phase, Giovi Ry., Italy, *631 

Locomotives, Steam, Failures of, and electric 
trains in 1910, Long Island R. R., 
1010 

London : 

British Westinghouse Co. versus the Un- 
derground Electric Railway Co., decis- 
ion, 218 

County Council Tramways: 

Annual report, 1053 
Statistics for 1910, 380 

Electric railway development, 35 

Letters from, 43, 234, 389, 606, 810, 986 

■ Transit problems, 362 

Underground Electric Rys., Redemption 

of bonds, 436 
London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. : 

Electrification, Single-phase, 636 *784 

Extension, 582 

Increase of passenger traffic, 362 

Long Island City, N. Y., New York & Queens 

County Ry., New transfer system, 

•632 

Long Island R. R.: 

Car equipment, inspection and mainte- 
nance, *1004; Comment, 1002 

Cars, Steel motor, *1054; Comment, 1046 

Electrical operations for 1910, 892 

Electric operation [McCrea], 495 

Organization for car equipment, inspec- 
tion and maintenance, *1004 

Scaffold in shop, *784 

Storage battery car, 978 

Los Angeles, Cal. : 

City Ry., Bond issue, 49 

Los Angeles Railway: 

Bond issue, 182 

Reinforced concrete tie, *679 

Pacific Electric Ry. : 

Developments, 1080 
Merger, 177, 182 
Scrap utilization, 625 

Louisville, Ky. : 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co.: 

Accident campaign, 137 

Reorganization, 853, 893 
Louisville & Eastern R. R., Sale, 50, 93, 

182 

Louisville & Interurban R. R., Mail rate 

too low to be attractive, 241 

Lubrication : 

Cost, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 1102 

Filtering oil, 625 

Mileage basis, Lackawanna & Wyoming 

Valley R. R., System, 416 

Motors, Atlanta, Ga., 383 

Motors, Pamphlet by Galena-Signal Oil 

Co., 924 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Methods, 

923 

Scientific lubricating methods (Galena), 

♦469 

Lynchburg (Va.) Traction & Light Co., Re- 
demption of bonds, 853, 1086 



M 



McKinley lines. (See Peoria, 111., Illinois 
Traction System) _ 

Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Co. 
(See Youngstown, Ohio) 

Mail service on electric railways: 

Annual report, 334 

Jeffersontown, Ky., Rate too low to be 

attractive, 241 



January — June, 19 n.] 



INDEX. 



IX 



Maine, Legislation 278, 433, 684 
Maintenance costs of electrical equipment: 

Long Island R. R., 1012 

Third Avenue R. R., 878; Comment. 865 

Manila, P. I., Decorated car, *594 
Manistee (Mich.) Light & Traction Co., Sale, 
50, 436, 536, 853 

Maps: 

■ Galveston-Houston Ry., 408 

Havana Electric Ry., 906 

■ Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 1098 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., 250 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., 784 

New York City, Division of rapid transit 

routes, 1070 

New York City, Sprague proposed subway, 

229 

New York & Queens County Ry., 632 

Northern Electric Street Ry., Penn., 334 

Paris and suburbs, 374 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry. 700 

Shore Line Electric Ry., 866 

Martha's Vineyard Street Ry. (See Cottage 
City, Mass.) 

Maryland Public Service Commission: 

Inquiry into physical condition of rail- 
way properties, 609 

Report of, 875 

Masonry, Report by Maintenance of Way As- 
sociation, 497 

Massachusetts: 

Eminent domain for transmission lines 

recommended, 325 

Legislation, 91, 133, 179, 236, 313, 346, 

474, 534, 610, 646, 685, 814, 850, 
929, 989, 1034, 1083, 1126 

Nine-hour in eleven bill, Pamphlet of 

Street Railway Association, 602 

Massachusetts Joint Board on Metropolitan 
Improvements (See Boston, Elec- 
trification of terminals) 

Massachusetts Railroad Commission: 

Annual report, 150 

Hearing on additional transfers, Boston 

Elevated Ry., 666 

Hearing on Attleboro fares, 115 

- — —Hearing on reduction of fares on Milford 

& Uxbridge Street Ry. 634 
Hearing on West Newbury fare petition, 

1120 

Massachusetts savings banks and street rail- 
way Bonds, 49 

Master Car Builders' Association Convention, 
1001 1031. 1111, 1115 

Maysville (Ky.) Public Service Corporation, 
536 

Meadville, Pa.: 

Meadville & Conneaut Lake Traction Co., 

Sale, 135, 281, 436, 478 

Northwestern Rys., Purchases, 478, 1036 

Meridian (Miss.) Light & Railway Co., Bond 

sale, 932 

Merit system in Sheboygan Wis., 240 
Meters: 

Long scale switchboard (Westinghouse) , 

*230 

Shunted graphic recording (Sangamo), 

*232, *806 

Steam now (G. E. FS-2), *1074 

Water-flow (G. E.), 885 

(See also Ampere-hour meter; Coasting 

registers; Watt-hour meters) 
Metropolitan Street Ry. (See Kansas City; 

New York City) 
Michigan, Legislation, 475, 724 
Michigan Central R. R., Detroit River Tunnel, 

*62, *104 

Michigan United Rys. (See Tackson, Mich.) 

Milford (Mass.), & Uxbridge Street Ry., Hear- 
ing on fare reduction, 634 

Milwaukee (Wis.) Electric Railway & Light 
Co.: 

Accident record, 480 

Beggs, President, Resignation, 405 

Cars, Semi-steel pay-as-you-enter, *642 

Coasting recorders, 385 

Fares, Insufficiency of, 94 

Fares, Lower, Brief of Company, 1025 

Insurance experience and policy [Duffy], 

166 

Power station at Commerce Street, Ad- 
ditions, *292 

Shops at Cold Springs, *204 

Milwaukee Northern Ry. (See Cedarburg. 
Wis.) 

Minneapolis, Minn., Twin City Rapid Transit 
Co.: 

Annual report, 705; Comparative results, 

765; Comment, 779 
Increase in capital stock of Minneapolis 

& St. Paul Suburban Ry., 239 
Right of city to order extensions, 236, 

311, 643 

Strap-hanger ordinance, 768 

Minnesota, Legislation, 534 

Missoula (Mont.) Street Ry.. One-man pre- 
payment cars, *924 

Missouri, Legislation. 237, 685 

Missouri Electric, Gas, Street Railway and 
Water-Works Association, 712 

Missouri & Kansas Interurban Ry. (See 
Kansas City) 

Mobile, Ala., Track construction, Reinforced- 
concrete beams, *296 

Monorailway, Aerial (Fawkes), "1028 



Montreal Street Ry. : 

Dump cars, *175 

Merger proposed, 395 

Progress of negotiations with city, 532, 

607 

Reply to demands made by Board of 

Commissioners, 390 

Morgantown, W. Va., Union Utilities Co., 
Dividend, 818 

Motor bearings, Method of boring, Long Is- 
land R. R., *1005 

Motor brushes used staggered, Philadelphia, 
923 

Motormen. (See Employees) 
Motors, Electric: 

Axle-bearing sleeves and axle collars, At- 
lanta, Ga., *383 

Cleaning, Chicago Rys., 566 

Design, Discussion by committee of En- 
gineering Association 803 

Detroit River tunnel (GE-209A), *69 

Lubrication, Atlanta, Ga., 383 

Rehabilitating, Metropolitan Street Ry., 

New York, *589 

Snow covers, Long Island R. R., 1009 

Testing interpole shop jnotors, 777 

Troubles and remedies, Lackawanna & 

Wyoming Valley R. R. 416 

Ventilation of Long Island R. R., *1058 

Mount Vernon (Ohio) Electric Co., Stock 
increase, 436 

Municipal Congress, 174 

Murdock lines. (See South Bend, Ind.) 



N 



National Civic Federation: 

Discussion of arbitration in labor dis- 
putes, 103 
Meeting, 127 

National Electric Light Association: 

Central station investments in U S., 1013 

Committee on lightning protection, Re- 
port, 973 

Committee on prime motive powers, Re- 
port, 969 

Committee on overhead construction, Re- 
port, 964 

Committee on underground construction. 

Report, 975 

Committee report on wood preservation, 

974 

Convention in New York, 592. 980, 1002, 

1027 

Nebraska State Railway Commission, Hearing 
on proposed depreciation account, 919 

Nelsonville, Ohio, Hocking-Sunday Creek- 
Traction Co., Bond issue, 50 

New Castle, Ind., Power station, *365 

New Castle, Pa.. Wilmington, New Castle & 
Southern Ry., Sale, 50. 183, 281 

New England Street Railway Club: 

Annual meeting. 593 

Electrification discussed, 166 

Inspection of railway material discussed, 

378 

Meeting in May, _ 962 

New Hampshire, Legislation, 534 

New Hampshire public service commission 

created. 849 
New Hampshire public service commission 

law. Provisions of, 921 
New Haven, Connecticut Co.: 
Extensions, 264 

Shore Line Electric Ry. (See Saybrook, 

Conn.) 

Steps. Height of. 397 

Ventilation inspectors, 95 

New Tersev, Legislation, 91. 134. 314, 346, 

434, 475, 534, 646,_ 724. 764 
New Tersev employers 1 liability law. 763, 1129 
New Jersev Public Utilities Commission: 

Annual report. 74 

Conference with railwav men, 750 

Hearing on service in Trenton, 127 

Passes, Decision, 136 

Powers increased, 752 

Standard classification of accounts adopt- 
ed. 273 

New Tersev public utilities law: 

Criticism of, hv Frank Bergen, 881 

Hearing in regard to interpretation of. 

1026 

New London (Conn.) & East Lyme Street 
Rv., Laving cable under Connecticut 
River, *418 

New Orleans, La.: 

New Orleans Railwav & Light Co. : 

Annual report. 725 

Bond issue, 50, 727 

Cars. Single-truck prepayment, *84 

dividend, 613 

Proposed merger with American 
Cities Railwav & Light Co., 930. 
1036 

— LTnited Public Utilities Co., Incorporation, 
858. 894 

New York Central R. R. : 

Commutation rates. Increase, Hearing by 

Commission, 69 
— Hearing to require electrification of West 
Side freight line, 840 

Report on the elimination of freight sur- 
face tracks in New York City, 630 

Titanium rail order, 215 



New York City: 

Accidents in January, 615; February, 819; 

March, 1038 

Accidents, 1908-1910, 73 

American Cities Railway & Light Co., 

Annual report, 852 
Car pull-ins, Monthly reports by Public 

Service Commission, 674; Comment, 

657, 697 

Central Park, North & East River R. R.: 

Foreclosure and sale, 395, 648 

Joint rate order, 137 

Transfer order, 52 
Commutation rates increased on steam 

roads, Hearing by Commission, 69 
Delaware & Hudson Co., Annual report, 

688 

Federal Light & Traction Co., Sale of 

notes, 350 

Federal Utilities, Incorporated, 1127 

Fenders and wheel guards, equipment, 

352 

Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & St. 

Nicholas Avenue R. R., Sale, 93, 478 

Franchise tax assessments, 349 

Growth of travel, 1898-1910, 73 

Hudson Companies, Sale of notes, 853 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R.: 

Annual report, 815 

Detention records, 1098 

Note extensions, 318, 613 

Operating practices, *1098; Comment, 
1097 

Operating record, February and 
March, 672 

Signals in Hudson tunnels, Perform- 
ance of, 298 

Yards and shops at Jersey City 
THazelton], *780, *Sup. *1098 
Hudson River water front, Report on 

elimination of New York Central's 

freight tracks, 630 
Interborough-Metropolitan Co. : 

Annual report, 180 

Extension of voting trust, 350 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co. : 

Advertisements on subway question, 
977 

Converter, 3000-kw rotary, *83 
Earnings for six months, 238 
Interborough Bulletin, 240 
Physical condition of employees, 137 
Prizes for subway and elevated mo- 
tormen, 283 
Proposal to build new subway, 

Amendment to, 848 
Rails, Specifications, 82 
Sale of notes, 818 
Subway: 

Automatic train stop, New [Wal- 

dron], 1104 
Automatic trips on local tracks, 

353 

"Neck of the bottle," 248 
Service order, 51, 184 
(See also below, Subways, New) 
Voluntary Relief Department, Report 
of, 856 

Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent Line, 1086 

Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Joint rate transfer with other com- 
panies, *80 
Loan fund for employees, 993 
Motor rehabilitation, *589 
Reorganization plans, 48, 61, 123, 422 
708, 756, 796, 828, 876, 916, 976, 
1086 

Sale, 93, 436, 766. 1128 

Sale of receivers' certificates, 536 

Sand-drying plant, *753 

Signs, Aluminum, in cars, *588 

Tax payment certificates, 478 

Transfer order, 52 

North American Co.. Annual report, 647 

Operations of railways, 1908-1910, 73 

Public Service Commission: 

Decision on Coney Island fare case, 
459 

Decision concerning Third Avenue 
R. R. reorganization reversed, 

1082 

Hearing on reorganization plan of 
Metropolitan Street Railway, 48, 
61, 123, 422, 708, 756, 796, 828, 
876, 916, 976 

Investigation of, 345, 636, 532, 987 

Toint rate order, 137 

Report for 1910. 73 

Reports on defective car service, 
674; Comment, 657, 697 

Rules governing applications for ap- 
proval of securities, 1124 

Subway service order protested, 51 

Volume of business in 1910, 46 

Wheelguard case of Union Ry., 888 

Whitridge, F. W., comments on, 171 
Rapid transit conditions, 45, 89, 131 178 

235, 276, 889, 1001, 1033, 1081 
Second Avenue R. R.: 

Connections in 59th Street, 766 

Receiver's certificates, 239 
South Shore Traction Co., Joint rate 

order, 137 
Subways, New: 

Advertising in connection with cam 
paigns, *922, 977 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



X 



New York City: 

Subways, New: (Continued) 

Proposal of Brooklyn Rapid TransH 
Co., 430, 722, 762, 811; Com- 
ment, 736 
Proposal of Caccavajo and Brown, 
345 

Proposal of Interborough Rapid 
Transit Co., Amended, 848 

Proposal of Sprague and Crosby, 
♦288,516 

Report of special committee of 
Board of Estimate and Public 
Service Commission, *1070; Com- 
ment, 1047 

Third Avenue R. R.: 

Claims of American Surety Co., 649 
Coasting registers ordered, 129 
Derrick car, * 1 075 
Emergency repair wagons, *844 
Maintenance costs of electrical equip- 
ment, 878; Comment, 865 
Receivers' compensation, 818 
Reorganization. 50, 93, 317, 1082, 1123 
Report of F. W. Whitridge to bond- 
holders, 170 
Storage battery cars, 944, *981 

■ Traffic across East River, Statistics, 320 

— —Union Ry. : 

Cable laying across Harlem River, 
*328 

Motor tower wagons, *984 

Wheelguard case, 888 
New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R.: 

Coasting of locomotives [Gilliam], 496 

Commutation rates, Increase, Hearing by 

Commission, 69 
Electrification, Results [Murray], 667; 

Comment, 658 
Electrification of Revere Beach & Lynn 

R. R., 276 

Electrification of Springfield-Tariffville 

branch, 684 

Reliability of locomotives [Murray], 497 

Report on assets, 92 

Train delavs of 1908 and 1909, 667 

New York & Oueens County Ry. (See Long 
Island City, N. Y.) 

New York Railroad Club, Electrical night, 
495; Comment, 488 

New York State: 

Earnings of railways, 435 

Fares, Division of five-cent, 1027 

—Legislation, 91, 237, 278, 314, 434, 475, 
646. 850, 890, 1083 

New York State Public Service Commission : 

Albany car service. Reply of United 

Traction Co., 183 

Conference with railway officers on acci- 
dents : 

Comments, 59, 145, 146 
Official call; resolutions, 88 
Proceedings, 154 

Hearing on commutation rates, 69 

Recommendation to Syracuse Rapid Tran- 
sit Co., 1082 

Rensselaer fare case, 479, 767 

Report, Fourth annual, 300 

New York State Street Railway Association: 

Conference on accidents. (See New York 

State Public Service Commission) 

Meeting at Syracuse, in March, 516 

Report of committee on joint use of 

poles, 515; Discussion, 519 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., Ad- 
vertising, 138 

Newark, N. J., Public Service Ry. : 

Annual report. 648, 686 

. Bond sale. 536, 818 

Bonus paid motormen and conductors, 

138 

Car house, station and shops combined, 

758 " 

Earnings for 1910, 316 

Employe s' Liability Act, 1129 

Notice to holders of stock, 350 

Pensions for employees, 51 

Relief for traffic congestion, Plan of 

R. F. Danforth, *1068 

School tickets, 856, 994 

Newburg. N. Y., Orange County Traction 
Co., Bond issue, 1086 

Newspaper handling on Detroit United lines, 
1073 

Newspapers : 

Criticisms by, 405 

"Popular finance" in, 289 

Nomenclature : "Deceleration" or "retarda- 
tion," 247 ■ 

No-seat. (See Fares.) 

Norfolk (Va.) & Portsmouth Traction Co.. 

Consolidation with Virginia Railwav 

& Power Co., 766, 930 
Norfolk (Va.) & Western Ry., Decision on 

joint rates with electric roads, 637 
North American Co., Annual report, 647 
North Tersey Rapid Transit Co. (See Pater- 

" son, N. J.) 
Northern Electric Ry. (See Chico, Cal.) 
Northern Electric Street Ry. (See Scranton, 

Pa.) 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (See 

Akron, Ohio) 
Northern Texas Traction Co. (See Fort 

Worth. Texas) 
Northwestern Railways Co. (See Meadville, 

Pa.) 

Norway, Private companies in Christiania, 1024 
Norwich (Conn.) & Westerly Ry., Foreclosure 
of mortgage, 893 



INDEX. 



o 

Oakland, Cal.: 

Oakland & Antioch Electric Ry., Stock 

and bond issues, 436, 688 

Oakland Traction Co. : 

Automobile line trucks, *671 
Bond issue, 135 
San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Con- 
solidated Ry., Automatic block sig- 
nals [Brown], "663 

Southern Pacific R. R.: 

Electrification at Oakland, Fruityale 
power station and substation, 
*196, 813, *978 
Reception to American Institute^ of 
Electrical Engineers in station, 
*978 

Rolling stock and repair shops, *1048 

Trucks, Cast steel (Baldwin), *470 
Ocean Shore Ry. (See San Francisco) 
Office and substation building, Kansas City, 

at Walnut Street, *297 
Office building and car house, Denver City 

Tramway Co. [Evans], *660 
Ohio, Legislation, 134, 278, 347, 393, 434, 475, 

534, 611, 685, 724, 814, 850, 890, 929, 

1126 

Ohio Electric Ry. (See Cincinnati, Ohio) 
Ohio Valley Electric Ry. (See Huntington, 
W. Va.) 

Oil burner, Portable (Hauck), # 883 

Uil cups, Integral Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Co., *83, *168 

Oil fuel for steam boilers [Wagner], 1027 

Oil reclaiming tank, Washington, Baltimore 
& Annapolis Ry., *915 

Oil settling tank, Brooklyn air brake de- 
partment, " 587 

Oil storage in byracuse shops, 562 

Oklahoma, Legislation, 347 

Oklahoma Ry. : 

Concrete pole construction, *841 

Increase of stock and bonds, 281, 688, 727 

Track construction [Haller], *448 

Old Colony Street Ry. (See Boston & North- 
ern) 

Oneida (N. Y.) Ry., Shops at Syracuse, N. 

Y., *550; Comment, 546 
Oneonta, N. Y., Otsego & Herkimer Ry. : 
Employment, instruction and discipline of 

employees [Choate], 120 

Notes on condition of road, 893, 932 

Orange County Traction Co. (See Newburg, 

N. Y.) 

Oregon Electric Ry. (See Portland, Ore.) _ 
Organization for car equipment, inspection 

and maintenance, Long Island R. R., 

♦1004 

Organization of car shoos, Chicago Rvs., *565 
Organization chart, Michigan United Rys., *738 

O'hkosh, Wis., Wisconsin Electric Ry.: 
Bond issue, 818 

Repair shop practice [Kelsh], 122; Dis- 
cussion, 165 
Otsego & Herkimer R. R. (See Oneonta, 

N. Y.) 

Ottawa, 111.. Repair shop, 418 
Ottawa (Ont.) Electric Ry., Annual report, 
436 

Oven, Galvanized iron, Syracuse shops, *559 
Overhead construction: 

Denver City Tramway Co., Steel towers, 

*173 " 

Galveston-Houston Ry.. *409 

Havnna Electric Ry., 911 

IHeydon], 1110 

Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo Elec- 
tric Ry. [White], *364 

Iron-bar construction on Brooklyn Bridge 

loops, *789 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., 

* 735 

Oklahoma City [Haller], *449 

Parma, Italy, *951 

Report by committee of National Electric 

Light Association, 964 

Salt Lake & Ogden R. R., *704 

Section insulators. Automatic (Westing- 
house), *174 *1039 

Shore Line Electric Ry., *870 

Temporary high-tension, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co., *336 

(See also Catenary construction) 



P 



Pacific Claim Agents' Association, Annual con- 
vention, 967, 1022, 1047 

Pacific Electric Ry. (See Los Angeles, Cal.) 

Packing for journal boxes. Preparation and 
care of (Galena), *469 

Paint shop practice, Chicago Rys., *571 

Painting cars: 

Abbreviating methods TFrenchl, 583 

Costs, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 1099 

Oshkosh, Wis. [Kelsh], 122 

Progress in [Elmquist], 303 

Weight of materials required [Elmquist] 

304 

Paintine schedule. Syracuse shops, 560 
Paris, Electric railway conditions, 374 
Parked streets, Track construction, Oklahoma 
City [Haller], *450 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XXXVII. 



Parkersburg (W. Va.) & Ohio Valley Electric 

Ry., Receivership, 932, 1086 
Parks and pleasure resorts: 

Aeroplanes, as attractions, *980 

Promotion of traffic [Smith], 514; Com- 
ment, 487; iJiscussion, 521 

Revival of the park idea, 545 

Parma (Italy) Provincial Ry., Single-phase, 
*951 

Passes: 

Decision in New Jersey, 136, 820 

Trenton & Mercer Traction Co., Passes 

abolished, 95 
Patchogue N. Y., South Shore Traction Co., 

Receivership, 50, 93 
Patents — what they are, and how to read and 

how to understand them [Darby], 110 
Paterson, N. J., North Jersey Rapid Transit 

Co., Bond and stock issue, 436 

Paving : 

Germany 36 

Pitch filler Akron, Ohio, *718 

Specifications for, with T-rail track con- 
struction [Simmons], 452 

With T-rail, Atlanta, Ga., *78 

Pay-As- You-tnter Car Corporation, Merger of 
inteiests with Pay-Within Company, 
384; Comment, 359 

Peak load. (See Power station practice) 

Pennsylvania, Legislation, 134, 179, 237, 314, 
393, 475, 534, 611, 646, 685, 764, 
814, 850, 890, 989 

Pennsylvania R. R. : 

Congestion at Broad Street Station, Phila- 

Delphia, Committee to consider, 121 

Locomotives, Electric, *388 

■ — — New York tunrel extmsion: 

Electrical features LGibbs], *955; Com- 
ment, 945 
Report on electrification w rk, 431 

-Pole lines across Hac.vensacK Meadows 

[Gibbs], *1014 

Pennsylvania State Railroad Commission, Re- 
port of Ford, Bacon & Davis on 
Philadelphia service and equipment, 
455, 1016, 1063; Comment, 446 

Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal R. R., Re- 
newal agreement with Pennsylvania 
R. R., 818 

Pensions. (See Employees) 

Peoria, 111., Illinois Traction System: 

Accident near Staunton, 111., Crew in- 
dicted, 352 

Annual report, 990 

Block signals of, *719, 804, [Leisenring], 

* 1105 

Bond sale, 239 

Cars: 

Express-passenger motor, *275 
Single-truck pay-as-you-enter, *387 

Coal storage pits, under water, *591 

Developments of 1910, *381 

Grain elevator at Glover, 111., *453 

Inspection by Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, 319 

Operating engineering department, New, 

113 

Parlor car service between Peoria and St. 

Louis, 728 

President Taft's trip, Decatur to Spring- 
field, 111., 306, *333 

Repair shop at Ottawa, 111., 418 

-Stock sale, 613 

Waiting station at St. Louis, *837 

Wrecking crane, *874 

Philadelphia: 

American Rys. Co., Pensions for em- 
ployees, 894 

-Car maintenance records, 1065 

Congestion at Broad Street station, Com- 
mittees to investigate, 121 

Interstate Rys.: 

Dividend, 1128 

Leases of properties controlled by, 
281 

Payment of interest. 436 
Stock issue, 688, 726 
Pliiladelphia Rys., Incorporation, 932 

Rapid Transit Co.: 

Bond issue, 1086 

Control of Chester & Philadelphia 

Ry., 853, 893 
Elevated-Subway division, Rolling 

stock maintenance, 923 
Instruction system for motormen and 

conductors. *830; Comment. 829 
Loan for rehabilitation, 711, 762, 847, 

889 

Refinancing plans, 281, 318, 349, 394, 
420, 436, 682, 762, 1031 

Rehabilitation, Suggestion by T. E. 
Mitten, 682, 711 

Report of Pennsylvania _ Commission 
on service and equipment, 455, 
1016. 1063; Comment, 446 

Report on reconstruction of accounts, 
420; Comment, 406, 699 

Seat, Motorman's, *761 

Shop instruction prints and jigs for 
gaging brake rigging, *454 

Suit to compel annulment of agree- 
ment with city, 89, 390 

Traffic and service stations, 1066 
Southwestern Street Rv., Sale, 613, 649, 

766 



January — June, 1911.] 



INDEX. 



XI 



Piece work. (See Repair shop practice) 

Piedmont (N. C.) & Northern Ry., 1500-volt 
equipment, 885 

Piedmont (N. C.) Railway & Electric Co. (See 
Burlington, N. C.) 

Piedmont (N. C.) Traction Co., Stock in- 
crease, 7z7 

Pinions, Life and cost of Records of Nuttall 
Co., 310 

Pipes, Painting of, for identification, 1010 
Pit, Coal stor u ge. (See Coal storage pits) 
Pit construction: 

Milwaukee, *204 

[Prather J, 589; Comment, 546 

Trestle tracks [Prather J, 589; Comment, 

546 

Pits used for storage, 60 
Pittsburgh, Pa. : 

Car service [Arnold], c39 

Philadelphia Co.: 

Annual report, 893 

Note issue, 688 

Stock increase, 436 

Pittsburgh Rys., Fare question, 988 

Report on surface transportation [Ar- 
nold], 257 
West Penn Traction Co. : 

Annual report, 854 

Bond issue, 437 
Pittsfield, Mass., Berkshire Street Ry., Officers 

and directors, 853 
Platforms. (See Car p'at'orms) 
Poles: 

Concrete, galvanized, tubular and latticed 

poles, 881 

Joint use of recommended, National Elec- 
tric Light Association, 964 

Joint use of, Report of Street Railway 

Association of State of New York, 
515; Discussion, 519 

Portable erector for ornamenting iron 

poles in San Francisco [Foster], *109 

Reinforced concrete: 

Disadvantages of, 941 

Oklahoma Ry., *841 

Pennsylvania R. R. [Gibbs], *1014 

Statistics for 1909, Bureau of the Census, 

522 

Policemen, Free transportation of, in Massa- 
chusetts, 827; in New Jersey, 1026 
Portland, Ore.: 

Fenders, Ruling by Supreme Court, 849 

No-seat-no-fare ordinance, 1037 

■ -Oregon Electric Ry., automatic block sig- 
nals [Coolidge], *c423 

—Portland Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Accident prevention, 538, 1087 
Dividend, 318 

Employees as stockholders, 283 
Prize article on "How to avoid acci- 
dents," 264 

Postal Department, Report on mail service, 
334 

Postal rates, Proposed increase in second- 
class, 289 

Pottsville, Pa.. Schuylkill & Dauphin Tracticn 
Co., 1128 

Pov, - er station investments in the United 
States, 1013 

Power station practice: 

— —'Abolition of dark corners, 903 

Auxiliary load, Development of [Young], 

746; Discussion, 742 

— - — Motion study in power stations [Web- 
ster], 1027 

Oil fuel, Use of [Wagner], 1027 

Painting pipes for identification, 1010 

Peak load and auxiliary power, 407 

Progress in design. 6 

Savannah, Ga., 299 

Power stations: 

Galveston-Houston Ry., *409 

Generation on a large scale for groups 

of railways, 290 

Havana Electric Ry. [Hild], 909 

Milwaukee, Commerce Street, Additions 

to plant, *292 

New Castle, Ind., *365 

Salt Lake & Ogden R. R., *701 

Saybrook, Conn., *866 

Southern Pacific R. R., Fruitv le, Cal., 

*1 96 

Power stations and electricity supply for trunk- 
line railroads [Darlington], 967; Com- 
ment, 942 
Power transmission, Progress of, 864 
Prague Electric Ry , Annual report, 369 
Prepayment Car Sales Co., 384; Comment, 
359 

Press for armature bearings, Chicago Rys., 
*587 

Press, Hydraulic, for forcing bearings (Wat- 
son-Stillman), *885 

Prime motive powers, Report on, by com- 
mittee of National Electric Light As- 
sociation, 969 

Problems of the day in electric railroading 
[Mathes], 749 

Promotion charges, Chart of [Ford, Bacon & 
Davis], 710 

Providence, R. I.: 

Investigation of surface railway condi- 
tions by B. J. Arnold, 333; Report, 
1069 

— —Providence & Fall River Street Ry. (See 
Swansea Center, Mass.) 



Providence, R. I.: (Continued) 

Rhode Island Co.: 

Leases, 1036 

Legal decision permitting use of 
Kooke registers, 102 
Public service commissions: 

Discussion on, by Electric Club of Chi- 
cago, 671 
[Josselyn], 312 

Messages of the Governors, Abstracts of, 

75, 125, 229, 273 
New Jersey law, 921 

— — Responsibilities and salaries of commis- 
sioners, 101 
Public service corporations: 

Messages of the Governors, Abstracts of, 

75, 125, 229, 273; Comment, 101 
Relations with the public [Huntington], 

282 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey. 

(See Newark, N. J.) 
Publicity campaigns: 

Brooklyn, *719 

•[ Gonzenbach J, 164 

Pueblo (Col.> & Suburban Traction & Light- 
ing Co., Control, 1128 
Puget Sound Electric Ry. (See Tacoma, 

Wash.) 

Pull-ins. (See Car run-ins) 



Q 

Ouakertown (Pa.) Traction Co., Bond issue, 
239, 436, 536, 649 

Quebec Railway, Light, Heat & Power Co., 
Dividend, 649 

Question Box of the Engineering Associa- 
tion, 13 

Quincy, 111., Pay-as-you-enter cars, *387 



R 

Racks for sash, in Syracuse shops, *559 
Rail bonding: 

Hints on applying bonds TNelson], 793 

Reactnnce bonds, Illinois Traction System, 

*1107 

Thermo (Ohio Brass Co.), *9S5 

Rail joints: 

— —Developments of 1910, 5 

Welding process, Germany, 36 

Rail registering device under load, *961 
Rail specifications: 

Interborough Rapid Transit R. R., New 

York, Rails, 82 

Progress of 1910, 8 

Railings at elevated stations, Boston, 1072 
Railroad Securities Commission: 

Hearings in New York, 422 

Testimony received in Chicago, 265 

Rails: 

Corrugations [Sieber], *372 

Corrugations, Tests by International 

Street & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion, 5 

Maintenance of Way Association, Report 

bv committee, 497 

Progress of 1910, 8 

T-rail : 

Specification for ideal construction 

[Simmons], 452 
Use of, in streets [Simmons], 452 

— — Titanium Pe s:mer rai's, O der of N w 
York Central R. R., 215 

Railway Signal Association, Convention in 
Chicago, 508, 524 

Rate decision of Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, 360 

Rates. (See Fares) 

Receiverships and foreclosure sales in 1910, 19 
Record systems. (See Blanks and forms) 
Reheater for speed-roll insulator, Chicago 

Rys., *1028 
Repair cars: 

Gasoline [Otto], *983 

Gasoline-electric, London, Brighton & 

South Coast Ry., *787 
Repair shop practice: 
Atlanta. Ga.. *383 

■ -Boring tool, Expansion (Davis), *429 

Brake rigging. Instruction prints and jigs 

for gaging. *454 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit. Air brake and 

compressor departments, *586 

Car failure records, Richmond, Va., *81 

Chicago Rvs., *565 

Compressed air for various uses, Lacka- 
wanna & Wyoming Vallev R. R., 416 

Eastern Wisconsin system TKelsh], 122: 

Discussion, 165 

Economizing supplies and working time, 

326 

Foreman, Qualifications of, 146 

Handling materials and supplies econom- 
ically, 698 

Heater maintenance, Brooklyn, *305 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., *1099, 1102 

Improving old shops, 248 

Inspection of car equipment, Needed im- 
provements in 737 

Instruction prints, Baltimore, *760 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R., 

416 

Long Island R. R.. *1007 

Lubricating methods, Scientific [Galenal, 

*469 



Repair shop practice: (Continued) 

Piece work and lost motion, 549 

Piece-work rate, One way to fix, 405 

Piece-work records, Boston, 370 

Piece-work system, rates, Hudson & Man- 
hattan R. R., 1099 

Reheater for speed roll insulator, M028 

South Bend, Ind., Murdock lines, *574 

Specializing on concentration of car 

maintenance, Brooklyn, 446 
Syracuse, N. Y., "552 

— —Things worth while [Gerke], 745; Discus- 
sion, 743 

Transfer table, Flush, Kansas City, *148 

Repair shops: 

Chicago Rys., *490, *565 

Havana Electric Ry. [Hild], *946 

Hudson & Manhattan K. R., Jersey City 

[Hazelton], *780, *Sup., *1098 

Long Island R. R., *1007 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 

*204 

- Ottawa, III., Illinois Traction, 418 

San Francisco, United Rys., *588 

South Bend., Ind., Murdock lines, *574 

Southern Pacific Ry., *1052 

Syracuse, N. Y., of Syracuse Rapid 

Transit Co. and Oneida Ry., *550; 

Comment, 546 
Repair wagons. (See Emergency repair 

wagons; Tower wagons) 
Resistances, Rearrangement, in Brooklyn, 306 
Return railway circuits: 

Investigation and care of [Nelson], 793; 

Discussion, 797 

Problem of [Steinmetz], 1073 

Rheostats, Removable grid (G. E.), *641 
Rhode Island, Legislation, 91, 347 
Rhode Island Co. (See Providence, R. I.) 
Richmond, Va., Virginia Railway & Power 

Co.: 

Bond issues, 436, 854 

Car failure record, *81 

-Consolidation with Norfolk & Portsmouth 

Traction Co., 766, 930, 1128 
— — Stock listed, 727 

Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Tramway, Light & 

Power Co., Annual report, 727 
River, Laying cables under: 

Connecticut River, *418 

Harlem River, *328 

Rochester, N. Y. : 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry. : 

Officers, 181 

Pit and trestle construction [Pra- 
ther], 589; Comment, 546 

Rochester Railway & Light Co., Bond is- 
sue, 182, 318, 436 

Rock Hill (S. C.) Water Supply, Electric 
Light & Street Railway Co., Munic- 
ipal operation, 396 

Roller bearings with rigid axle wheel (R. R. 
B. Co.), *309 

Rolling stock ordered in 1910, 14; Comment, 
3 

Routes, Shortening, in proportion to traffic 

density, 488 
Rules for city railways: 

Austrian Street Railway Association, 40 

Meeting of committee of Transportation 

& Traffic Association, 713 

Recommendations by Committee of Trans- 
portation & Traffic Association, 963 

Revision of desirable, 945 

Rules for interurban railways: 

Change of crews, Indiana, 855 

New York State Street Railway Associa- 
tion, Discussion bv, 520 

Signaling rules, Illinois Traction Svs:em, 

1105 

— — Situation at end of 1910, 10 

— — Transportation & Traffic Association Com- 
mittee meetings, 170, 493, 675, 716; 
Comment, 445, 698 

Run-ins. (See Car run-ins) 

Rush-hour conditions: 

Europe, Report on, 275 

Philadelphia, Report on, 455 



s 

St. Clair Tunnel locomotives, Flange wear, 
707 

St. Francois County Ry. (See Farmington, 
Mo.) 

St. Joseph (Mo.) Railway, Light & Power Co., 

New Year's transfer, 52 
St. Louis, Mo.: 

Fender and wheelguard tests, Rules, 460; 

Entries, 640; Tests, 662, 764 
Freight and express terminal of Illinois 

Traction System, *381 
Terminal Electric Ry., Increase of capital 

stock, 50 
United Railways: 

Annual report, 315; Comment, 247 

Bond issue, 1086 

Sand-drying plant, *953 

Settlement ordinance, 471; Comment, 
487 ;^ Report of Commission, 644 

■ Waiting station of Illinois Traction Sys- 

% tern, *837 

St. Louis Car Co., Officers and reorganiza- 
tion, 307 

Salary-loan problem, Discussion in New York, 
976 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



XII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXVII. 



Sale of power [Young], 746 

Salisbury (N. C.) & Spencer Ry.. Control, 

688 

Salt Lake City, Utah Light & Railway Co., 

Bond issue, 436 
Salt Lake & Ogden R. R., Electrification, 

*700 

San Diego (Cal.) Electric Ry., Car house, 

Reinforced concrete, 717 
San Francisco, Cal.: 

Development of interurban railways near, 

312 

Geary Street municipal project, 391 

No-seat-no-fare ordinance, 856, 933 

Ocean Shore Ry., Sale, 182, 281, 318, 932, 

1086 

United Properties Co. organized, 92, 182 

United R. R.: 

Cars, Pay-as-you-ent%r, *679 

Erector for ornamenting iron poles, 

Portable [Foster], *109 
Shops, *588 

United Railways Investment Co.: 

Annual report, 1035 
Maturity of notes, 281 

San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Consoli- 
dated Ry. (See Oakland, Cal.) 

San Jose (Cal.) & Santa Clara County R. R., 
Sale, 727 

Sand on cars: 

Bristol & Plainville Tramway Co.. 676 

Use of, on interurban cars [Evans], 506; 

Comment, 546; Discussion, 597 
Sand blast for cleaning steel cars: 

Chicago Rys., *578 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., *1 102 

Sand-blasting glass in Syracuse repair shops, 

*558 

Sand-drying plant: 

Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, *753 

■ St. Louis, *953 

Sand hopper under car seats, Fishkill (N. Y.) 

Electric Ry., 760 
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., International Transit 

Co., Bond sale, 239 
Savannah (Ga.) Electric Co., Improvements in 

track and power departments, 299 

Saws: 

Band rip (Fay & Egan), *985 

Counting attachments for, *676 

Saybrook, Conn., Shore Line Electric Ry., 

1200-volt equipment, *866 
Scaffolds: 

Adjustable, in paint shops, South Bend, 

Ind, *578 

Car repair shop, Long Island R. R., *748 

Schedules : 

Adjusting, Need of a joint traffic associa- 
tion, 447 

Experimental changes in schedule, 326 

Possible economies on interurban roads, 

828 

■ Posting schedules, Desirability of, 863 

Public knowledge of city, 735 

Transportation and Traffic Association 

committee meeting, 758 

Schenectady (N. Y.) Ry., Fare complaint dis- 
missed, 768 

School fares: 

New Jersey, 856. 994 

Shreveport, La., 933 

Schuylkill & Dauphin Traction Co. (See Potts- 

ville, Pa.) 
Scranton, Pa.: 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Ry., 

Notes, *415 

Northern Electric Street Ry., Notes, 40 

— — Scranton & Binghamton R. R.: 
Bond sale, 854 
System, *334 

Scranton Ry.. Track and rolling stock 

changes, *603 

Scrap, Reclaiming and reworking, 625, c757 

Screen-cleaning machine, Motor-driven, Chi- 
cago Rys., *804 

Seating department, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
System, *629 

Seats: 

Motorman's, Folding, Southern Pacific 

Ry., *1050 

Motorman's, Philadelphia Rapid Transit 

Co., *761 

(See also Car seats) 

Seattle (Wash.) Electric Co.: 

Bond issue, 182, 854 

Dividends, 613 

Securities Commission. (See Railroad Securi- 
ties Commission) 
Shaper, Double spindle (Fay & Egan). * 1 76 
Sheboygan (Wis.) Railway & Electric Co.: 

Merit system for employees, 240 

Publication of "Spartcs from the Wire," 

306 

Shelburne Falls (Mass.) & Colerain Street Ry., 

Payment of mortgage bonds, 239 
Shop accounting. (See Accounting) 
Shopwork. (See Repair shop practice) 
Shore Line Electric Ry. (See Saybrook, 
Conn.) 

Signals: 

Block system: 

Automatic block signa's for electric 
railways [Howe], *268; [Sachs], 
c640 



Signals: 

Block system: (Continued) 

Baltimore viaduct, United Railways & 
Electric Co., *41 

Block signal committee of Engineer- 
ing and Transportation and 
Traffic Associations, Work of 
360; Meeting, 599: Comment. 624 

Clearance diagram, *1106 

Definitions, 1108 

Hudson tunnels, Performance of, 298 
Illinois Traction System, *719 [Lei- 

senring], *1 105 
Indiana conference, 840 
Indiana law, 462 

(Kinsman), Terre Haute, Indianapolis 

& Eastern Traction Co., *886 
Mileage, in the United States, 783 
New Jersey Commission, Discussion 
by, 750 

Pennsylvania R. R., New York tunnel, 
961 

Report to Indiana Railroad Commis- 
sion, 377 

San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose 
Consolidated Ry. [Brown], *663 

Single-track lines, Oregon Electric Ry. 
[Coolidge], c*423 

Stub-end sidings on single-track roads, 
*425 

Conductor's control pipe, Discussion by 

Central Electric Railway Associa- 
tion Committee, 71 

Dispatcher-controlled train-order signals 

for interurban railways (U. S. Elec- 
tric Co.), *882 

Selector signals for Indianapolis & Cincin- 
nati Traction Co., 84 

Train stops. Automatic, *665 [Waldron], 

1104 

Signs: 

Aluminum car signs, New York, *588 

Boston Elevated Ry., new car signs, * I i 1 9 

Destruction of, Discussion by Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association Committee, 
71 

Report of Pennsylvania Commission on 

car signs, 1017 

Stop signs set in street pavement, * 1 70 

Single-phase railways: 

Europe, Lists, 382 

France, Southern, 962 

Parma, Italy, *951 

Single-phase for trunk-line railroads, Ex- 
perience of New Haven road [Mur- 
ray], 667; Comment, 658 

Sleet cutter, Trolley (Bonney-Vehslage) , *129 

Smoke from locomotives, Chicago [Bird], 305; 
Comment, 327 

Smoking prohibited on Metropolitan Street Ry., 
Kansas City, 1130. 

Snow-fighting equipment, Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Co., *255 

Snow plow, Chicago & Milwaukee Electric 
R. R., *298 

Snowstorms, Effective methods of handling 

[Cummins], 747; Discussion. 743 
Social results of electric railways [Giddings], 

879 

Soldering process for bonds (O. B.), *985 
Somerset (Kv.) Water, Light & Traction Co., 

Sale, 93, 182, 351, 396, 649 
South Bend, Ind., Shops of Chicago, South 

Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. and 

Southern Michigan Ry., *574 
South Penn Railways & Light Co. (See 

Cumberland, Md.) 
South Shore Traction Co. (See Patchogue, 

N. Y.) 

Southern Car Co.. Reorganization, 749 
Southern Michigan Ry. (See South Bend. 
Ind.) 

Southern Pacific Co. (See Oakland, Cal.) 
Southern Pennsylvania Traction Co. (See 

Chester. Pa.) 
Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association; 

Annual convention, 797 
Special work, Motormen's care of, Baltimore 

bulletin, *841 : Comment, 828 
Specifications. (See Rail specifications) 

Speed of cars: 

-Accurate judgment of, by motormen. 406 

Maximum speeds discussed by New Jer- 
sey Commission, 751 
Spikes, Registering device under load, *961 
Spokane (Wash.) & Inland Empire R. R., An- 
nual report, 816 
Spokane, Wash., Washington Water Power 
Co.; 

Dividend, 239 

Operating results for year, 1127 

Sprague, Frank L, Award of Edison Medal, 
864, 879" 

Springfield (MasO St'-eet Pv.. Sale, 688. 818 
Springfield (Mo.) Ra'lway & Light Co., 854, 
1128 

Springfield (Ohio) & Xenia Ry., Dividend, 135 
Stage lines of Havana Electric Ry., 949 
Stand for headlight resistance coils (Crouse 
Hinds), *761 

Standing in cars: 

Germany, 37 

Report of Pennsylvania Commission, 1019 

Washington, D. C Fares of standees, 

Adverse report on bill, 184 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Standardization : 

Central Jblectric Railway Association Com- 
mittee, Discussion by, 70, 633, Com- 
ment, 102 

Dicussion by Engineering Association, 219 

Stands, Revolving, tor sash and door work, 

Syracuse shops, * 5 59 
Stark Electric R. R. (See Alliance, Ohio) 
Staten Island, Transfer decision, 353 
Statistics: 

Accident, Texas railways [Kellogg], 790 

Accidents on pay-witb-in and otaer cars, 

1065 

Berlin (Ger.) system, 639 

Block signal mileage in United States, 

783 

Canadian electric railways [Payne], 37 

Car performance in 1910, electric divisions 

of Long Island R. R., 1010 

Car run-ins, Brooklyn, 838 

Car service, Defective, in New York City, 

674; Comment, 657, 697 

Cars ordered in 1910, 14; Comment, 3 

City areas, populations, car miles, earn- 
ings, longest ride, etc., for 16 cities 
[Davis], 212 

City railway systems, Graphical compari- 
son of, 260 

Earnings, expenses and track mileage of 

large urban railway properties, Com- 
parison of, on a car-mileage basis, 259 

— — Electrical industry, 38 

Great Britain, 33, 454 

Growth of street railway travel in New 

York City, 1898-1910, 73 
Hours of street railway employees in 

Massachusetts, 602 

London traffic, 362, 380 

Mail service on electric railways, 334 

New -York City railwjy ojeration, 1908- 

1910, 73 

Operating statistics of New York, Boston, 

Chicago and Philadelphia, 1064 

Poles and pole accessories in 1909, 522 

Pop uJ ation increase and traction earnings, 

Relation between, Pittsburgh report, 
258 

Ties purchased in 1909, 340 

Track construction in 1910, 17; Comment, 

Traffic across East River, New York, 320 

Traffic and service, Philadelphia, 1066 

Train detentions, Washington, Baltimore 

& Annapolis Ry., 913 

Transfers in the census report, 624 

Valuation of Metropolitan Street Ry. ' 

property, 123, 422, 708, 756 
Steam railways: 

Electrification of terminals [Parker] 166 

Joint rates with electric lines. '(See 

Through routes and joint rates) 
Smoke problem is Chicago [Bird], 305; 

Comment, 327 

(See also Heavy electric traction) 

Stockton, Cal., Centra! California Traction Co., 

Stock increase, 688 
Stopping interurban cars, Cost of, 359; [Sachs] 

c640 

Storage battery cars: 

Halle, Germany, Tests, 21 

Long Island R. R., 978 

Third Avenue R. R., 944, *981 

Storage batteries: 

Baltimore, Largest plant of its kind in the 

world, 387 

Power stations, Detroit Tunnel, *106 

Trunk line electrifications, Not economical 

for, 668 
Storerooms : 

— — Chicago Rys. shops, *567 

■ Movable bins and shelves, 406, *557, *558, 

*567, *577 

South Bend, Ind., shops, *577 

Syracuse repair shops, *557 

Strap-hanger ordinance defined in Minneapolis, 

768 

Street Railway Association of Sta'e of New 
York (See New York State Street 
Railway Association) 

Strikes: 

Arbitration of disputes, Discussion by 

National Civic Federation, 103 

Columbus, History, 461 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry., 396 

Winnipeg, Man., 46, 95 

Submarine cables, Laying: 

Connecticut River, New London, *418 

-Harlem River, *328 

Substations : 

— —Detroit River tunnel, *64 

Galveston-Houston Ry., *411 

Havana Electric Ry., *91 1 

Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo Electric 

Ry., *367 

Kansas City, Office and substation build- 
ing, *297 

Pennsylvania R. R., New York tunnel ex- 
tension, *958 

Portable, Havana. *911 

Salt Lake & Ogden R. R., *702, 703 

Shore Line Electric Ry., *867 

Subways. (See names of cities) 

Sunday Creek-Hocking Traction Co. (See 
Nelsonville, Ohio) 

Supplies: 

Handling economically, 698 



January — June, 191 1.] 



INDEX. 



XIII 



Supplies: (Continued) 

Proportionate investment in supplies on 

hand, Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 
420, 699 

Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power Co. 
(See Lancaster, Pa.) 

Sweden, Kiruna-Riksgransen line, Electrifica- 
tion, *788 

Swiss Federal Railways, Electrification, 952 
Switch box, Universal (G. R. S. Co.), *429 
Switchboards: 

Long Island steel car, *1060 

Milwaukee power station, *295 

Switches : 

Emergency car lighting (Consolidated), 

*806 

Inspection of high-tension oil, 789 

Oil, Non-automatic (Allis-Chalmers), *176 

■ Oil-break pole-line (G. E.), *233 

Switzerland, Lugano and Tesserte 1000-volt 

direct-current railway, 71a 
Syracuse, N. Y. : 

Ohmer fare register practice [Duffy], *S10 

Rapid Transit Ry. : 

Issue of capital stock, 135 
Recommendation of Public Service 

Commission, 1082 
Shops at Syracuse, *550; Comment, 
546 

Wage increase, 993 

Syracuse conference. (See New York State 
Public Service Commission) 

Swansea Center, Mass., Providence & Fall 
River Street Ry., Failure to pay in- 
terest on bonds, 135 



Tacoma, Wash.: 

Puget Sound Electric Ry, Refunding of 

notes, 182 

Tacoma Railway & Power Co., Safety 

league of accident claim department, 
282 

Tap cover and stud (Dossert), *84 
Tariff (See Fares) 
Taxes : 

Corporation tax decision, 462; Comments, 

447, 489 

Payments under corporation tax law, 32 

Reduction of taxes is a feasible means of 

relief, 147 

Telephone, Portable railway (Kellogg), *176 
Telephone cards, moisture-proof (Western 

Electric), 470 
Telephone train dispatching (See Dispatching 

trains) 

Tennessee, Legislation, 347, 724 
Terminals : 

Dayton Ohio, Ohio Electric Ry., Improve- 
ments, *628 

Electrification of [Parker], 166 

St. Louis, Freight and express, *381 

Terre Haute (Ind.), Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Co.: 

Sale of bonds, 932 

Signal system (Kinsman), *886 

Testing of materials. Suggestion for, 1096 
Testing of return railway circuits [Nelson], 

793; Discussion, 797 
Texas, Legislation, 347 
Texas Traction Co. (See Dallas, Tex.) 
Third rail: 

Detroit River tunnel, *66 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R. 

"415 

New York tunnel of Pennsylvania R. R. 

[Gibbs], *9S9 

Third-rail cle rings, Data regarding, Report by 
Committee of Maintenance of Way 
Association, 499 

Third-rail shoe fuse Long Island R. R., *1006 

Third-rail shoe te'l-tale, Hudson & Manhattan 
R. R., M101 

Third-rail shoes, Improved, Philadelphia, 923 

'through routes and joint rates: 

Decision by Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission on traffic between electric and 
steam roads, 637 

First joint tariff ever published by interur- 

ban lines [Gore], 507 

Indianapolis Interurban Joint Ticket 

Agency, Development of long-distance 
travel [Gore], 507; Discussion, 595 

Massachusetts, Report, 151 

New York, 52 

Ticket counterfeiters, Cleveland, 1123 
Tickets: 

Interurban local (Poole), *428 

Joint rate transfer tickets in New York 

between Metropolitan Street Railway 

and otner lines, *80 

Proposed duplex transfer, *128 

Ties: 

Life of, treated TWinslow], 1110 

Maintenance of Way Association. Report 

by Committee, 498 
— i — Purchase of, in 1909, Statistics, 340 
Reinforced concrete, Los Angeles, Cal., 

*679 
Steel: 

Oklahoma City [Haller], *448 

Progress of 1910, 6 

Scranton, Pa., *603 



Timber, Report on white cedar [McKinney] 
1025 

Timber preservation: 

Advantages of treated timber to electric 

railways [Winslow], 1110 

Asphaltic oils as economical wood preserva- 
tives [Cherrington] , 504 

Maintenance of Way Association, Report 

by sub-committee, 498. 

Progress of 1910, 6 

Report of committee of National Electric 

Light Association, 974 

[RhoadesJ, 741 

— — [Winslow], 920 

Timetables, Transportation and Traffic Associa- 
tion committee meeting, 758 

Titusville (Pa.) Electric Traction Co., Bond 
issur, 1128 

Toledo, Ohio: 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Ry. (See 

Kendallville, Ind.) 

Toledo & Indiana Ry. Bond issue, 894 

Toledo Railways & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 396, 991 

Appraisal, 988 

Franchise, Tentative, 130 

Franchise extension, Mayor Whitlock 
on, 529 

Franchise negotiations, 607, 645, 681, 
722, 763, 812, 848, 863 

Transfer talks, 51 
— — Traction situation, 45, 178, 391 
Tool box for track construction, Oklahoma 

City [Haller]. *450 
Tool wagon, Metal, Oklahoma Ry. [Haller], 

*451 

Toronto Ry. : 

Annual report, 891 

■ Suspension of pay-as-you-enter system, 185 

Transfer talks, 335 

Toronto Suburban Street Ry., Sale. 1128 
Tower wagons, Electric, Havana Electric Ry., 
♦949 

Tower wagons. Gasoline: 

Oakland, Cal., *671 

Union Ry., New York, *984 

Towers, Steel, Denver City Tramway Co., * 1 73 
Track construction: 
Atlanta, Ga., *78 

Concrete and steel ties, Oklahoma City 

[Haller], *448 

Construction in 1910, 17; Comment, 5 

Costs, Oklahoma City [Haller], 452 

— ■ — Creosoted wood cushions for steel ties 

[Haller], *451 
— — Galveston-Houston Ry., *408 

Havana Electric Ry. [Hild], 908 

Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo Elec- 
tric Ry. [White], *364 
Little Rock, Ark., 843 

-Maintenance of Way Association, Report 

by committee, 498 
— —Mobile, Ala., Reinforced concrete beams, 

*296 

Oklahoma City [Haller], *448 

Pennsylvania R. R., New York tunnel ex- 
tension, 956 

Salt Lake & Ogden R. R., 701, *705 

Savannah, Ga., 299 

Scranton, Pa., Steel tie and concrete con- 
struction, *603 

T : rail, Atlanta, Ga., *78 

Tieless concrete and paved construction, 

[Haller], *384 

Irack handling apparatus, Oklahoma City 
[Haller], *451 

Track movement under locomotives, Tests, 
Pennsylvania R. R., *961 

Trackless trolleys proposed in Great Britain, 
26 

Traffic department of Lehigh Valley Transit 

Co., 252 
Trarnc in London, 362 
Traffic promotion: 

— — Automobile feeder line, Indianapolis, New 
Castle & Toledo Electric Ry., 369 

Building up of interurban territory 

[Smith], 513; Comment, 487; Discus- 
sion, 521 

Joint rates as a means of developing long- 
distance travel [Gore], 507; Discus- 
sion 595 

— — Summer traffic. Methods of stimulating 
[Smith], 513; Comment, 487; Discus- 
sion, 521 

Train dispatching. (See Dispatching trains) 
Train shed, London, Brighton & South Coast 

Ry., *785 
Transfer tables: 

Air-operated, South Bend, Ind., shops, 

*577 

Chicago Rys., M93 

Flush, Kansas City, *148 

Milwaukee shops, 207 

Transfers: 

— — -Census report, 624 

Joint. Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, 

*80 

Law suggested by Transportation and 

Traffic Association, 635 

New Year's transfer, St. Joseph; Mo., 52 

' New York & Queens County Ry., Trans- 
fer with coupons, *632 

Staten Island, Transfer decision, 353 

Talks to conductors, Toronto Ry., 335 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Transfers: (Continued) 

-Toledo transfer talks, 51 

Transformers: 

Baltimore substation, 10,000-kva, *805 

Lighting (Allis-Chalmers), *1029 

Transmission lines: 

Eminent domain for, in Massachusetts, 325 

Pennsylvania R. R., across Hackensack 

Meadows [GibbsL '1014 

Progress in construction, 7 

Recommendations of National Electric 

Light Association, 964 
Transportation, Discussions in "Annals of the 

American Academy of Political and 

Social Science," 126; Comment, 194 
Transportation of letter carriers. (See Free 

transportation) 
Trenton, N. J.: 

Elizabeth & Trenton R. R., Bond issue, 

350 

Leases approved by Board of Commission- 
ers, 477 

No-seat-no-fare ordinance, 439, 479 

Trenton & Mercer Traction Co., Passes 

abolished, 95 

Trenton Street Ry.: 

Hearing on service, 127 

Recommendations of Board of Com- 
missioners, 537 
Tri-State Railwav & Electric Co. (See East 

Liverpool, Ohio) 
Trinidad, Col., Colorado Railway, Light & 

Power Co., Receivership, 350 
Trolley cars, Extruded (Ohio), *231 
Trolley frog, "Detroit" (Dunne), *129 
Trolley pole, Adjusting device, Chicago City 

Ry., 306 

Trolley switch, "Rymco" high-speed automatic 

(xv. M. Co.), 605 
Trolley wieels: 

Finishing process, Chicago Rys., *804 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co., 383 

Ideal (Lumen), *84 

Oshkosh, Trolley wheel practice [Kelsh], 

122 

Trolley wire, Wear of, N. Y., N. H. & H. 
R. R., 669 

Trolley wire splicer ( Vv estinghouse), *640 
Trucks: 

(Baldwin) cast-steel, Southern Pacific R. 

&., *470 

(Baldwin) Winnipeg Electric Ry., *807 

Design of, with reference to light weight, 

Discussion by committee of Engineer- 
ing Association, 218. 802 

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., *786 

Lone Island R. R., steel cars, *1057 

Rebuilding, Chicago Ry., 565 

Tulsa, Okla, Gasoline motor car, *926 
Tungsten lamps, Wire-type (Westinghouse), 

310, 382 
Tmb;nes, Steam : 

Developments and efficiencies [Dreyfus], 

*386 

Low-pressure [Dreyfus], *805 

Mixed pressure, Havana Electric Ry., *910 

Moderate speed (De Laval), *678 

Report of committee of National Electric 

Light Association, 969 
Turbo-alternator sets, Mixed-pressure (Dick, 

Kerr), *231 

Turbo-generators, Ventilation of [Williamson], 
974; comment, 942 

Turnstile and reeister, "Turn-in" (Ohmfi), 
Dayton, Ohio, 388 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (See Minne- 
apolis) 



u 



Underground construction. Report of com- 
mittee of National Electric Light As- 
sociation, 975 

Union Utilities Co. (See Morgantown, W. 

Va.) 

United Properties Company of California. 

(See San Francisco) 
United Public Utilities Co. (See New Orleans, 

La.) 

United Railroads of San Francisco. (See San 
Francisco) 

LTnited Rvs. (See St. Louis) 

United Railways & Electric Co. (See Balti- 
more) 

United Railways Investment Co. (See San 
Francisco) 

United Traction Co. (See Albany, N. Y.) 
Utah, Legislation, 237, 534 

Utah Light & Railway Co. (See Salt Lake 
City) 



Valley Traction Co. (See Harrisburg, Pa.) 

Valuations. (See Appraisals) 

Valves, Air brake, Conductor's emergency, 
Louisville & Northern Ry., 70 

Vancouver, B. C. British Columbia Electric 
Ry., Annual report, 726 

Vancouver, Wash.. Washington-Oregon Cor- 
poration, Merger, 183 

Varnish handled by air pressure, Chicago Rys., 
*760 



XIV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXVII. 



Varnishing cars [French], 583 
Ventilation of cars: 

Discussion by committee of Engineering 

Association, 802 
Express cars of Old Colony Street Ry., 

*873 

Report of Pennsylvania Commission, 1019 

Ventilation inspectors of Connecticut Co., 95 
Ventilation of New York tunnel extension of 

Pennsylvania R. R. [Gibbs], 955 
Ventilation _ for turbo-generators, Report on 

National Electric Light Association, 

970 [Williamson], 974 
Ventilator, Cleveland (Nichols- Lintern), 383 
Viaduct, Concrete, Shore Line Electric Ry., 

*871 

Vienna, Waiting stations, *592 
Virginia Railway & Power Co. (See Rich- 
mond, Va.) 



w 



Waco, Tex., Citizens Ry., 1085 
Wages (See Employees) 
Waiting stations: 

Illinois Traction System. *381 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., "251 

St. Louis, Illinois Traction System, *837 

Vienna, *592 

Warren (Pa.) & Jamestown Street Ry., Direct 
current replaces alternating current, 
133 

Washington, Legislation, 611, 724 
Washington. D. C: 

City and Suburban Ry.. Hearing on rates 

before Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, 151 

Fare complaint against railways, 855 

Fares of standees, Adverse report on bill, 

184 

Washington, Alexandria & Mount Vernon Ry., 

Fare reduction 614 
\\ ashington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric 
R. R. • 

Car, Private. President Taft visits Annap- 
olis in, *754 

Reorganization, 135. 351, 437, 536, 688 

• Results of 1200-volt direct-current opera- 
tion, 913 

Washington, Berwyn & Laurel Electric Ry., 
Hearing on rates before Interstate 
Commerce Commission, 151 

Washington-Oregon Corporation. ("See Van- 
couver, Wash.) 

Washington Public Service Commission, crea- 
tion of, 755 



A 



Arnold, B. J. Pittsburgh car service, c39 

B 

Brady, A. W. American Electric Railway 

Association, 26, 216 
Brown, T. Q. New installation of automatic 

block signals on the San Francisco, 

Oakland & San Jose Consolidated Ry-, 

*663 



c 



Cherrington, F. W. Asphaltic oils as eco- 
nomical wood preservatives, 504 

Choate, J. K. Methods of employment, in- 
struction and discipline of motormen 
and conductors on interurban lines, 
120 

Coleman, G. H. Adjusting Westinghouse elec- 
tric pump governor, *254 

Coolidge, C. A. Block signals for single-track 
lines, c*423 

Cummins, F. S. Effective methods of handling 
snowstorms, 747 



D 



Darby, S. E. Patents — what they are, and 
how to read and understand them, 
110 

Darlington, Fred. Central power plants and 
electricity supply for trunk line rail- 
roads, 967 

Davis, G. H. The adjustment of American 
street railway rates to the expansion of 
city areas, 211 

Davis, O. I. Method of accounting of freight 
claims, 463 

Drown, H. V. American Electric Railway 
Claim Agents' Association, 31 



Washington Railway & Electric Co., Annual 
report, 476 

Washington & Rockville R. R., Receivership, 
649, 689 

Washington Water Power Co. (See Spokane, 
Wash.) 

Waste cans, Safety, Chicago Rys., 578 
Water-power conservation and utilization, Con- 
ference on, in New York, 524, 674; 
Comment, 657 
Watsonville (Cal.) Transportation Co., Sale, 
536, 818 

Watt-hour meters for car service (Sangamo), 
*340 

Waynesboro, Pa., Chambersburg, Greencastle & 
Waynesboro Street Ry., Dividend, 181 

West Chester, Kennett & Wilmington Electric 
Ry. (See Kennett Square, Pa.) 

West Penn Traction Co. (See Pittsburgh, Pa.) 

Western Ohio R. R. (See Lima, Ohio) 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Annual re- 
port, 1084 

Wheel handline carriage, Brooklyn, *371 
Wheelguards (See Fenders and wheelguards) 
Wheel lathe, Long Island R. R., *1008 

Wheel practice: 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 1102 

Oshkosh [Kelsh], 122 

Wheel tires. Gas-heating outfit for applying, 
♦1101 

Wheel turning: 

Chicago Rvs., 566 

-Costs, Hudson & Manhattan R. R.. 1099 

[Williams], *505; Discussion, 596 

Wheels: 

Cast-iron [Feist]. 743 

Chilled-iron, and their relation to service 

conditions [Hale], 962 

Economical limits, for flange wear on steel- 
tired and rolled-steel wheels [Sibbald], 
*509; Discussion. 516 

— — Flange wear on St. Clair Tunnel locomo- 
tives [Hall], 707 

Grinding out flat spot bv spinning wheel 

against emery block, Syracuse, *554 

Hardness of. 903 

"Rollway" rigid axle (R. R. B. Co.), *309 

Steel: 

Pony. Brooklyn, *414 

Possible improvements in the mileage 
of, 659 _ 

Results obtained with. Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Svstem, 979 
Solid steel [Holdintr], 744 
Snoke tvpe (Lobdell). 1029 
Steel-tired, Lackawanna & Wyoming Val- 
ley R. R., 416 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Duffy, J. E. Operation of Obmer fare regis- 
ters in city service, * 5 10 

Dye, A. G. Comments on the safety of opera- 
tion of electric roads, 265 

E 

Edwards, H. M. Accounting for depreciation, 
972 

Edwards, J. P. New 82-ton electric locomotive 
of the Northern Electric Railway, 
•1011 

Elmquist, F. A. Recent progress in car paint- 
ing, 303 

Evans, John. Office building and car house of 

the Denver City Tramway Co., *660 
Evans, W. H. Use of sand on interurban cars, 

506 



F 

Forse, W. H., Jr. American Electric Railway 
Accountants' Association, 28 

Foster, S. L. Portable erector for ornamenting 
iron poles in San Francisco, *109 

French, H. A. Abbreviating car painting 
methods, 583 

c 

Gerke, Jacob. Things worth while in shop 
practice, 745 

Gibbs, George. Electrical features of the New 
York tunnel extension of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, *955, * 1014 

Gore, T. T- Development of long-distance 
travel, 507 

Graftio, Henry. Trunk line electrification, 
c979 



H 

Haller, W. A. Track construction in Okla- 
homa City, *448 

Harvie, W. J. American Electric Railway En. 
gineering Association, 28 



White, J. G., & Co., Annual report, 1036 
Wickford, R. I., Sea View R. R., Control, 396 
Willoughby, Ohio, Cleveland, Painesville & 

Eastern R. R.: 

Increase in capital stock, 280 

■ Timber from replaced bridge, Use of, 839 

Written examination for trainmen, 677 

Wilmington, New Castle & Southern Ry. (See 

New Castle, Pa.) 
Windows in Brooklyn Elevated cars, Order for 

reconstruction, 137 
Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Ry.: 

Annual report, 892 

Dividend. 932 

Motor trucks (Baldwin), *807 

Strike, 46, 95 

Wire: 

Aluminum, for field coils, Practice in 

Europe, 796 

Grooved trolley wire, 880 

Specifications for hard-drawn copper wire, 

880 

Wiring, Car, Specifications for, 697 

Wisconsin, Legislation, 685 

Wisconsin Electric Ry. (See Oshkosh, Wis.) 

Wisconsin Electrical Association, Convention 
at Milwaukee, 45, 164 

Wisconsin Railroad Commission: 

Principles of valuation established by 

[Mack], 164 

Report for year ending June 30, 1910, 423 

Wood Preservers' Association, Annual meet- 
ing, 160 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Ry., 
Proposed purchases, 478, 854 



X 

Xenia, Ohio, Springfield & Xenia Ry., Earn- 
ings, 649 

Y 

Yards : 

Detroit United Ry., Harper Avenue, *494 

— —Hudson & Manhattan R. R., Jersey City 
[Hazelton], *780, *Sup. 

Yonkers (N. Y. ) R. R., Receivers' certificates, 
818, 854, 1036 

York (Pa.) Rys., Note issue, 318, 613 

Youngstown, Ohio, Mahoning & Shenaneo 
Railway & Light Co.. Bond sale, 436 

Youngstown (Ohio) & Ohio River R. R., An- 
nual renort. 727 

Youngstown (Ohio) & Sharon Railway & 
Light Co., Denial of charge, 437 



Hazelton, Hugh. Jersey City yards and shops 
of the Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 
*780 

Heydon, Edward. Overhead construction, 1110 
Hibbard, M. L. Boiler economy and the ap- 
plication of flue-gas analysis, 794 
Hild, F. W. System of the Havana Electric 

Railway Company, *906, *946 
Hixson, L. T. Interline accounting, 503 
Howe, W. K. Automatic block signals for 
electric railways, *268 



K 

Kellogg, C. W., Jr. Cause and prevention of 

accidents. 790 
Kelsh, W. J. Electric railway repair shop 

practice, 122 



L 

Leisenring, John. Automatic block signals on 
the Illinois Traction System, * 1 105 

Lewis, C. E. Train dispatching on interurban 
roads, 114 



M 

McCarter, T. N. The rate of return, 221 
Mathes, L. D. Electric railway problems of 
the day, 749 

N 

Nelson, G. G. Investigation and care of re- 
turn railway circuits, 793 

P 

Page, H. C. American Electric Railway 
Transportation and Traffic Association, 
29 

Parker, L. H. Flectricfication of railroad ter- 
minals, 166 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



January — June, 191 1.] 



INDEX. 



XV 



Payne, J. L. Electric railways in Canada, 37 
Peck, E. F. Collisions on interurban roads 

and their causes, 159 
Prather, H. C. Pit and trestle construction for 

car maintenance, 589 



s 



Sachs, P. Cost of stopping an interurban car, 
c640 

Sibbald, John. Economical limits for flange 
wear on steel-tired and rolled-steel 
wheels, *509 

Sieber, K. Rail corrugations, *372 



Smith, R. H. Building up of interurban terri- 
tory, and methods of stimulating sum- 
mer traffic, 513 

Sullivan, R. T. Light weight cars, their con- 
struction and operation, 790 

T 

Tharp, W. J. General accounting of public 
utility corporations, 842 

w 

Wade, E. H. Train dispatching on the Buffalo 
& Lake Erie Traction Company's line, 
158 



White, A. J. The traveling auditor, 467 
White, P. H. Indianapolis, New Castle & 

Toledo Electric Railway, *364 
Williams, H. S. Wheel turning, *505 



Y 

Young, C. G. Logical basis for valuations of 
interurban street railways, 115 

Young, J. C. Development of the auxiliary 
load for power plants, 746 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



PERSONAL 



Abercrombie, D. P., Jr., 820 
Acker, Walter H., 96 
Adams, A. C, 481, 651 
Adams, Prof. Henry C, 934 
Adams, Julian, 439 
Albcrger, W. R.. 821 
Anderson, Alfred, 284 
Andrews, C. H., 995 
Annabel, F. I., 857 
Archibald. W. M., 354 
Argabrite, N. M. 540 
Arnold. Frank 96, 139 
Arthur, R. G., 284 

Bacon, F. W., *54, 729 

Bachman, David S., 1131 

Barber, G. E.. 691 

Barbour, F. F.. 539 

Bardo, Clinton L., 691 

Barnitz, Edwin A., 186 

Bassett, Edw. M., 1039 

Beggs, John I., 320, *399, 770 

Bell, Edward, 354 

Bell, J. C, 96 

Bellamy, George W.. 354 

Benedict, H. A., 96 

Bennington, J. H., *285 

Berry, V. W.. 320 

Bewsey, Lewis C, 354 

Blake, J. L, 96. 140 

Bock, E. J.. 539 

Boggs, Edward M., 820 

Boyd, John Y., 96 

Brecht, Prof. Milton J., 285 

Bridge, C. M., 242 

Bronson, Miles, 691 

Brooks. F. E., 481 

Brown, J. Q., 820 

Brown, J. W., 691 

Buckley, Michael C, 896 

Buggy, John A., 1089 

Burnett, C. H., 439 

Burr, James E., 857 

Burt, Horace G., 729 

Bushong, A. T., 96 

Butler, L., 769 

Butler, VV. W. S , 242 

Cahill, C. A., 896, 934 
Camden, S. D., 1131 
Campbell, James, 769 
Campbell, J. J., 1089 
Candee, De Forest, 1131 
Caufield, J. J., 1131 
Carpender, M. C. 139 
Case. W. M., 284 
Chaffee, Earle W., 896 
Chapman, C. T., 857 
Chitty, A. H, 284 
Chubbuek, H. E., *187 
Clark. J. P., 539 
Clarke, I. B., 320 
Clements, Judson C, 139 
Cobe, Ira M., 539 
Cochran, Richard E., 284 
Coldwell, O. B., 616 
Coleman, J. S.. 729 
Colgate, George L., 53 
Collins, C. C, 897 



Conway, G. R. G., 398 
Cook, Walter W., 53 
Cooke, F. H., 242 
Cooper. C. P., 1089 
Cowen, Herman C, 651 
Cox, Geo. M., *995 
Crabbe, W. H, 539 
Cram, J. Sergeant, 1039 
Crane, C. F., 139 
Crooks, C. H., 439 
Cross, Thomas A.. 857 
Cummins, Frank S., 897 
Cutshall, F. H., 857 

Damon, George A., 821 
Daniels, Prof. Winthrop Moore, 
821 

Darrow, Richard. 934 
Davidson, Charles J., 857 
Deal, E. C, 617 
Dean, S. Z., 284 
de Hasseth, G. A., 857 
Delany, Geo. W., 691 
De Lisle. F. J., 934 
DeWitt, W. H., 242, 354 
Dill, Samuel J., 53 
Doane, J. A., 539 
Dodge, G. H, 769 
Downs, E. E., 481 
Doyle. J., 1089 
Dozier, Melville, Jr., 897 
Duke, J. B., 481 
Dunham, R. J., 1039 
Dunlap, A. A., 995 
Dunlap, Elton G., 139 
Dunwody. H. F., 1089 
Durham, J. A., 934 
Dysterod, E., 1089 

Elkins, A. F., *617 
Ellicott, H. W., 96 
Emmons, C. D., 53, 821 

Evans, W. G., 651 

Fennimore, John, 186 
Fetter, I. C, 692 
Fish, R. H., 691 
Fisher Walter L.. 439 
Fiske, H. A., 242 
Flowers, Herbert B., 769 
Flynn, Harry, 398 
Fohr, Lewis J., 242 
Foshay. Wilbur B.. 186 
Fruehauf, N. M., 284 

Gannon, Frank S., 1039 
Gibson, Austin E., 139 
Gilhoula, J. R., 139 
Gillner, Walter J., 354 
Giltner. J. W., 439 
Glenn, W. H., 399 
Glynn, A. J., 354 
Gon^enbach, Ernest, 439 
Graham, C. C, 284 
Graves, Clyde M., 284 
Gray, Carl Raymond. 651 
Greenland. S. W., 934 
Greenland, S. W., 1131 
Guiteau. H. C, 769 



Haas, E. M., 354 
Hailmm, G. Frank. 995 
Haller, W. A., 320 
Ham. William F., 481 
Hammond, J. B., 186 
Hardy, F. I., 1089 
Harlowe, David, 139 
Harman, R. A., 242, 285 
Harper, M. C. 284 
Harrigan. J. R.. 540, 651 
Harrington, Lester A., 820 
Harris, A. W., 651 
Harris, John W., 284 
Harlan, G. W.. 616 
Hart, George H, 186 
Harvey, A. E.. 729 
Harvey, Ford, 1039 
Hendricks, Wayne P., 539 
Henry, Geor;e F., 242 
Harry, Geo. S., 896 
Hepburn, F. T., 995 
Hild. Frederic W., 539 
Hobart, H. M., 284 
Hobein, Charles A., 821 
Hoffman, F. D., 539 
Hood, John M., Jr., 481 
Hood, Smith, 284 
Howland. Stanley, 729 
Hudson, Horace R., 53 
Hughes, E. S., 1089 
Hume, Fred., 539 
Hunt, A. M., 857 
Huppuch, Winfield A., 284 
Hurley, Peter E.. 53 
Hutchins, R. G., 242 
Hutchinson, Wm., 616 
Hyde, H. S., 539 

Irwin, W. G'., 186 



Jack, Arthur G., 934 
Jacques, L. W., 995 
Jensson, A. G. H.. 96 
Johnson, E. E., 729 
Johnson, Rankin, 995 
Johnson, W. O., 398 
Johnston, F. M., 242, 285 
Jones, Charles J.. 821 
Jones, Tudor, 651, 729 



Kehoe, M. J., 1089 
Reiser, W. N., 691 
Kellett, Wm. P., 186 
Kelley, Thos. A.. 617 
Kelly, Frank J., 1089 
Kelly, W. F., 821 
Kelly, W. F., 1131 
Kemmish. N. A.. 691 
Kessler, H. G., 897 
Kester, E. E., 242 
Kidd. George, 691 
Kineon, James P., 320, 354 
Koch, William A., 398 

Lahrmer, J. H, 539, 1089 
Lake, E. N., 96 
Landis, Lee. 896 



Lash, Morrison R.. 729 
Lathrop, L. H., 320 
Lee, W. S., 540 
Leisenring, John, 1039 
Lemmon, G. W., 139 
Lenhart, C. E., 113 1 
Levering. R. W., 691 
Levinson. L. M., 691 
Lewis, A. P., 934 
Lively, Oscar, 897 
Loomis, L. E., 284 
Lott, F. M., 820 
Ludlum, M. C. 730 



MacAfee, John Blair, 995 
MacDonald, Sibbald, 896 
Maddox, VV. T., 769, 897 
Main, Edwin, 857 
Maish, A. G.. 896 
Manahan, A. N.. 821 
Martin, L. B., 354 
Matson, J. L., 539 
Matthews, C. H, 284 
May, A. S., 857 
MacAndrew A. S., 616 
McCaffrey. Thos., 617, 769 
McCarthy, John, 617 
McCaskey, M. E., 398 
McClellan, Wm., 769 
McCloud, Charles, 284 
McCormack. Ira A., 284 
McCray, L. H. 186 
McCrosky, J. W., 398 
McGuire, D. J., 53 
McKnight, W. F., 354 
McMahon, C. L., 354 
McMichael, D. H.. 53 
McPherson, J. C, 539, 769, 897 
Mellen, C. S., 857 
Meneely, C. D., 284 
Metcalfe, Charles B., 242 
Millar. Archibold B., 139 
Missner, Edward, 320 
Mitchell, Frank, 398 
Mitchell, I. S., Jr., 398 
Mitten, T. E., 539 
Moe, L. E., 691 
Moore. Alva E., 651 
Moore, C. R.. 617 
Moffat. George E., 398 
Mortimer, James D., 769 
Moyer, C. C, 1089 
Mullett, H. A., "897 
Munton, Charles J.. 769 
Murray. Charles, 481 
Murray, C. L., 540 
Murray, F. H., 284 



Nelson, W. R., 284 
Norton, Wm. D., 691 

O'Connell. John, 616 
Olds, E. W., 399, 651 
O'Neil, Hugh, 139 
Ososki, Sidney, 481 
Otto, John, 53 
Owens, W. G., 896 



* Portrait. 



XVI 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXVII. 



Pallister. J, H., 729 
Pardee, J. H., 539, 857 
Parker, B. E„ 186 
Parker, Ray, 896 
Parshall, Horace Field, 995 
Paxon, L., 769 
Payne. R. L., 284 
Pearson. C. J., 691 
Peck, E. B., *186 
Peters, A. E., 320, 399 
Pierce, F. E., 820 
Pleming, Charles F., 1131 
Plunkett, Martin, 616 
Potter. J. P., 820 
Potvin. F. C, 896 
Powley, Ralph S.. 96 
Price, A. W., 691 
Prior. H. E., 1131 
Propst, Charles F., 96 
Puppe, Dr. Johannes, 481 
Putnam, W. R.. 139, 398. 729 

Raver, Edward M., 769 
Read, Norman, 651 
Reardon, J. F„ 139 
Reed, E. 0., 439 
Reed, Wm. B., Jr.. 896 
Remelius, Charles, 96 
Rice, Ralph H., 53 
Richards, F. L., 140 
Richmond, C. O., 857 
Rickert, Van Dusen. 96 
Roberts, John, 354 
Robertson, C. H., 96 
Robinson, O. E., 820 



Rockwell, J. C, 481 

Rockwell. Robert W., 540 

Rogers. S. C, 140 

Rolston, Wm. E., 691, 896 

Roosevelt, Col. Theodore, 284 

Ross, W. G., 186 

Rowray, J. B., 616. 769, 1039 

Roycraft, Thomas, 242 

Rushton, W. H., 53 

Rust, T. E„ 320 

Ryder, S. J., 691 



Salber. W. E., 820 
Schneider, E. F., 53 
Scott, Charles R., 186 
Scott, Charles F., 1131 
Shackleford, John A., 539, 857 
Shannahan, J. N., 934 
Shaw, James F., 186 
Sheppard. F. L., 820 
Sherman, D. F., 439 
Sherman, D. F., 1131 
Shoup, Paul, 96 
Shuff, Frank K., 539 
Siebert, W. Sumner, 354 
Sigsbee, W. A., 186 
Skelly, F. V.. 857 
Smith, E. D., 53 
Smith, Franklin A.. 439 
Smith, J. W., 53 
Smith, John H., 539 i '• 
Smith, William F., 439 
Soules, Eugene E., 242 
Sommer, Frank H.. 1039 



Spring, Col. E. C, 769 
Staats, Henry N., *1089 
Starkey, J. F., 616 
Stees, M. G., 186 
Stephens, B. R.. 53 
Stevens, John F., 651 
Stewart, D. J., 820 
Stobart, E. A., 729 
Stocum. C. H., 820 
Stott, H. G.. 539 
Stowe, Fred A., 857 
Strong, E. E., 242 
Strout, Edw. E., 617 
Sucese, J. B., 53 
Sullivan, C. O.. 897 
Sullivan, John H., 934 
Sullivan, John L., 481 
Sweeney, Mrs. Lena Irwin, 186 
Squires, W. E., 285 
Sylvester, Carl A., 821. 995 



Tabler, B. E., 53 
Taft. C. P., 354 
Taylor, F. W., 398 
Taylor, R. C, 139 
Taylor, Z. V.. 242 
Taylor, Samuel J., 1131 
Thomas, E. T., 284 
Thomas, Edward C, 651 
Thomas, J. M.. 53 
Thornton, Henry W., 481 
Torner, J. V. H., 616 
Towne. W. F., 398 
Trawick, J. A., 769 



Trawick, J. A., 1131 
Tucker, Wm. H., 616 
Tweedy. Arthur E., 53 



Van Vranken, F., 616 
Vivian, E. H., 481, 539 



Waddell. S. H., 691 

Wallace, H. W., 139, 439 

Wallerstedt, H., 897 

Wallis, J. T., 820 

Walmsley, J. T., 729 

Warfel, C. O., 896 

Warner. J. B., 651 

Watson, R. W., 820 

Weber. H. L., 539 

Westman. A. W., 1089 

Wheeler, George B., *186 

White. W. C, 616 

Whiteley, Calvin, Jr., 439 

Wilgus, Wm. J., 821 

Williams, Col. Timothy S., 285. *3 

Wilson, Chester P., 139 

Winship, Joseph, 284 

Winter, Charles, 857 

Winter, E. W.. *242 

Winter, H. M., 481 

Wyatt, R. H., 896 

Woodman. F., *617 

Woodsome, J. C, 769 

Wyman, L. F., 284 

Wynne. Leroy F., 284 

Yates, Richard, 616 



•Portrait. 



Electric Railway Journal 



A CONSOLIDATION OF 



Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



Vol. XXXVII. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 7, 1911 



No. 1 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

McGraw Publishing Company 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 

James H. McGraw, President. 
Hugh M. Wilson, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President. 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 



Henpy W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. 
Associate Editors: 
Rodney Hitt, Frederic Nicholas, Walter Jackson. 
News Editors: 
G. J. MacMurray, Frank J. Armeit. 



Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office .... Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 
For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
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NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS. 

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of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 



Electric Railway Journal in 191 I 

Each year in the electric railway industry has brought its 
own problems. Sometimes they have been largely electrical 
or mechanical, in other years they have been legislative, in 
others financial. The proper time to analyze the conditions 
confronted by an industry during any period is of course 
at its close, but at present it seems as if in all phases of the 
work there was no time when a medium for collecting, dis- 
seminating and discussing the news of the field was more 
necessary. Acquaintance with the methods by which com- 
panies in other States and parts of the world are solving their 
problems should prove of more interest and value than ever 
before to every one engaged in electric railway work and 
should enable him either to apply those methods to his own 
particular problems or to improve upon them. It is the duty 
of the technical journal in any field to assist in this work by 
dealing in "ideas" as well as in "news." The purpose of the 
Electric Railway Journal is not only to give facts de- 
cisively, concisely and in an orderly manner but to present 
these facts in such a way as to stimulate the thought of the 
readers of the paper. This is the service which the Electric 
Railway Journal will aim to render to its readers during the 
coming year to a greater extent than ever before. 



Of this issue of the Electric Railway JouRijfAt- B°^Pof P€ffA. 





NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANU? 



MM 




Copyright, 191 1, by McGraw Publishin^'Coi^^'-'^ ^ ^ T^v" 1 " Stalistical Number 

Entered as second-class matter at the post office/at "'N'ew York, N. Y. ,1 ,1 t- 

x Por the past two years the Electric Railway Journal has 
lished on the first Saturday of January carefully compiled 
istics of the development of the electric railway industry 
ring the preceding year. In doing so it has followed a cus- 
tom inaugurated in 1907 by the Electric Railway Review, one 
of its constituent papers. The statistics this year, as in several 
previous years, include the miles of track built during the year, 
the number of cars ordered from independent manufacturers 
or built in companies' shops, a statement of the foreclosures 
and receiverships during the year, a review of the interurban 
railway construction in the Central States and other facts of 
general interest to the industry. This year these include a dis- 
cussion of the trend of practice in car design, three important 
contributed articles on the electric railway development in 
Canada, Great Britain and Germany, and a series of signed 
articles on the work of the various electric railway associations 
contributed by the presidents of those associations. Our statis- 
tics show an addition of 5481 cars and about 1397 miles of track 
added by the electric railway companies during the year. We 
also print this year 10 editorial articles discussing the technical 
and financial status of the industry and a review of the busi- 
ness of the year. We take- this occasion to express our sin- 
cere thanks to the companies which have assisted us in com- 
piling the several tables published in this issue, and to the 
authors of the contributed articles for their illuminating dis- 
cussions of the subjects treated by them. 



CONTENTS. 

Electric Railway Journal in 191 1 1 

Our Statistical Number 1 

Motor Design and Car Weights 2 

Car Building in 1910 3 

Electric Locomotive Design 4 

Track Progress in the Year 1910 5 

Power Station and Distribution Systems 6 

Rail Sections and Specifications 8 

Regulation Legislation in 1910 8 

The Electric Railway Situation in 1910 9 

The Interurban Rules Situation 10 

Association Work 12 

The Engineering Association "Question Box" 13 

Electric Railway Rolling Stock Ordered in 1910 14 

New Electric Railway Track Construction in 1910 17 

Receiverships and Foreclosure Sales During 1910 19 

Interurban Construction in the Central States During 1910 20 

Recent Electric Railway Car Design 21 

The American Electric Railway Association 26 

American Electric Railway Engineering Association 28 

The American Electric Railway Accountants' Association 28 

The American Electric Railway Transportation & Traffic Association.. 29 

American Electric Railway Claim Agents' Association 31 



Electric Traction in Great Britain. 

The Electric Railways of Germany During the Year 1910. 

Electric Railways in Canada 

Pittsburgh Car Service 

London Letter 



News of Electric Railways 44 



Financial and Corporate 
Traffic and Transportation 

Personal Mention 

Construction News 



46 



Manufactures and Supplies j 7 

Table of Traction Earnings .g 



2 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



MOTOR DESIGN AND CAR WEIGHTS 

In the campaign to reduce the weight of cars, particularly 
those used in city service, attention was naturally directed 
first to the economies possible in the car body and its parts. 
Comparatively little thought was given to the question of the 
weight of the motor equipments except for the saving made 
through lightening the car body and thus lessening the size of 
the motors or the number required. But such a large factor 
in the total weight of a car as the motors could not long 
escape consideration, and manufacturers and users, both at 
home and abroad, have recently been applying their best efforts 
to a study of this subject. 

Probably two-thirds of the total amount of work done by the 
motor equipment of a city car on level track is performed in 
accelerating the car, and the energy required for acceleration is 
directly proportional to the weight of the loaded car. The rest 
of the work done by the motors, or about one-third, is ex- 
pended in overcoming the rolling friction of the car and the 
bearing and gear friction of the car and its equipment. From 
this it follows that a reduction in the total weight of a car 
effects a nearly proportional reduction in both maximum and 
average current demand, and also that it reduces, in the same 
approximate ratio, the capacity and consequently the interest 
charges on the entire electrical equipment of the road, from 
the motor, through the distribution system, to the power sta- 
tion itself. The total investment in the equipment thus affected 
is several times greater per car operated than the investment 
in the car bodies and trucks. Hence considerably more ex- 
pense in car maintenance is permissible in a light car than in 
a heavy car before the sum of the interest account and the 
maintenance account of the road using a light equipment is 
equal to that of the same accounts of the road using a heavy 
equipment. 

The most important change in railway motor design during 
the past decade has been the introduction of the commutating- 
pole motor. This change has not been accompanied by any 
direct reduction in weight or cost of motor, but it has resulted 
in an elimination of commutator troubles, so that heating is 
now practically the only consideration in the selection of a 
motor for a specified service. This fact has a relation to the 
problem we are considering in two ways. In the first place, the 
excellent commutation of the commutating-pole motor not only 
insures a long life of commutator and brushes,, but its general 
cleanliness reduces insulation failures. Consequently the use 
of the commutating-pole motor has largely reduced the motor 
maintenance expense account, which has already been shown to 
be very closely, although indirectly, associated with the ques- 
tion of motor weight. 

In the second place, with heating as the determining factor 
in motor selection, it was inevitable that more attention should 
be given to the subject of ventilation. Experiments with 
forced ventilation have demonstrated its advantages and have 
led to its application in locomotive service. It has even been 
found that the removal of the hand-hole covers on car motors 
is followed by a marked decrease in their temperature rise over 
that experienced when the motors are sealed. Here, then, is an 
important direct means of reducing motor weight, made possible 
by the introduction of the commutating-pole motor. 

The forced ventilation of car motors has not yet been com- 
mercially developed, and there are undoubtedly difficulties in 



the way of conveying clean outside air free from brake-shoe 
dust and wheel-wash to the motor. But some practicable 
method will undoubtedly be found. Probably the complication 
and expense of separate motor-driven blowers are hardly justi- 
fied with small city equipments, but their use on interurban 
equipments is among the early possibilities. Considerable 
benefit might even be secured with armature-driven fans if 
proper provision could be made for a clean air supply. 

Another direction in which we can look for improvements in 
motor design within the near future is in the way of improved 
insulation. If a motor is continually operated at a tempera- 
ture much exceeding the boiling point of water, the fabric insu- 
lation generally used in the armature and field coils rapidly 
deteriorates. Of course more latitude can be allowed in the 
deterioration of insulation in railway motors operated at low 
voltage than in high-voltage apparatus. Nevertheless, the heat 
limits of insulation have to be considered very seriously even 
in the design of railway motors. The need of the hour, there- 
fore, so far as this matter is concerned, is for some improved 
form of insulation, having, perhaps, a better heat-conducting 
ability, but certainly better able to withstand higher tempera- 
tures than the insulations now usually used in apparatus of 
this kind. A commutating-pole motor whose windings were 
thus insulated and which was provided with some method of 
artificial ventilation would be materially lighter than motors 
now in general use. 

A third possible means of weight reduction involves a some- 
what more radical change in practice. In previous issues of this 
paper we have referred to the use in Germany of aluminum 
instead of copper for field windings. The Hamburg Street 
Railway, one of the largest roads in Germany, was the pioneer 
among the large roads abroad in the use of aluminum field coils 
and now has some 500 cars equipped with this type of coil. With 
its use the weight of a 40-hp motor has been reduced about 
100 lb. without developing apparently any electrical or me- 
chanical objections. With motors of larger capacity the saving 
in weight would be considerably more. 

A fourth means of weight reduction lies in an increase of 
armature speed. This in a sense seems like a step backward. 
The early motors ran at high speed and practically all of those 
built before 1890 were equipped with double-reduction gearing 
because of this reason. The modern slow-speed motor was 
made possible by an increase in the number of poles and was 
a radical improvement over the earlier type. But the weight 
of a motor, other things being equal, varies in almost inverse 
proportion with its speed, so that there is a great inducement 
from a weight standpoint toward increasing the speed. The 
principal objections to a high-speed motor are the danger of 
bursting the binding bands and danger of trouble with the 
armature bearings. The latter consideration is the more im- 
portant. It is doubtful whether there is much opportunity for 
improvement in the way of higher speeds, although there may 
be some in the case of motors used exclusively in frequent- 
stop city service. In such motors the armature reaches its 
maximum speed for short periods only and the average arma- 
ture speed is usually moderate. A moderate increase in speed 
also would probably not give rise to any serious problems as re- 
gards either gears or brushes. Both of these motor parts have 
been materially improved within recent years, especially gears, 
which now are made of very high-grade steel when an ex- 
ceptionally good article is required. 



January 7, 191 1 . ] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



3 



The comments which we have made on the present status 
and possibilities for future improvement of railway motors 
apply principally to motors used in city service, because the 
improvements discussed have been suggested largely by the 
desire to reduce car weights, which is particularly a city rail- 
way problem. The duty of motors in interurban service, where 
the stops are infrequent and where the question of acceleration 
is not so important, consists principally in overcoming wind, 
journal and track resistance. Here the weight of the cars is 
a secondary consideration. The use of commutating-pole mo- 
tors and of artificial ventilation, however, is equally ad van 
tageous for this class of service, as they offer the means of 
obtaining an equipment of higher efficiency than that given by 
many motors in operation. The qualifications of motors for 
interurban service should be perfect commutation, low arma- 
ture speed, low core loss and moderate cost. 



CAR BUILDING IN 1910 

The statistics of cars ordered during 1910, which are printed 
elsewhere in this issue, indicate that the electric railway car- 
building industry enjoyed a prosperous year. The total num- 
ber of cars ordered was only slightly less than in 1907 and was 
more than twice the number ordered in 1908. The figures for 
1909 were exceeded by 735 cars, the increase being represented 
principally in cars for city service. Some exceptionally large 
single orders for cars were placed. Among them may be 
mentioned 300 cars for the Los Angeles Railway and 150 
cars for the Capital Traction Company of Washington, D. C. 
Nearly all of the Pacific Coast roads made large additions 
to their rolling stock equipment, the orders of six companies 
aggregating 745 passenger cars. The Canadian car builders 
also received some large orders. 

Closed cars are still being built in the largest numbers for 
city service, although the semi-convertible car is coming more 
and more into use as a general service car for both summer 
and winter service. A few years ago street railways operated 
nearly as many open cars as closed cars, changing the trucks 
and electrical equipment every spring and fall. The cost of 
doing this work and the extra storage space required for the 
cars out of service outweigh any advantage of the open car 
from a traffic standpoint and the practice is being discontinued 
by many companies. Only 326 open cars were ordered this 
year, as against 3245 closed, semi-convertible and convertible 
cars. 

The prepayment method of fare collection was introduced in 
the United States only three years ago, but its many advantages 
have led to its rapid adoption in small as well as large cities 
in all parts of the country. Last year 1096 out of 2537 city cars 
ordered were of the prepayment type, while this year 1878 
prepayment cars were ordered out of a total of 3571 city cars. 
Large numbers of old cars have been remodeled fot prepay- 
ment operation. Boston and San Francisco are the latest cities 
of large size to adopt this system for new cars. An interest- 
ing development of the year was the one-man pay-as-you-enter 
car for small roads. Several cars of this type were built for 
use in Southern cities. Passengers enter and ltave by the 
front platform under the inspection of the motorman. No 
difficulty has been experienced in adapting the prepayment 
method in the South to "Jim Crow" cars, in which the white 
and colored passengers are segregated. 



The growth of heavy freight traffic on the interurban roads 
in the Western States has made necessary the purchase of a 
large number of new and second-hand box, flat and gondola 
cars of standard steam railroad types. As the number of these 
cars placed in service increases it will become more imperative 
to standardize the couplers and draft gear of all cars so that 
mixed trains can be operated. For train operation it is equally 
important to standardize the location of brake hose and train 
line jumper sockets. Last fall two disastrous head-on collisions 
between interurban cars demonstrated the necessity of building 
and maintaining all passenger car bodies at the same height 
above the rails so as to prevent as far as possible over-riding 
of one car on the other. 

A few self-propelled gas-motor and storage-battery cars 
were designed and built during 1910. For new interurban roads 
with light traffic the gas-motor car enables operation to be 
begun before the earnings would pay the interest on the in- 
vestment in overhead line and a power house. These cars are 
being constructed in sizes up to 70 ft. long. Marked improve- 
ments in storage batteries for vehicular service have again 
called attention to this type of self-propelled car for lines of 
light traffic. The high rate of acceleration required in a street 
car making frequent stops heretofore has been the principal 
cause of the failure of storage-battery cars owing to the de- 
terioration of the batteries when discharged too rapidly. To 
reduce the load on the battery during the acceleration period as 
much as possible the storage-battery cars which have been tried 
in New # York City and elsewhere have been built with bodies 
and trucks of exceptionally low weight and they have been 
fitted throughout with anti-friction bearings. As a result, the 
power consumption has been reduced to approximately 45 watt- 
hours per ton-mile as compared with about 140 watt-hours per 
ton-mile for an ordinary trolley car. 

The storage-battery cars now in service and many of the 
detail improvements which have contributed to their success- 
ful operation are still in the experimental stage, but they have 
pointed the way toward possible methods for reducing the 
weight and power consumption of all types of cars for city 
service. The tests made in Philadelphia with anti-friction 
motor and journal bearings demonstrated the saving in power 
consumption made by using these devices, and it only remains 
to determine their life in actual service under the usual condi- 
tions of inspection and maintenance. 

The demand for better ventilation and heating of city cars 
has been met by a number of new systems and devices which 
are being widely used. In addition to improvements in auto- 
matic deck sash ventilators, forced-draft and exhaust-fan sys- 
tems have been perfected which create a positive movement of 
fresh air through the car at all times. The Chicago Health De- 
partment, through its comprehensive experiments with car ven- 
tilation systems, has contributed many valuable experimental 
« 

data on the requirements of heating and ventilating apparatus 
and has given a new ifnpetus to improvements in this direction. 
Briefly, the ordinances in Chicago now require that not less than 
400 cu. ft. of fresh air per passenger per hour should be in- 
troduced over heaters near the floor line and exhausted near the 
ceiling. 

For high-speed service the M. C. B. equalized type of truck- 
has been found superior to any other, and the slight modifica- 
tions of the different truck builders consist chiefly in details 
uf frame construction, brake rigging and other parts which do 



4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



nit affect the riding qualities. In the most recent designs of 
trucks particular attention has been paid to maintaining the 
alignment of the frames and provision for wear of the moving 
parts, such as the pedestal jaws and bolsters. It is worthy of 
rote that the standard axle and journal boxes of the American 
Electric Railway Engineering Association are being used on 
nearly all new cars. Solid steel wheels have come into favor 
rapidly, and many of the largest city and interurban railways 
are using them exclusively. Much better cast-iron wheels 
can now be bought than ever before at a price based on mile- 
age which compares favorably with that of steel wheels. Cast- 
steel wheels also are being sold in competition with cast-iron 
and rolled-steel wheels, and their mileage records are said to 
be excellent. 



ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE DESIGN 

One of the most important as well as the most generally her- 
alded advantages of electricity over steam as a motive power 
for railway service is the economy with which the power can 
he subdivided. This permits the economical operation of a large 
number of single car units and allows a large number of the 
axles of a train to be made driving axles. Nevertheless, it is 
noteworthy that the two principal installations made during the 
past year in this country of heavy electric traction equipment, 
that of the Pennsylvania Tunnel & Terminal Company and 
that of the Detroit River Tunnel, are exclusively locomotive, 
and that the most important installation of this character now 
under construction in this country, that of the Hoosac Tunnel, 
is also exclusively locomotive. In these instances it was what 
might be called a subsidiary advantage of electricity that led 
to its adoption, but this condition emphasizes the fact that 
electric locomotive design will continue for some time at least 
to constitute an important part of electric railway engineering. 

\\ hen the subject is more closely considered it will be found 
that the limitations of space and weight on an electric locomo- 
tive have given rise to a wide variety of principles of design. 
Indeed, in the five principal heavy electric traction installations 
recently made the locomotives represent as many different 
types. Thus we have the New York Central d.c. gearless, the 
Xew Haven a.c. quill-mounted gearless, the Pennsylvania d.c. 
s'de-rod gearless, the Detroit Tunnel d.c. horizontally supported 
motor type with twin gearing, represented also by the latest 
B. & O, locomotives, and the Hoosac Tunnel locomotive with 
geared and vertically supported motors. While successful op- 
eration is obtained with all five designs, it would be most inter- 
esting to compare the cost of upkeep of five such dissimilar 
constructions. The two gearless locomotives have now been 
in successful operation for such length of time as to make such 
figures of value. 

The small locomotives first built naturally used the general 
type of motors and methods of suspension employed in street 
railway service. About 1893 and 1894, following the efforts 
made to design a gearless motor for street railways, several 
gearless electric locomotives were built, notably for the Balti- 
more & Ohio Belt Line and for the Central London Under- 
ground Railroad. But there was a reaction in favor of the 
geared and horizontally suspended motor for slow-speed work 
until the motor capacity required exceeded the permissible duty 
which could be placed upon a single pinion. This introduced 
the twin-gear construction of the Great Northern Railroad and 



subsequently those of the Detroit Tunnel and latest B. & O. 
locomotives. In these machines the limit of standard axle mo- 
tor design with horizontal suspension seems to be reached. 
These locomotives, however, provide about all the capacity 
which is required by a single-unit freight locomotive, operating 
at speeds of from 15 m.p.h. to 20 m.p.h., and two such units 
can supply a drawbar pull in excess of the strength of. the 
usual draft gear. Where such locomotives are used exclusively 
for freight service this type of construction is fairly satisfac- 
tory in first cost, operation and maintenance. 

For high-speed passenger service a departure from the street 
railway, or horizontal, geared type of motor appears necessary. 
This is partly because the space available is not sufficient for 
the very much larger capacity of motors required and partly be- 
cause of the necessity of providing better running qualities than 
those afforded by an ordinary heavy bogie truck. In this con- 
nection experience seems to indicate that a leading guiding 
truck is desirable for high-speed locomotives, four wheels being 
preferable to two. There is a wide divergence, however, in 
the designs of the motors used on high-speed electric locomo- 
tives and in the method of transmitting their torque to the 
driving wheels. 

Omitting from consideration the early gearless motors of 
15 years ago, which were supported directly on the axle, the 
first attempt to solve this problem of high speed and large 
capacity was the direct-current locomotive of the New York 
Central Railroad. These locomotives have proved reliable and 
highly efficient in operation and capable of much higher voltages 
than the 650 volts used on the New York Central road. The 
lower speed limit of this type of construction has not yet been 
fully determined, but the simplicity of the design makes it par- 
ticularly attractive for direct-current freight or passenger serv- 
ice, provided the speed is not so low as to make the first cost 
prohibitive. 

Side-rod locomotives have found considerable favor abroad, 
but will be an untried venture in this country until the opera- 
tion of the Pennsylvania locomotives shall have established 
their status. With the entire weight of motors spring-supported 
and equipped with guiding trucks, the side-rod construction 
provides for easy riding qualities, but the dual relations of 
efficiency and weight of locomotives of this type, as compared 
with the efficiency and weight of the high-speed gearless loco- 
motives of either the New York Central or the New Haven 
types, are not yet known. The high center of gravity and the 
inside journals of the side-rod locomotive are patterned after 
steam engine practice, and it is expected that track inequalities 
will cause a rolling movement in this locomotive, rather than 
undesirable nosing. Finally, even when full advantage is taken 
of the better ventilation of the more open construction, made 
possible in the Pennsylvania locomotive by housing the motor 
in the superstructure and fully protecting it from climatic condi- 
tions, it would still seem that the direct side-rod construction is 
necessarily heavy and expensive, owing to the low rotative 
speed of the armature. Still a further step would be the in- 
troduction of gearing as well as side rods. While this might 
appear an undesirable added complication, it undoubtedly would 
result in producing a lighter structure by reason of the higher 
armature speed thus afforded, and it is probable that the com- 
bination of gear and side-rod drive will become a factor in 
future electric locomotive design, both for high-speed passenger 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



and lower-speed freight service. Locomotives of this type, 
built abroad, have been described in the pages of the Electric 
Railway Journal during the past year. 

The design of electric locomotives in which a geared motor 
is supported directly above the axle had its origin in the desire 
to retain the high-speed advantages of the ordinary geared 
motor but to be free of the space limitations which exist when 
a geared motor is carried horizontally between the axles. The 
equipment of the Hoosac Tunnel with this type of locomotives, 
and their operation, will add very much to our knowledge of 
the practical advantages of this plan. 

From the standpoint of service, electric locomotives can be 
divided into three general classes: high-speed passenger, low- 
speed freight and switching locomotives. The multiple-unit 
control is valuable in all three as it provides for double head- 
ing, as required by service conditions. In many instances it 
would be a great operating advantage if a locomotive could 
be so designed as to be used interchangeably for both passenger 
and freight service. In the case of electric locomotives de- 
signed to operate exclusively on heavy mountain grades inter- 
changeability can possibly be secured without too great a pen- 
alty in weight and first cost of the all-around unit. For level 
track operation, however, it is probable that two distinct types 
of locomotives will better serve the dissimilar requirements 
mentioned. 

The experience gained with steam engines should, of course, 
count for much in the design of electric locomotives. A dis- 
tinction should be made, however, between the features em- 
ployed in the steam locomotive because of the requirements of 
the steam equipment and those dictated by the hauling and 
riding qualities of the locomotive. Experience based on the 
latter considerations is limited, owing to the ruling necessity of 
making proper provision for the boiler and firebox. A removal 
of the handicap in a locomotive of providing a coal-burning 
plant means the opening up of new possibilities in design which 
may eventually cause a wide dissimilarity between steam and 
electric locomotive running gear. 

In whatever direction the present development stage of elec- 
tric locomotive design may lead, it has been demonstrated be- 
yond question that the electric locomotive as such has set a 
standard for reliability and low cost of operation hitherto un- 
approached by the steam engine. Last winter's accident on the 
Great Northern Railway, in which all four locomotives were 
swept off the track by a snow slide but later were raised and 
repaired for service at an expenditure of but a few hundred 
dollars each, has done much to establish confidence in this type 
of motive power. Meanwhile, daily evidence of reliability is 
being offered by the electric locomotives handling the entire 
traffic of the three railroads entering New York City. While 
reliability is only one of the assets of the electric locomotive, 
it is perhaps lack of confidence in this respect that has hitherto 
held back its extension to trunk line service. It is, therefore, 
gratifying to have any fears of this nature dispelled by the 
daily records of the electric locomotives in operation. 

It is difficult to tell the direction in which there will be the 
greatest development in electric locomotive operation during 
the coming few years. Up to this time electric locomotives 
have been used almost exclusively on trunk lines for tunnel 
service and on elevated and interurban railways for switching 
service. Their application to pusher service on mountain di- 
visions of steam railroads is yet in the future. 



TRACK PROGRESS IN THE YEAR 1910 



The past year will be notable for the great amount of con- 
structive work which was done, by both the electric railway as- 
sociations and individual companies, toward the attainment of 
higher standards in track construction and maintenance. 
Among the important problems which received fruitful discus- 
sion were corrugation, choice of rail joints, special work, steel 
ties, timber preservation and parked right-of-way in cities. It 
may not be amiss to comment briefly in the following para- 
graphs on some of the work done in connection w^ith each of 
the subjects noted by the way committee of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association and others. 

Rail corrugation theories are more numerous than ever, 
but a rather popular and convenient one at present is that which 
asserts that the corrugations are due to irregularities in molec- 
ular structure caused by the rails being rolled at too low a 
temperature. It will be recalled, however, that tests on the 
hardness of some corrugated rails conducted for the Street 
Railway Journal in 1907 by George L. Fowler, and published 
in the Street Railway Journal of Oct. 5, 1907, did not dis- 
close any difference in hardness in the metal at the crests and 
in the valleys of the corrugations. A more elaborate plan to 
determine whether the rolling mills are at fault is now being 
carried out by the International Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association. Instead of using the drop test on the rails 
after they have become corrugated, as was done by Mr. Fowler, 
new rails will be tested at the mills and will then ,be laid on 
V/2, miles of track with various substructures in Berlin. The 
conditions under which the corrugations begin and continue 
will then be carefully observed. 

The report of the 1910 committee on way matters contained 
a remarkably interesting section on both mechanical and weld- 
ed rail joints. One pertinent suggestion was that the deeper 
types of joint plates should be slightly curved so as to present 
a concave face to the rail web. It is believed that this change 
would give a larger surface contact than the present straight 
joint plates which become convex to the rail web when they 
buckle in service. Special insistence was placed also on the 
necessity of grinding or filing the rail ends to eliminate imper- 
fectly surfaced joints of whatever character. This precaution 
seems obvious, but it is a fact that out of 29 companies which 
were asked about their practice in this respect 15 admitted that 
they did not grind the rail ends to a true surface. In addition 
to several improvements in methods for applying copper 
bonds, the past year also brought some noteworthy betterments 
in the different forms of welded joints. The cast weld joint 
now is made with a water jacket to prevent excessive heating 
of the railhead; the bars of the new electric welded joint are 
provided with center offsets to support the rail head and the 
latest thermit reaction joint gives a weld of the entire rail 
section. The oxy-acetylene process is now being tried here 
and abroad both for rail welding and for attaching joint 
plates, bonds, etc. Like the reaction process, the oxy-acetylene 
method possesses the great advantage of permitting each weld 
to be made, and if need be remade, individually without cum- 
brous apparatus or highly skilled labor. All in all, several 
satisfactory solutions are now available for treating rail joint 
and conductivity problems. Many of the changes noted are 
not so much confessions of previous failures as they are evi- 
dences of healthful emulation among the manufacturers and of 



6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



the desire of the railway companies to secure a design most 
suitable for their particular conditions. 

In special work, practice is still at odds as to solid or insert 
lay-outs, although the former are favored for heavy traffic. 
Valuable help was given to the 1910 committee on way matters 
by the special work manufacturers in the standardization of 
switch pieces as to lengths and radii, and also in the standardi- 
zation of mates and frogs. It is pertinent to point out to those 
who lay too much stress on "local conditions" that the lead in 
this field has been taken by a company which probably has more 
variations throughout its city and country divisions than any 
other electric railway in existence. Considering the advantages 
of standardization in first cost, maintenance and stock keeping, 
there seems little reason why city railways should go to the 
trouble and expense of using spiraled switches. 

The steel tie has made considerable headway during the 
past year in concrete street railway construction, for which it 
appears to be most suitable. Improvements have been made 
in the form of clips used to join the rails and the ties. A 
steel tie at $2 for an assumed life of 30 years costs about 
twice as much as a preserved wooden tie of practically equal 
durability. Its economy, therefore, is due largely to the fact 
that a smaller number is required per mile. The spacing of steel 
ties, however, is still involved in uncertainty, for some com- 
panies install them at 3-ft. centers and others set them even as 
far apart as 7 ft. 6 in. It is highly desirable, therefore, that the 
problems involved in the proper spacing of steel ties should 
be worked out on a scientific basis for different classes of sub- 
structures so that cost comparisons with wooden ties can be 
made more accurately. Although the steel tie is naturally a 
part of a concrete track, engineers who have had experience 
with it believe that some changes should be made in its shape 
to permit it to be taken out of the concrete at little cost when 
such removal is necessary during periods of reconstruction. 
The steel tie is not so desirable in paved streets with stone- 
ballasted track because the amount of tamping required dur- 
ing the first year of installation leads to a frequent and ex- 
pensive disturbance of the pavement. 

The question of the preservation of the wooden ties is be- 
coming more acute from year to year despite the introduction 
of the steel tie. In a few years it will be considered foolhardy 
.to install untreated ties under any conditions. Only two large 
electric railways in this country have practised tie preservation 
long enough to ui derstand from experience its real merits. 
One of these companies uses a permeative and the other a super- 
ficial preservative. The experiences of these companies have 
been very favorable, but they do not cover a sufficient variety 
of geographical conditions of treatments and of timbers to 
serve as sole criterions for other railways. Exact data are 
sorely needed on the comparative value of the numerous pre- 
servatives now on the market. This subject might well be 
taken up by a sub-committee on way matters, working in har- 
mony with a similar committee of the American Railway En- 
gineering and Maintenance of Way Association, with repre- 
sentatives of the Bureau of Forestry, and with the experts of 
the manufacturers of wood preservatives. In such an in- 
vestigation particular attention should be given to special 
treatments for ties buried in rock ballast or incased in concrete 
'under street paving. The merits of tie plates and screw spikes 
in lengthening the usefulness of superficially preserved ties 
should also form a part of this study. An excellent basis for 



work of this kind, with reference to city conditions, would be 
afforded by the chapter on chemical treatment of ties published 
in the second annual report of the Board of Supervising En- 
gineers, Chicago Traction. The same report also contained a 
valuable study of problems relating to track deflections and 
materials in connection with different classes of track and 
roadways. These data included analyses of manganese steel 
special work and figures on the comparative holding power of 
track and screw spikes in different kinds of wood. 

Electric railways, both here and abroad, are beginning to agi- 
tate more strongly for right-of-way operation through sodded 
or parked sections of wide city streets. Because of the noise- 
less and faster service thus made possible, this innovation has 
met with the strong approval of the public in those cities 
in this country and abroad where it has been introduced. It 
is needless to add that the street railways are even more 
pleased, since their track maintenance cost has been reduced to 
a minimum while paving expenses and wagon obstructions are 
simply unpleasant memories. The problem of adequate city trans- 
portation is so intimately intertwined with the construction of 
wide roadways that American street railways would do wisely 
to discuss city right-of-way operation with their municipalities 
whenever the opportunity presents itself, either in existing or 
proposed wide streets. 



POWER STATION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 

Recent power station construction has for its most noticeable 
feature the simplification of design by the use of larger units, 
particularly the larger sizes of steam turbines. The ordinary 
electric road, which at the present time generates its power by 
three-phase turbo-generators, transmits it to substations, whence 
it is delivered to the working conductor as direct current. For 
an equipment of this kind the large turbo-generators now avail- 
able are quite ideal, being extremely simple and reliable and 
lending themselves to a very convenient and compact power 
house design. Hence one recent power station differs from an- 
other chiefly in the number and size of the units employed. It is 
greatly to be regretted, however, that the direct-current turbine 
has not found its way into greater favor than it has. It is 
very easy to write eulogistic papers regarding the beauty and 
simplicity of the standard equipment of three-phase generators 
and synchronous converters, yet every station operator knows 
perfectly well that the losses in the system, however well de- 
signed, are large and the possibilities of breakdown materially 
increased owing to the necessary complication of apparatus 
of this character. 

The switchboard of a recent turbo-generator station is a struc- 
ture of fearful and wonderful complexity, and its cost is a very 
material fraction of the total cost of the plant. Every railway 
man knows in his heart that if he could get big direct-current 
turbo-generators comparable in efficiency and reliability with 
the big direct-connected engine-driven railway generators he 
would be very glad to supply from them the major part of 
the current used on his railway lines, always excepting of 
course, the purely interurban ones. Undoubtedly the smaller 
capacities of direct-current turbines are even now in a state 
of pretty fair development, but much yet remains to be done 
along this line. Recent advances in the commutating-pole 
type of construction have brought improvement and are 
likely to bring more until there will be no hesitation in using 



January 7, 1911.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



7 



such machines, which are already in successful use in a few 
places, for the central territory of a road of considerable size. 
There is no reason, except the absence of suitable direct-current 
turbo-generators, why power should be generated as alternating 
current at one end of a good-sized power station and trans- 
formed through costly machines at the other end of the station 
to serve the immediately surrounding territory. 

One of the directions in which power-station design has ad- 
vanced is in the combination of low-pressure turbines with re- 
ciprocating engines. This process virtually provides another 
stage of expansion with its resulting economies, without adding 
anything more than electrical linkage to the rest of the machine. 
And it may be pertinent to suggest here that such a combina- 
tion meets in part the objection which has just been raised to 
some current power-station practice, because it is a perfectly 
simple matter to supply the center of a railway network with 
energy by feeding direct current to it from the engine-driven 
generators while the low-pressure turbines take care of the 
outlying lines, through the converters at the substations. At 
all events the low-pressure turbine furnishes an admirable 
means of increasing the output and efficiency of existing sta- 
tions whether the original generators are for direct or three- 
phase current. 

Aside from these considerations in generating practice the 
most important subject before the railway power station super- 
intendent is the fuel question. The price of fuel has its ups 
and downs, but the ups are more frequent and permanent than 
the downs, so that, by and large, the fuel problem is steadily 
growing in seriousness. The key to the situation unquestionably 
lies at the furnace. No fact is a more commonplace matter 
of knowledge than that the cost of fuel is not in direct pro- 
portion to its heating capacity. The high-grade coals cost dis- 
proportionately more than the low-grade coals, because any 
sort of firing will yield passable results in almost any kind 
of furnace with the former and consequently they are in the 
greatest demand. Researches in the last year or two have made 
it certain that even the meanest low-grade bituminous coals 
can give first-class economical results if they are properly 
fired in suitable furnaces. 

The electrical part of the station equipment is, on the whole, 
in extremely good condition with the exception already noted. 
The apparatus is reliable, efficient and easily handled. The 
same is true of the prime movers. The boilers and automatic 
stokers are reliable enough, but in too many instances they are 
anything but efficient. Inability to utilize fuel of low cost for 
its thermal value is the weakest point in modern power 
generation. 

As regards the distribution of power for railway purposes 
the present standard practice is structurally good; that is to 
say, when transmission is undertaken it is generally at con- 
servative voltages and utilizes sound and conservative line con- 
struction. Only in a few instances does a railway system cover 
territory extensive enough to warrant using high voltages, 
and by this term we mean high in the sense defined by Profes- 
sor Baum half a dozen years ago, when he cheerfully classified 
as of moderate voltage anything below 30,000 volts. Railway 
transmission practice, however, differs from that of ordinary 
hydroelectric systems in that it often involves considerable 
amounts of power and the lines have to be constructed largely 
along frequented ways. The overhead construction, therefore, 



must be adapted to carrying fairly heavy copper and must be 
to the last degree secure and reliable. 

Recent practice in transmission work is tending considerably 
toward steel pole lines, generally of the tower type, but in the 
conditions met in transmission for railway purposes tower 
construction is usually unnecessary and some very successful 
examples of latticed poles have been installed within the last 
year or two. In such cases there is a good deal to be said 
for the beautiful "A" type of pole, used by some of the Italian 
engineers, which gives sufficient longitudinal flexibility to re- 
lieve extraordinary strains upon the line. In the same con- 
nection a good word should be said for the suspension insulator 
which is now beginning to be used for moderate voltages 
as well as for extreme voltages. A transmission line carried 
by suspension insulators on a not too rigid steel pole line is 
about as reliable an overhead structure as could well be im- 
agined and is very well adapted to secure protection from 
lightning when equipped with a guard wire grounded at every 
pole. There is an increasing tendency to require railway com- 
panies to put their lines underground, a demand which has its 
origin in a certain distrust of overhead circuits as well as in a 
desire to get them out of sight. But so long as the trolley 
wire remains overhead there is little reason for objecting to the 
feeders also being overhead, and by proper construction the 
overhead line can be made fully reliable. 

The great moot point of electric railroading — that is, alternat- 
ing current versus direct current in the motors — still remains 
undecided. Some excellent examples of direct-current high- 
tension roads of 1200 volts or more have been described in our 
columns. But voltages like this, however desirable for long-dis- 
tance interurban service, have merely palliated matters and have 
left the main problem of heavy work still unsettled. So far as 
we have observed, the advocates of both systems of working 
listen more patiently than formerly to each other's arguments, 
but still remain unconvinced. Even the lengthy discussion of the 
matter at the Berne Congress during the past summer left in 
the mind of the reader little except an earnest desire to find 
some seer able to separate the facts from the hypotheses on both 
sides of the argument. Meanwhile both systems are practically 
doing well, so that the argument from experience is of but 
small assistance to the dubious. Perhaps the only class really 
grateful for this uncertain state of affairs is composed of the 
steam railroad magnates, who find therein an excellent reason 
for doubt and hesitation when confronted by demands for elec- 
trification. 

The quite ideal system in which long sections of road are sup- 
plied at high voltage from a single trolley wire without feeders 
has not yet been materialized by either party to the dispute. 
Until this is accomplished distribution for the larger work 
of railways is still to be deemed among those desiderata whose 
substance is hoped for but whose evidence is not yet seen. 
One shudders at the thought of keeping 1000 miles of third-- 
rail system between New York and Chicago clear during an 
average winter, and if he takes the other horn of the dilemma 
and visualizes the overhead system of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad along the same far vista, lie will 
derive little comfort from its contemplation. Aside from the 
commonplaces of ordinary interurban electric railway service, 
the distribution problem in its relation to the motor service still 
remains a riddle. 



8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



RAIL SECTIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

The extremely important subject of specifications for the 
composition and rolling of rails was among the foremost ques- 
tions discussed and acted upon during the past year, and its 
treatment by the committee on way matters of the American 
Electric Railway Engineering Association was marked by a 
clear understanding of the essential differences between street 
railway and steam railroad requirements. The approved 1910 
report of this committee recommended for electric railway open- 
hearth girder and high T-rails a steel containing at least 0.60 per 
cent carbon, a desired average of 0.68 per cent carbon and a 
maximum of 0.75 per cent carbon. In this composition the phos- 
phorus was not to exceed 0.04 per cent. The original draft of 
this committee's report called also for a higher grade composi- 
tion in which the corresponding minimum, desired and maxi- 
mum carbon amounts were 0.72 per cent. 0.77 per cent and 0.85 
per cent, while the phosphorus was set at the low mark of 0.03 
per cent. This higher grade composition was not recommended 
in the final report, however, because of the manufacturers' re- 
fusal to roll a high-carbon, low-phosphorus rail at standard 
prices. The tendency toward higher carbon content in street 
railway rails is illustrated in the case of the Metropolitan Street 
Railway, New York, which has changed over from a respective 
minimum and maximum of 0.45 per cent and 0.55 per cent to 0.65 
per cent and 0.80 per cent. The latest open-hearth rails for the 
subway service of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. 
New York, also show an increase in carbon content, as the per- 
missible limits have been changed to read "0.75 per cent to 0.90 
per cent" in place of "0.70 per cent to 0.85 per cent." Since 
no other electric railway in the world must cope with such 
traffic as the New York subway, the rails used for this service 
are mentioned only to prove that the committee on way matters 
was not demanding an impossibility when it suggested an open- 
hearth rail with an upper limit of 0.85 per cent carbon whether 
for T or girder rails. It is to be hoped that during the coming 
year many railways will order their rails in harmony with the 
committee's specifications, so that the merits of the proposed 
standard composition and tests will receive a fair trial. 

The standardization of girder rail sections has not made 
much progress despite the concrete suggestions contained in 
the 1907 and 1909 reports of the committee on way matters. A 
settlement of this problem is of the greatest importance to city 
railways, but we fear that much good committee work will be 
lost unless recommended standards. can be brought more directly 
to the attention of member companies and others than is now 
the case. First of all, an earnest endeavor should be made to 
select the standards from the enormous variety already ex- 
tant. Secondly, if entirely new sections are considered a neces- 
sity it is only fair that the rail makers should have some as- 
surance that enough companies will adopt them as standard 
to justify the design and construction of the new rolls required. 
In this question of standard rail sections the United States 
has lagged behind both England and Germany. The excuse is 
usually made that the choice of section is dependent upon the 
city engineer and the local authorities rather than upon the 
railway company. Surely local authority is supposed to be 
as strong abroad as here, yet, by a vigorous effort in which 
in Great Britain the railway companies were supported by the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, the railway associations and 
other national organizations, practical standardization has been 



reached. In Great Britain the five standard rails for tan- 
gents weigh respectively 90 lb., 95 lb., 100 lb., 105 lb. and 110 
lb. per yard, and the corresponding curved rails 6 lb. more 
per yard. The German standard city rails for tangents weigh 
respectively 85 lb., 98 lb., 112 lb. and 115 lb. per yard, and the 
corresponding curved rails 5 lb. to 6 lb. more per yard. 
The new German standards have been made effective by a 
system of co-operation with the rail makers whereby the penalty 
of higher cost is suffered by those few companies which insist 
upon something special. It is greatly to be desired that not only 
shall the 191 1 committee on way matters select acceptable stand- 
ards but that the parent association shall also devise some 
method to make the recommendations enforceable. A viva voce 
vote at the convention or even a tacit approval by a letter ballot 
is a long way from the actual adoption of the standard as certi- 
fied by the requisition of the purchasing agent. 



REGULATIVE LEGISLATION IN 1910 

The strongly defined tendency toward further extension of 
governmental control over the electric railways which marked 
the early part of 1910 appears to have undergone some change. 
This is indicated by the political events of the year and by a 
moderation of public policy which may be temporary or may 
prove to be permanent. At the beginning of the year the trend 
of public opinion throughout the country appeared to be def- 
initely in favor of an extension of the national policy of regu- 
lation. This was naturally reflected in various movements in 
States where the Legislatures were in session. 

The most important steps taken in the assumption of larger 
authority were those of the Congress of the United States. 
These, because of their application only where interstate com- 
merce is concerned, affect only remotely most of the electric 
railways of the country. In so far, however, as they represent 
the crystallization of the sentiment of all sections on a subject 
which is really the control of State corporations that happen to 
be engaged in interstate commerce they represent a sentiment 
that may easily drift in its application from the greater national 
problems to those of more purely State or local importance. 

It was pointed out by the committee on interstate commerce 
commission affairs in the report presented at the last conven- 
tion of the American Electric Railway Association that of 74 
bills relating to interstate commerce which were presented dur- 
ing the first and second sessions of the Sixty-first Congress of 
the United States but four became law. The most important 
of these was the act which created the commerce court and 
amended further the interstate commerce act. 

A section of this act which is of potential importance is that 
which authorized the President to appoint a commission to in- 
vestigate questions pertaining to the issue of stocks and bonds 
by railroad corporations. This was a more temperate treatment 
of the subject than that which was proposed in some of the bills 
introduced in Congress in reference to this matter. The 
scope of the inquiry upon which this commission has entered 
is indicated by the preliminary hearings. The commission is 
taking testimony from eminent bankers, lawyers and corporation 
representatives and public officials of the country. The opinions 
which it solicits touch not only the expediency of the regulation 
of securities by the United States government but also the sub- 
ject of the power of Congress in this matter. 

In the ultimate disposition of the questions involved, if final 



Jan uary 7, 191 1. 

decision is to be made, the position of outstanding securities as 
well as the terms on which new issues are to be made must 
receive consideration. When the investigation shall have been 
concluded and the report placed before the country there will 
be an opportunity to pass upon the conclusions of the com- 
mission. It should be remembered that the commission was 
appointed in pursuance of the policy of the party in power 
to enlarge to an almost unlimited extent its control over rail- 
roads engaged in interstate commerce. As that party did not 
meet with the same favor at the hands of the people at the 
elections in November that it had enjoyed theretofore, some of 
the issues which it has raised will be settled by others whose 
real views and strength can scarcely lie judged accurately and 
in full so far in advance as this. 

There is one other reason why we refer thus at length to 
the additions made by Congress to the act to regulate com- 
merce. Because of the obstructive policy of the government 
the increases in rates desired by the steam railroads have been 
held in abeyance pending determination as to their reason- 
ableness. These increases were designed to offset in part the 
larger expenses to which the companies have been put by ad- 
vances in the rates of wages of employees. If allowed, thej 
will be a forceful argument for the electric railway companies 
which are in a position to make or seek higher rates of fare 
In an editorial published in our issue of May 7, 1910, we pointed 
to the moral effect of the salutary object lesson which was 
afforded by the movement for advances in steam railroad rates. 
This effect will not lie diminished but will rather be enhanced 
if the increases pass the tests imposed by the legislation of 1910. 

In the various States less legislation designed to create or 
extend commission control over electric railways was enacted 
than was threatened. The State of New York amplified and 
made clear some of the provisions of the public service com- 
missions law which relate to street railroads. In New Jersey 
a law was passed and became effective which enlarged the 
powers of the Railroad Commission, extending jurisdiction 
over other classes of public utilities. Through the passage 
of a law similar to the original law creating the New York- 
commissions the State of Maryland created a public service 
commission. 

Xo one less than an inspired prophet could predict the ulti- 
mate results of the sessions of Legislatures, but the question- 
ing attitude which the public has assumed toward the na- 
tional policies of the party in power and the surprising victories 
of the Democratic party point to change. 

The year 1910 closed therefore with regulative policies in 
less definite shape than they held twelve months ago. That 
there will be a gradual extension of the policy of regulation 
through the creation of new commissions is a probability which 
is made stronger by the expressions of feeling in various parts 
of the country against the "new nationalism" and in favor of 
a vigorous assertion of State rights. But the powers given by 
new regulative laws should be limited and made reasonable if 
the companies concerned present their needs. Where there is 
to be legislation, reasonable laws and men who will enforce 
them in a reasonable way are the essential requirements for 
success. Both the proponent of radical restrictive legislation 
and the corporation official who resents any suggestion or in- 
atiirj from the public as an intrusion should give way to legis- 
lation which will lead to co-operation and a recognition that 
each, interest has rights which the other is bound to respect. 



9 

THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY SITUATION IN 1910 

The electric railway situation was affected during 1910 by 
an unusual number of influences of a political and business 
nature, national, State and local. The results of operations 
and the present outlook, therefore, vary to an unusual ex- 
tent with the companies throughout the country. So far as 
we can judge from a number of individual experiences, the 
grand totals of gross traffic and gross revenues of all com- 
panies, if available, would show substantially the same aver- 
age increases which, under all circumstances but those of 
extraordinary depression, continue, as a rule, to be made 
from year to year by local public utility corporations of all 
classes. Gross earnings of electric railways increase when 
the total business of the country increases. It is the ex- 
perience of most companies that gross earnings decrease to 
a very small extent or remain on about a level with the 
previous year when the gross volume of general business de- 
creases. Changes are very rarely as sudden or sharp, how- 
ever, as with other industries. 

The general business of electric railways, their financial 
condition and their plans for future expansion are still to 
an extent under the pall of the panic of 1907, from which the 
country as a whole has not yet entirely recovered. The 
slower development of the industry is due in part to the 
banking and investment attitude of the country, which has 
consistently operated to produce a policy of conservatism and 
to restrict expansion. The situation has not been wholly 
favorable for either temporary or permanent financing by es- 
tablished companies, and it has been still less encouraging 
for new enterprises. 

When electric railways borrow on short-time notes they 
usually do so in anticipation of the sale of long-time se- 
curities with whose proceeds they redeem the short-time ob- 
ligations. The bond market in 1910 was poor. As the public 
did not buy securities freely, the bankers, who are the whole- 
sale purchasers, were not willing to buy freely. It was a ques- 
tion more of unreceptive markets than of prices. Electric rail- 
way securities are not ordinarily subject to the same extremes 
of market fluctuation as the great steam railroad and corpora- 
tion issues, which have had a year of depression and unsatis- 
factory salability on the New York Stock Exchange. This re- 
deeming fact is due in part to better sustained gross earning 
power, although it is true that issues of stocks and bonds of in- 
dividual electric railway companies are not sufficiently large to 
facilitate trading in heavy or frequent volume. 

The influences that determine the state of the invesment 
market from year to year were complicated in 1910 by the de- 
mand for money throughout the civilized world and by the 
public utilities legislation pending and threatened by the na- 
tional and the various State governments. A policy of financ- 
ing by the sale of preferred stock, instead of bonds, has been 
followed by some companies with distinct success. While 
this tends to make the net cost of the capital higher, it is 
permanent financing, the necessity of refunding in the fu- 
ture is avoided, and it has the additional advantage of substi- 
tution of a voluntary dividend payment for a fixed interest 
charge. Curtailment of fixed charges may prevent receiver- 
ship in the event of a prolonged period of business distress. 
While the more general issue of stock instead of bonds is to 
be recommended as a wise protective measure, the record of 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



IO 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



electric railways in this respect compares favorably with that 
of the steam roads. The 1907 census report showed that of 
the total outstanding capital of street and electric railways 
(operating and lessor companies) 44.43 per cent was repre- 
sented by funded debt. The corresponding percentage for steam 
railways, as shown by the Interstate Commerce Commission re- 
port for the same year, was 54.25. 

More widespread and severe effects from the depression 
that followed quickly after the panic of 1907 were felt by 
electric railways located in some of the mining and indus- 
trial regions of Pennsylvania than by the companies engaged 
in this business in any other general section of the country 
The chief industries in Pennsylvania districts thus affected 
are mining and the manufacture of iron and steel products 
and coke. Early in 1908 some of the electric railways in 
these regions showed reductions of gross earnings as com- 
pared with the corresponding period of the previous year, 
which amounted for a time, although a very brief time, to as 
much as 40 per cent or 45 per cent. Recovery has been slower 
in these districts than in other sections, but 1910 showed ma- 
terial improvement. In some parts of the country continued 
development has caused an increase of gross earnings where 
there was a sharp reduction in 1908. However, the experi- 
ences of individual companies have been so varied that in at- 
tempting a review of the entire situation we are justified only 
in pointing to the records of certain groups of representa- 
tive companies under common control, which showed fair 
general increases until October or November, when the re- 
cession in business began to produce some decreases which 
lessened the previous satisfactory gains. 

As a result of continued higher costs of labor and ma- 
terials, operating expenses rose still further during the year. 
The same difficulties of securing competent, dependable men 
at the established scales of wages were experienced as in 
more prosperous years, although in a less accentuated de- 
gree. The maintenance policy of the companies shows as 
great diversity as any other feature of their operations. Many 
roads which were obliged to meet higher transportation ex- 
penses reduced their expenditures for maintenance in order to 
keep a balance. As the rate of fare on city lines is almost 
universally inflexible under the terms of franchise contracts, 
only a few urban companies have been able to recoup them- 
selves by increases in the fare unit. On interurban lines many 
readjustments and increases have been made. Distinct im- 
provement in the average results per passenger carried has 
been effected in a number of cities by a comprehensive re- 
arrangement of the system of free transfers. By elimination 
of the illegal and unwarranted use of transfer privileges some 
unnecessary riding has been stopped and various forms of 
gross abuse have been ended. 

The unadaptability of the short-term franchise to the real 
needs of the community lias been emphasized by the ex- 
perience of the companies which furnish the urban railway 
service in Cleveland, Detroit and Toledo. No plan of con- 
tract which jeopardizes, either in theory or in fact, the enor- 
mous capital investment that is required to produce a satis- 
factory system of transportation for a developing city is 
entitled to acceptance as in the true public interest. When 
the date of expiration of such contracts is near financing be- 
comes difficult and the disappointed holders of securities sell 
at a sacrifice. The lessons of the year point with new force 



to the reasonableness of unlimited franchises of the char- 
acter of those granted in the States of Massachusetts and 
New York. 

As the new year opens the situation is complicated by the 
political changes which the elections of November have brought 
throughout the country. What effect these new forces will 
produce on the conditions governing business and on the 
great problem of the national election of 1912 only time will 
show. Business hopes for early decisions in the trust cases 
before the United States Supreme Court and in the steam 
railroad rate cases in which testimony has been presented be- 
fore the Interstate Commerce Commission. Freedom from 
general unrest in business will help all industries and thus 
promote the development of electric railways. Projects in- 
volving enormous outlays of capital in Boston and New 
York will progress further during the coming year, and in 
other large cities of the country definite or tentative steps 
toward the creation of greater transit facilities will be taken. 
These will involve, we believe, greater capital requirements 
than the additions and betterments of 1910. 

The greater conservatism which marks the status of the elec- 
tric railway situation at the turn of the year affords a whole- 
some opportunity for the companies to consider the weak- 
nesses and the strength of their position. Weaknesses lie in 
franchise conditions, public relations, loose transfer regula- 
tions, extensions built because of over-enthusiasm, the need of 
better trainmen and the constant demands for more and better 
facilities and, in spite of all that may be given, the equally in- 
sistent demands for lower fares and longer hauls. Strength 
lies in the provision of a service which is one of the most 
necessary conveniences of life. The electric railway company 
and the community are interdependent. 



THE INTERURBAN RULES SITUATION 

Practically all of the members of the American Electric Rail- 
way Association are anxious for that body to designate as 
standard a new code of rules for interurban electric train 
operation. Such a code should be of such general applicability 
that it could be, used as a foundation on which every inter- 
urban company can formulate a set of rules suitable for its 
local conditions. One of the committees of the Transportation 
& Traffic Association now lias this work in hand, but it has not 
yet met, so that its program during 191 1 cannot definitely be 
announced. The executive committee and the association as 
assembled at Atlantic City outlined certain work for this new 
committee. These assignments included the following: 

To confer with the American Railway Association and at- 
tempt to adjust discrepancies between the A. R. A. code and 
the 1910 T. & T. code. 

To confer with the city rules committee and adjust conflicts 
with the standard city rules. 

To take under consideration the extent to which prepay- 
ment service will affect any set of interurban rules. 

To ascertain what action has been or probably will be taken 
in the near future by national or State commissions regard- 
ing interurban rules. 

It is not our understanding that the Transportation & 
Traffic Association at the Atlantic City convention last fall 
voted either its approval or its disapproval of the code pre- 
sented by the 1910 committee. Rather, it recommended that 



January 7, 191 1 .] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



11 



the rules committee study the interurban rules situation for 
another year and present its suggestions. It can continue to 
work along the lines followed by the 1910 committee or not, 
whichever plan it thinks will best meet the requirements of a 
majority of the interurban railway companies which are mem- 
bers of the association. The rules committees in the past have 
repeatedly urged the member companies to state these require- 
ments with definiteness. Nevertheless there has been a paucity 
of both information as to existing conditions and expressed 
opinion as to the proper rules. It is sincerly to be hoped that 
the roads will assist the rules committee during the coming 
year in this respect better than in the past. It is very necessary 
that only such a code be adopted for general use as seems to 
fulfil the requirements after diversified opinions and criticisms 
have been expressed in a country-wide discussion. We think 
we are safe in saying that the chairman of the rules committee 
is anxious to receive letters on the subject, and, as is quite 
generally known, the columns of this paper are always open 
for expressions of opinion on any subject of such general 
welfare as that of improved interurban rules. 

Unless preliminary thought is given to the rules situation by 
others than the members of the committee, the real purpose of 
the appointment of the rules committee will not be accom- 
plished. When the subject is under discussion in convention 
the tendency of those who have not followed the work of the 
committee previous to the convention is to explain why the 
rules do not fit their local situations. Thus time is wasted and 
the subject, as at Atlantic City, is tabled for another year. 

Should this year's committee decide to take the 1910 code as 
a basis for its work and then be able to formulate its recom- 
mendations and publish them as early as June, ample time 
would be allowed for its revision by the committee previous to 
the presentation of the report in the fall. If this is done de- 
cisive action should be expected at that time. 

The foregoing remarks indicate the situation which confronts 
the present rules committee. No committee, even though com- 
posed of men carefully chosen to represent the best ideas and 
practices of all sections of the country, can formulate a code 
of rules which will be found acceptable in their entirety to all 
companies. In electric railway train service, as in any other 
specialized business, the individuality of the man in charge is 
prominently reflected. The superintendent of an interurban 
road in the East, for instance, has to deal with a certain kind 
of employees and operating conditions and if he has been fol- 
lowing certain methods successfully he will naturally think 
that no others will meet his local conditions. A similar proce- 
dure will be followed by the man in the West. Each will be- 
lieve that his methods are the best which he can use and will 
object to a code of rules not in accord with his practice. This 
parallel between the Eastern and the Western man might just as 
well have been drawn between the man who has been brought 
up in the interurban school and the graduate of the steam- 
railroad school. One feels that the steam code will not suffice 
for his service and the other holds similar ideas about the 
interurban code. Numerous examples of men holding the con- 
trary views just presented can be found among the member 
companies of the association, and so the difficulty of obtaining 
a code which will meet the views of the operators of all 
roads grows. 

This - rules situation is similar to that which confronted 



the standardization committee of the Engineering Association. 
This committee at first attempted to design or select certain car 
parts of such dimensions as would most nearly meet the aver- 
age conditions as they existed. Later the committee realized 
that the subject in hand had a broader aspect than that of 
choosing compromise designs. Then the committee resolved 
itself into a body of designing engineers. During the last few 
years this committee, in connection with the committees on spe- 
cial topics of the Engineering Association, has originated de- 
signs which are intended as models for the future rather than 
as adjustments for the present. It has been the idea to place 
before the association designs toward which the companies 
might work, and when car parts conforming to these designs 
could be introduced on a road vast benefits to be obtained from 
standardization would be realized. Briefly, the committee has 
given up the idea of restricting its recommended practices to 
those which might at once be adopted on the average road. In 
contrast, it has undertaken to present correct, and one might 
say almost ideal, designs toward which the roads should work. 

Whether or not the interurban rules committee can pursue 
similar methods is doubtful. Nevertheless, we feel that the men 
chosen to represent the association on the rules committee have 
been and are of such high quality as operators that the asso- 
ciation as a body should place upon them the responsibility of 
deciding upon all details and could safely confine its discussions 
at conventions to the general principles involved in the rules 
which the committee recommends. In this way only can the 
association get a well-thought-out code which can safely be 
used by any company as the foundation for a set of rules to 
serve for any particular road. 

The need for standardization of rules hardlycalls for repeti- 
tion at this time, since it has been presented in these columns 
many times. Probably the prime reason that has actuated the 
standard rules movement has been the desire for increased 
safety. It is well known that a trainman operating under one 
set of rules may by a sudden mental reversion to a contrary 
practice formerly allowed endanger the safety of his passen- 
gers. Such an act would hardly be called carelessness. It is 
rather a weakness of the mind which is known often to exist 
and must be guarded against in every possible way. A most 
effective precaution against this danger is uniformity in rules 
and in train operating practice. It is noteworthy, in this con- 
nection, that the several regrettable accidents of this fall were 
not caused by a misinterpretation of the rules. 

The three more important features to be held in mind when 
considering the choice of a code of interurban rules are in the 
order of their importance: (1) Does it supply the necessary 
degree of safety? (2) Are the rules sufficiently plain for 
prompt assimilation by a trainman? (3) Will the code facili- 
tate the economical performance of train service? 

These are the objects sought, and these purposes should not 
only direct the work of the rules committee, but should also 
control the criticism of the conclusions reached by the commit- 
tee. Finally, we bespeak for the committee the most cordial 
co operation on the part of other managers. Theirs is a most 
difficult task. It involves a reconciliation of many diverse 
views, yet we feel that it is not impossible of accomplishment 
if each person interested will approach the subject in a broad- 
minded way and bring to its solution as much careful consid- 
eration as if he personally were a member of the committee. If 



12 ELECTRIC RAH 

this plan is followed at least a satisfactory start will be made 
this year upon the general adoption of a standard set of inter- 
urban rules. 

ASSOCIATION WORK 

Five years have passed since the American Street Railway 
Association was reorganized in Philadelphia. This is a suffi- 
cient length of time in which to judge the success or non- 
success of the principles then adopted. The general plan of 
organization was patterned largely after that of certain existing 
associations, particularly that of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science. Nevertheless, it was largely ex- 
perimental and depended for its success upon the co-opera- 
tion of a widely distributed membership, bound together more 
by common interest in the advancement of the art than by 
commercial ties. It is not too much to say that the progress 
made during the past five years has been far greater than 
many of those instrumental in the reorganization in Philadel- 
phia in 1905 anticipated and that it has realized the best 
hopes of those who were sanguine of its success. Although a 
considerable increase was made in the annual dues required of 
member-companies, the growth of the association in number 
of members has been continuous since 1905. In work accom- 
plished the development has been even greater, as a survey of 
the printed proceedings of the association for the past five 
years will show. Since the association is now beginning its 
second half decade of existence and has adopted a new name 
more in consonance with the held which it covers, the present 
seems a suitable time to discuss briefly its past work and future 
problems. In dying so the logical plan is first to review what 
questions have been solved as a result of the experience of the 
last live years and then to consider what remains to be done. 

Chief among those questions which seem to have been settled 
satisfactorily is that of general administration. The plan of a 
central organization, represented by the permanent office of all 
.five associations, gives a stability which was not possessed by 
the old organization, and the secretary's office has proved not 
only desirable for many of the committee meetings, but also 
efficient in collecting and distributing data of various kinds. 
The autonomous organization of the affiliated associations, 
with their numerous committees, gives wide opportunity for 
individual initiative and preferment while assuring co-ordinated 
and well directed work by the different organizations. No 
conflict in regard to spheres of work has occurred between 
the affiliated bodies, although several subjects have been taken 
up in common. Of these there will doubtless be more as time 
goes on. Thus far there have been only two joint sessions and 
these have been held by the Accountants' Association and the 
Engineering Association, although joint committees have met 
on other occasions. Again there has been no lack of subjects. 
The difficulty up to this time has not been in finding subjects 
to consider, but in finding time to discuss them. 

The financial condition of the association is equally satisfac- 
tory. The last report of the treasurer shows a surplus of 
about $5,000. This gives a slight margin for increasing the 
efficiency of the association. The total budget, it might be 
added, is less than that of organizations with whose work that 
of the association is most nearly allied. 

Tn looking toward the future the principal question to be 
solved is that of increasing the membership, both active and 



VAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXVII. No. 1. 

associate. The membership list of the association is 'now well 
representative of the country, but it still falls short in number 
of what it should be when the value of the work done by the 
association to the industry at large as well as to individual 
roads is considered. On Dec. 31, 1910, the percentage of com- 
panies in the United States and Canada which were members 
of the association was only a little over 27 per cent, and the 
proportion of electric railway mileage represented in the asso- 
ciation as compared with that in the entire country was 64 per 
cent. The statistics on the mileage basis for the groups of 
States were as follows : In New England 68 per cent of the 
total electric railway mileage belongs to companies which are 
members of the association ; in the Eastern States the per- 
centage is 55; in the Central States it is 67; in the Southern 
States it is 72, and in the Western States it is again 67. These 
figures show that the same ratio holds remarkably closely in 
most parts of the country, but also that there is still opportunity 
for strong missionary work. It might be interesting to add 
in this connection that 288 different electric railway companies 
had representatives present at the last Atlantic City conven- 
tion and that last year 204 men were engaged in committee 
work in addition to those on the active and associate member- 
ship committees. 

It is useless to expect that every company in the country 
will become a member of the association. There will be a 
percentage in every State to which, either because the road 
is in the hands of a receiver or from some other cause which 
is controlling, membership seems impracticable. The only thing 
to do in cases of this kind is to make the membership as near 
100 per cent as possible. With the associate membership there 
is not the same limitation. The associate members of the asso- 
ciation are much greater in number than a year ago and very 
much greater than two years ago, but the associate membership 
is still small compared with possibilities and compared with the 
number of the individuals who are interested or actually en- 
gaged in the industry. It is true that when a comparison is 
made with allied lines of industry, like the lighting industry, 
the number of operating companies is small, but the invest- 
ment and the number of employees per company are much 
greater. Any addition to the active and associate membership 
of the association would not only be a great help to its finances 
and thus would increase the work which the association can 
do, but it would also enlist a large body of individuals who 
have a personal interest in co-operating in its aims. The plan 
adopted this year of definitely grouping the associate members 
with the particular association with which they wish to affiliate 
themselves should bring each associate member more closely 
in touch with the line of research in which he is most closely 
interested. , 

Another question concerning the organization as a whole not 
yet settled is that of the location of the annual convention. 
Undoubtedly the action taken at the Atlantic City convention 
not to accept the proposition of Saratoga Springs was a wise 
one. but it leaves the executive committee in the dilemma this 
year of being obliged either to hold the 191 1 convention at a 
place which has already been visited three times, or to begin 
a weary hunt for some other city which will possess the almost 
impossible qualifications of good hotels with ample capacity 
and charging reasonable prices, conveniently located to a hall 
with proper facilities for caring for the exhibits and for the 
association meetings. This is one of the first problems to be 



January;, 191 1.] ELECTRIC RAIL 

undertaken by the present executive committee of the associa- 
tion. 

Besides these questions which face the association as a 
whole, each of the five departments into which the activities of 
the body are divided has its own problems. We shall not at- 
tempt to discuss these in detail because they are treated at 
length in this issue by the presidents of the four affiliated 
associations as well as by Mr. Brady, president of the parent 
body. It is instructive to note, however, that each of these 
contributors sees opening before the association of whose work 
he treats a widening vista of opportunity and usefulness. In 
no one year probably have more questions presented them- 
selves for solution in each of the fields represented by these 
different sections. Certainly they have not been so apparent 
in earlier years. Standardization of equipment is being taken 
up for the first time actively with other national and State 
associations by the Engineering Association. The matter of 
standardizing rules and of determining the practical advan- 
tages and limitations of signal systems in connection there- 
with is confronting the transportation managers. The subject 
of signals will be taken up this year by the Transportation As- 
sociation in connection with the Engineering Association. The 
detection of fraudulent claims by means of a central bureau is 
closely engaging the attention of the claim agents. The advice 
of the accountants is being demanded by two of the other affili- 
ated associations on questions which concern them, and in ad- 
dition the accountants have before them the multifarious ques- 
tions which belong peculiarly to their department. 

Among the problems of the parent organization that of 
-public relations seems most important. Mr. Brady's article 
outlines clearly the economical and political conditions which 
have brought many of these problems to a focus during the 
last few years, especally during 1910, and comments upon the 
similarity of their aspect in all parts of the country. He also ex- 
plains the importance to the public and the railway interests, 
but particularly to the latter, of a settlement of these ques- 
tions upon an equitable basis and with a full understanding of 
_all the conditions rather than by hasty and unconsidered action. 
It is fortunate that the industry should have had at the be- 
ginning of the present year such a clear exposition of the 
present purposes and objects of the American Electric Railway 
Association as that contained in Mr. Brady's article. Active 
work on the part of the committees of the association has 
already been commenced, and undoubtedly at the midyear con- 
ference, on Jan. 27, the reports of that already accomplished 
or under consideration by them will be presented to the 
members. 



THE ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION "QUESTION BOX " 

The executive committee of the Engineering Association at 
its last meeting discussed the advisability of discontinuing the 
publication of the "Question 1 Box," which has been a feature of 
the convention program of that association since 1904. As a 
substitute it was proposed that the secretary of the association 
should act in the capacity of an information bureau and obtain 
directly from member companies answers to any questions re- 
lating to engineering matters which might be referred to him. 
It has been apparent for the last two years that interest in the 
"Question Box" has been lagging. Comparatively few of the 
questions have been of especially timely or general interest, and 



VAY JOURNAL. 13 

the answers, for the most part, have conveyed little informa- 
tion of real value. Other associations which have conducted 
a ''question box" in the past have had a similar experience. 
After a few years of existence the plan has been abandoned 
because of lack of interest. 

A "question box" is a convenient and simple medium for 
the general exchange of specific information about the details 
of any industry. The value of this interchange of ideas and 
experience is not confined alone to the men who prepare the 
questions or write the answers. In nearly every railway organi- 
zation there are men in subordinate positions who are eager to 
learn the practice of other companies on the specific points 
considered, but have few opportunities for personal observation 
outside of their own city. 1 f the Engineering Association 
through the "Question Box" can lie of help to these men in 
enlarging their knowledge and usefulness to their employers, 
the time and money spent in the preparation of the questions 
and answers once a year should not be begrudged. One way 
to improve the "Question Box" would be to give these men 
a better opportunity for submitting questions relating to prac- 
tical details of their work and for answering the questions 
which are asked. Under the present plan a circular request- 
ing suggestions for questions is sent to member-companies and 
associate members early in the summer. This circular reaches 
busy heads of departments, who give it only passing attention, 
and later on when the data sheet containing the questions sub- 
mitted is sent out comparatively little attention is paid to pre- 
paring answers, except in a few individual cases. A few 
duplicate copies of both the circular and the data sheet could 
be sent to each member company with a request that they be 
distributed among the foremen and others in subordinate posi- 
tions who might be interested. This would entail but little 
extra cost and would tend to create interest in the association's 
affairs among a class of men who at some future time may 
develop into active and valuable members. 

The proposed substitute plan of having the secretary of the 
Engineering Association act in the capacity of an information 
bureau has been followed by the American Association for a 
number of years, but the general distribution of the information 
collected and compiled in the form of confidential bulletins to 
member companies entails a large amount of clerical work 
and is expensive. While similar bulletins of the Engineering 
Association seldom would contain information of a confidential 
nature, they would never be so widely distributed as the "Ques- 
tion Box" now is and the data contained in them would not be 
generally available. It might be worth while to give the plan 
a trial for a year before deciding to abandon the "Question 
Box" if that step seems advisable. If the two methods of col- 
lecting and disseminating information are continued the "Ques 
tion Box" should be expanded to include all of the data pub- 
lished in the bulletins, as well as the usual questions and 
answers on subjects of minor importance. 

Tn the past the "Question Box" has contained a vast quantity 
of extremely valuable data covering a wide range of subjects, 
but for lack of an index information on any particular point 
can be found only after a long search through the volumes of 
previous years. It would not entail a great deal of labor or 
expense to compile an index or classified list of the questions 
asked and answered during the last six years and to include 
this index in the future in the proceedings, where it can be 
permanently preserved and brought up to date each year. 



14 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK ORDERED IN 1910 



The orders placed by electric railways for rolling stock in 
1910 are shown in the accompanying table. The total of all 
cars, locomotives and miscellaneous rolling stock ordered was 
5481, an increase of 10.6 per cent over 1909. As in previous 
years the table has been compiled from the Electric Railway 
Journal records kept from week to week, from data received 
from the railway companies on special blanks sent to them and 
from records obtained from the car building companies. 

The orders, classified according to the service in which the 
cars arc used, are given below. 

1907 1908 1909 1910 

Passenger cars, city 3483 220$, 2537 357' 

Passenger cars, interurban 1327 727 1245 990 

Freight and miscellaneous cars 1406 176 1175 820 

Total 6216 3111 4957 5481 

Tt will be seen from the foregoing annual comparison that 
1910 was marked by greater activity in the total purchases 
of rolling stock than 1908 or 1909, but it was 735 cars short 
of the total orders for the year 1907. 



Among the striking features of rolling stock orders last year 
was the increase in the number of prepayment cars, of which 
1878 were purchased, as compared with 1096 in 1909. These 
figures relate only to new cars ; they do not include rolling stock 
which was rebuilt for prepayment operation. The prepayment 
cars are marked by an asterisk (*) in the accompanying table. 

There was a decrease of 255 in the total orders for inter- 
urban passenger cars, or 20.4 per cent as compared with 1909. 

The figures for interurban cars include orders for elevated 
and subway equipment. The greater attention which has been 
given to the maintenance of service in winter is indicated by 
the purchase of 117 snow plows and sweepers. 

The number of electric locomotives ordered was 43 as 
against 49 in the preceding year. However, 24 of the 49 loco- 
motives ordered during 1909 were for the New York electri- 
fication of the Pennsylvania Tunnel & Terminal Company. It 
should be noted in connection with the accompanying table that 
in the case of electric locomotives the truck column gives the 
name of the company which constructed all the mechanical 
parts, while the column headed "builder" shows the name of 
the company which manufactured the electrical equipment. 



Purchaser Mo. Class 

Aberdeen Ry 

Alton, Jack. & Peoria Ry. . . . 
Arkansas Valley Inter. Ry. . . 
Asheville Electric Ry 

Atchison Ry., Lt. & Pwr.Co.. 
Athens Elec. Ry 

Atlanta Northern Ry 

Atlantic Shore Line Ry 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R.R 



ROLLING STOCK EQUIPMENT ORDERED IN 1910 
Length Serv. Truck Builder P 



Auslin Elec. Ry 

Bakersfield & Kern Elec.Ry.. 
Bait. & Wash. Transit Co. . . 
Bangor Ry. & Elec. Co 

Beaumont Traction Co 

Beloit Traction Co 

Belton & Temple Traction Co, 

Birmingham Ry., Lt. & P. Co. 



BlufTton, Geneva & Celina 
Trac. Co 

Boise Interurban Ry 

Boston Elevated Ry 

Bos. & Me. R.R. ({or H. Tun.) 
Boston & Northern St. Ry. . 



Boston & Worcester St. Ry.. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co... 



British Columbia Elec. Ry. 



Closed 
PI. & Wk. 
Closed 
Closed 
Open 
Semiconv, 
Semiconv. 
Open 
Closed 
Trail C. 
Semiconv . 
Closed 
Comb. 
Express 
Sweeper 
Open 
Closed* 
Gas. Mot.'" 
Semiconv. 
Express 
Semiconv. 
Closed* 
Flat 
Dump 
Closed 
Freight 
Concrete 



22-0 City 

City 

55-0 Int. 
52-0 Int. 

City 

30-1 City 
27-4 City 

35- City 
34-10City 

30- 8 Int. 
40-1 Int. 
32-0 City 
50-0 Int. 
46-0 Int. 

29- City 

31- City 
40-0 City 

30- 6 City 
30-8 City 
30-0 City 

*37-4 City 
40-0 Citv 
24-0 Both 
18-0 Both 

36- City 
36-0 City 
.... City 



Bald. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Std. 

Brill 



Mc.-C 

Bait. 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

St. L. 

Am. 

St. L. 

Bait. 

Co. 

Co. 



American 

Tewett 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

American 
American 
Brill 

Stephenson 
Niles 
Russell 
Niles 

McGuire-C. 

Southern 

American 

Stephenson 

Brill 

Brill 

American 
St. Louis 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Mc-Guire-C. 
Co. Shops 
Chic. C. M. 



Bryan College Int. Ry 

Buffalo & Lackawanna Tr.Co 

Burlington Trac. Co 

Butte Elec. Ry 

Caldwell Trac. Co 

Calgary St. Ry 



California St. & Cable R.R. . 
Cape Girard.-Jack. Int. Ry.. 



Capital Trac. Co 1 

Carlisle & Mt. Holly Rv. . . . 
Centerville Lt. & Trac. Co. . 

Central California Trac. Co. 



1 


Closed 


52-0 


Int. 


Tay. 


Jewett 


1 


Frt., Box 


50-0 


Int. 


Tay. 


Interstate 


1 


Closed 


31-8 


Int. 


Brill 


American 


2 


Closed 




City 




St. Louis 


1 


Comb. 


41—6 


Int. 


Brill 


American 


50 


Semiconv/ 


48-2 City 




Laconia 


. 5 


Elec. Loco. 


48-0 


P.&F. 


Bald. 


West 


24- Open 


40-11 Both 


Std. 


Stephenson 


2 


Work 


35-0 


Both 


Std. 


Smith &- W 


4 


S. T. Plows 26-0 


Both 


Was. 


Wason 


2 


D.T. Plows 47-0 


Both 


Was. 


Wason 


1 


D.T.Plow 


44-6 


Both 


Rus. 


Russell 


. S 


Closed 


46-8 


Int. 


Std. 


Osg.-Brad 


. 1 


Sweeper 


28-3 City 


Mc.-C 


McGuire-C. 


1 


Elec. Loco. 


29-4 Freight 


A.L.C 


. Gen. Elec. 


1 


Lococrane 


23-4 City 


Br'n 


Brown 


10 


Closed 


44-0 


Sub. 


Brill 


Preston 


5 


Semiconv. *44-10City 


BriU 


Ottawa 


S 


Semiconv. 4 


42-6 


City 


Brill 


Stephenson 


38 


Semiconv. *43-6 


City 


Brill 


Co. Shops 




& 45-0 






4 


Baggage 


53-8 


Int. 


Brill 


Co. Shops 


I 


Express 


50-0 


Int. 


Brill 


Co. Shops 


1 


Work 


36-0 


Int. 


Brill 


Co. Shops 


50 Frt.,Box 


41-0 


Int. 




Hicks 


2S 


Flat 


40-0 


Int. 




Hicks- 


25 


Flat 


41-0 


Int. 




Canada 


50 


Flat 


41-0 


Int. 




Seattle 


1 


Snow Plow 




Int. 




Co. Shops 


1 


Sweeper 


30K) 


City 


Brill 


Ottawa 


1 


Sprinkler 




City 


Brill 


Brill 


3 


Elec. Loco. 


33-^0 


Int. 


Brill 


Co. Shops 


4 


Caboose 




Int. 




Seattle 


12 


Stock 




Int. 




Canada 


1 


Trailer, C. 




Int. 




Fairbanks 


4 


Gas. Mot. 


19-6 


Int. 




Fairbanks 


. S 


Comb. 


47-2 


Int. 


Bald. 


Cincinnati 


3 


Closed 


28-0 


City 


Tay. 


Jones 


1 


Closed 


35-0 


City 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


1 


Closed 




Int. 


Co. 


St. Louis 


3 


Closed 


46-6 


City 


Brill 


Ottawa 


3 


Semiconv.*46-0 


City 


Brill 


Preston 


12 


Semiconv.*33-6 


City 


Tay. 


Preston 


2 


Calif. 




City 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


2 Open 


35-0 


City 


Brill 


Brill 


6 


Closed 


30- 1 


City 


BriU 


BriU 


1 


Comb. 


30-0 


City 


Brill 


BriU 


50 


Closed* 


41-0 


City 


Brill 


Jewett 


1 


Gondola 


22-0 


City 


Brill 


Brill 


1 


Closed 


31-0 


City 


St.L. 


St. Louis 


1 


Comb. 


41-0 


Int. 


Mc.-C. 


McGuire-C. 


4 


Closed 


50-0 


Int. 


Brill 


Holman 


2 


Comb. 


40-0 


Int. 


Brill 


Holman 



urchaser 



No. Class Length Serv. Truck Builder 



Central Kentucky Trac. Co. 
Charles City Western Ry. . . 



Charleston Con. Ry.& Lt.Co. 
Chat., Wall'b'g & L.Erie Ry.. 



Chattanooga Ry. & Lt. Co. 



5 Express 36-0 Int. 

1 Express 45-0 Int. 

4 Comb. 52-8 Int. 
. 8 Semiconv. *24-0 City 

1 Gas. Mot. 55-0 Int. 

1 G.M. Loco Int. 

4 Semiconv. 30-1 City 

4 Open 43-0 Int. 
. 2 Trailer, O Int. 

3 Frt., Box Int. 

17 Fl.&Gon Int. 

1 Ballast .... Int. 

1 SnowPlow .... Int. 

2 Elec. Loco Int. 

10 Closed* 45-0 City 

2 Dump .... City 



Chic, Har. & Gen. Lake Ry . 
Chicago & Joliet Elec. Ry. . 



Cheyenne Elec. Ry 1 

Chicago, Aurora & DeK. R.R 3 
1 
6 

Chicago City Ry 2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
2 
1 

Chicago, L. S. & So. Bd. Ry.. 3 

Chicago & Mil. Elec. Ry 1 

1 

Chicago Railways 215 

2 
1 

Chickasha St. Ry 1 

Chillicothe El. R.R. L.&P.Co. . 1 

Cincinnati Trac. Co 50 

18 

1 

Citizens' Ry . . . 3 

1 
1 

Citizens' Trac. Co 2 

City of Raleigh, N. C 1 

City & Suburban Ry 2 

Clarksville Ry. & Lt. Co 4 

Cleburne St. Ry 3 

Cleve., PainesvTe & E, R.R. . . 3 

Cleveland Ry 25 

2 

Clinton St. Ry 2 

Colorado Ry., Lt. & P. Co. . .. 1 
Colorado Springs & Inter. Ry. 7 
Comm. Elec. St. Ry.L.&P.Co. 4 
Columbus, Del. & Marion Ry. . 1 
Columbus, Mar. & Bucy. Ry. . 2 

Columbus R.R 3 

Columbus Ry. & Lt. Co 7 

4 

Columbus, Urb. & W. El. Ry.. 1 

Conestoga Trac. Co 1 

Coney Isl. & Brooklyn R.R.... 1 

Connecticut Co 89 

91 
1 

20 
1 
6 
2 
7 
2 
1 
2 



Corpus Christi St. & Int. Ry 

Cumberland Elec. Ry 

Cumberland Ry 2 

Danburv & Bethel St. Ry. . . . 2 

3 

Dayton St. Rv 7 



Semiconv. 33—0 
Comb. 45-0 
Express 45-0 
Dump 36-0 
Funeral 42-1 
Sweeper 28-3 
Closed 44-2 
Closed 4 5-2 
Flat 36-0 
Closed* 34-0 
Comb.* 40-0 
P1.& Spr. 33-6 
Closed 5 7—0 
Express 51-6 
SnowPlow 34-0 
Closed* 
Dump 
Derrick 

Closed 30-1 
Sweeper .... 
Open 30-3 
Dump 15-0 
Lococrane .... 
Semiconv. *30— 8 
Flat 20-8 
Sprinkler 20-8 
Closed 30-0 
Sprinkler .... 
Open* 28-8 
Open 27-6 
Closed* 30-1 
Closed 52-0 
Closed* 51-6 
Sweeper 28-3 
Semiconv. 30—1 
Elec. Loco. 36-0 

Trailer, C 

Semiconv.* 43— 
Express 55-0 
Closed 54-0 
Closed 34-4 
Closed* 31-6 
Closed 46—6 
Semiconv. 50—0 
Open 28-8 
Gondola 41-0 
Open ' .... 
Closed 40-0 
Closed 43-0 
Closed 40-0 
Closed . 38-0 
Express 41—0 
SnowPlow 41—0 
SnowPlow 47-0 
Sweeper 28-3 
Open 40-0 
Closed 32-0 
Comb. 41-0 
Open 41-8 
Closed 39-5 
Conv. 31-4 



City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

Coal 

City 

Both 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Int. 

Int. 

Int. 

City 

Both 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

City 



Hoi. Holman 

Brill Holman 

Brill Brill 

St.L. McGuire-C. 

McK. McKeen 

McK. Co. Shops 

Brill Brill 

Brill Brill 



Brill 
K.&J. 

BriU 
Tay 
Mc.-C 

Brill ' 
Mc.-C 
Brill 
BriU 

Cin. 
Brill 
Mc.-C, 
Bald. 
Bald. 



Denver City Tramway 27 Closed 43-10City 

10 Trailer, C. 38-1 Citv 



Co. 
Co. 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 



Brill 

Peck 

Peck 

Brill 

Mc.-C, 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Bald. 

Brill 

Mc.-C. 

Co'. ' ' 

Co. 

Brill 

Peck 

Curtis 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Mc.-C. 

Brill 

BriU 

Std. 

Std. 

Std. 

Std. 

Brill 

Std. 

Was. 

Was. 

Mc.-C. 

Tay. 

Std. 

Brill 

Brill 

BriU 

B.&S. 

Brill 

Woeb. 



Kuhlman 
Kilbourne & 

Jacobs 
Brill _ 
Danville 
McGuire-C. 
Western 
Kuhlman 
. McGuire-C. 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Hicks 
Kuhlman 
Brill 
. McGuire-C. 
Niles 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Brill 
Brill 

Cincinnati 

Continental 

Browning 

Danville 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

American 

McGuire-C. 

Brill 

Danville 

Danville 

Niles 

Kuhlman 

McGuire-C. 

American 

Co. Shops 

Co. Shops 

Brill 

Jewett 

Jewett 

Southern 

Kuhlman 

Kuhlman 

Jewett 

Brill 

Co. Shops 

Osg.-Brad. 

Osg.-Brad. 

Wason 

Wason 

Brill 

Wason 

Wason 

Wason 

McGuire-C 

Southern 

Stephenson 

Brill 

Brill 

Brill 

Barney §: 

Smith 
Woeber 
Woeber 



January 7, 191 i.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



!5 



Purchaser 



No. Class Length Serv. Truck Builder 



Des Moines City Ry 1 Sweeper 28-3 City Mc.-C. Mc-Guire-C. 

Detroit United Rv 50 Closed 42-? City Std. Kuhlman 

25 Closed 42-3 City Std. Niles 
10 Closed 52-8 Int. Bald. Niles 

4 Closed 46-4 Int. Bald. Niles 

5 Express 50-0 Int. Bald. Niles 
Dominion P. & Trans. Co 9 Closed* 43-0 City Brill Ottawa 

3 Closed 55-0 Int. Bald. Preston 
East St Louis Ry 6 Closed* 45-0 City Brill American 

1 Swp.,Wk. 39-8 Both Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
East Shore & Suburban Rv.. . 3 Closed 48-0 City Brill Danville 

2 Closed 36-0 City Brill American 
Edmonton St Ry 16 Closed* 42-0 City Brill Ottawa 

4 Semiconv. *46-0 City Brill Preston 
1 Sweeper 30-0 City Otta Ottawa 

Elmira Wtr., Lt. & R.R. Co. . 6 Closed* 32-0 City Brill BriU 

El Paso Elec. Co 6 Closed 21-0 City Cincinnati 

Emigration Canvon R.R 2 Trailer, C. 38-1 Int. Brill American 

1 Elec. Loco. 28-2 Freight Bald West. 

Enid City Ry 4 Closed 31-4 City B.&S. Bar.&Smith 

Ft. Dodge, Des Mo'. &So RR... 2 Elec. Loco .... Freight Bald. Baldwin 
Evansville Rys 1 Flat 40-0 City Dor. Co. Shops 

1 Stock 34-0 City Interstate 

Evansville & So. Ind. Tr. Co.... 1 Sweeper 53-0 City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

1 Elec. Loco 20-0 Yard Co. Co. Shops 
Fairmont & Clarksburg Tr. Co. 1 Steel 34-0 City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

4 Closed 44-0 Int Tewett 

6 Closed 30-0 City Brill Jewett 

4 Comb. 34-4 Int. Brill Kuhlman 

2 Express 45-0 Int. Brill Kuhlman 
Fairmont & Mannington R.R. 6 Open 40-6 Both Brill Kuhlman 

1 Express 44-0 Int. Brill Kuhlman 
Fonda, Johnst'n & Glov. R.R 2 Comb. 29-0 Int. Tay. Brill 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & 

Southern R R 1 Lococrane .... Int. Browning 

2 Elec. Loco Int. Bald West. 

Ft. Scott Gas & Elec. Co. .. . 1 Closed 33-0 City Brill American 

Ft. Smith Lt. & Trac. Co 8 Semiconv. 31-8 City Brill Danville 

Frederick R.R 4 Open 22-0 City Peck Co. Shops 

1 Semiconv. 46-1 Int. Brill Brill 
1 Semiconv. 41-1 Int. Brill Brill 

1 Elec. Loco. 23-0 Freight Bald. West 
Freeport Rv., Lt. & P. Co. ... 6 Closed 22-0 City Brill Brill 

2 Closed 30-0 City St.L. St. Louis 
Galt,Prest.& Hespeler St.Rv.. 2 Closed 54-0 Int. Bald. Preston 

1 Elec. Loco. 41-0 Freight Bald. West. 
Galveston Elec. Co 3 Closed 28-10City Brill Kuhlman 

5 Open .... City St. Louis 

Galveston-Houston Elec. Ry .10 Closed 52-0 Int. Bald. Cincinnati 

2 Express 52-0 Int. Bald. Cincinnati 
Gary &- Interurban Rv 8 Closed 44-0 Int. Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

4 1 rail Int. . Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

2 Work 20-0 Int. Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

1 Sweeper 28-3 Int. Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
Georgia Ry. & Elec. Co 6 Closed 30-0 City Bait. Co. Shops 

6 Closed 38-0 City Brill Co. Shops 

4 Closed* 42-0 City Brill Co. Shops 

Gettysburg Ry 1 Closed 16-0 City Peck Stephenson 

Goldsboro Trac. Co 1 Open 26-0 City 

2 Closed 22-0 City 

Gr. June. & Gr. R. Val. Rv 3 Closed 50-0 Int. Brill Woeher 

1 Elec. Loco. 36-0 Int. Brill Woeber 
Grand Rapids (Mich.) Rv. ... 12 Closed* 46-4 Citv Brill American 

Granite City Ry 4 Closed 37-0 Citv Mc.-C. St. Louis 

Great Falls St. Ry 2 Open 28-3 City Mc.-C. Danville 

2 Closed 29-1 ICity Mc.-C. Danville 

1 Sweeper 28-3 City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

Greenville Trac. Co 7 Closed .... City St. Louis 

Han. & McSherryst'n St.Ry... 2 Dump.Wk. 34-0 City Co. Co. Shops 
Hartford & Springfield St.Ry. 1 SnowPlow 41-0 Int. Was. Wason 

Holton Interurban Ry 1 Comb. 44-0 Int. Brill Holman 

Holyoke St. Ry 4 Closed 42-0 City Tay. Wason 

1 Plow 47-0 City Was. Wason 

Houghton County Trac. Co. . . 2 Closed 41-7 City Brill Kuhlman 

Houston Elec. Co 15 Closed* 38-6 City Brill American 

10 Semiconv. *3 1-0 City Brill Cincinnati 

5 Semiconv. *41-0 City Std, Cincinnati 
1 Work 35-0 City Std. Co. Shops 
I Wreck 23-0 City Bait. Co. Shops 
1 Dump 25-0 Citv Rodgers 

Hudson & Manhattan R.R. .50 Closed 48-2 Tunnel Bald. A. C. & F 
30 Closed 48-2 Tunnel Bald. Pressed Stl. 

Hull Elec. Co 3 Semiconv. 49-10Int. Brill Preston 

Humboldt Transit Co 4 Comb. 33-0 City Std. Holman 

Hummelst'n &Camp. St. Rv.. 1 Semiconv. 41-0 Int. Brill Brill 
Hutchinson Interurban R.R. . 1 Closed* 32-7 City Brill Danville 

Illinois Trac, System 31 Closed* 33-8 City Curtis Danville 

10 Closed 5 5-6 Int. Bald. Danville 

1 Office 54-6 Int A. C. & F. 

4 Comb. 52-6 Int. Curtis McGuire-C. 

5 Par.Obser. 55-6 Int. AC&F Danville 

2 Sleeper 57-0 Int. B.&S. Bar.-Smitb 

2 Ex-Trail Int. Co. Co. Shops 

4 Express 55-6 Int. Curtis McGuire-C. 

35 Ex-Trail. 41-5 Int. Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

25 Frt., Box Int Haskell-B. 

50 Gondola .... Int Haskell-B. 

22 Coal Int Haskell-B. 

8 SnowPlow .... Int. Co. Co. Shops 
4 Sweeper 28-3 City McGuire-C 

6 Elec.Loco. 34-0 Int. A.L.C.Co. Shops 
4 Caboose .... Int. Co. Co. Shops 

1 Coal Crane Browning 

1 Wreck .... Int. Browning 

Ind'lis, Newc'tle & Tol. El.Ry. 4 Flat 36-0 Constr Interstate 

1 Dump 34-0 Constr Interstate 

Indianapolis Trac. & Ter. Co. 25 Closed 33-2 City Std. Cincinnati 

Interborough R. T. Co 75 Motor 47-0 Sub. Std. Pressed Stl 

40 Trail 47-0 Elev. Brill Wason 

40 Motor 47-0 Elev. Brill Tewett ' 
20 Motor 47-0 Elev. Brill Cincinnati 
1 Sweeper 28-3 City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

Interurban Construction Co. . 3 Closed ... Int. St. Louis 

1 Express .... Int. St. Louis 

Inter-Urban Ry 16 Gondola .. Int 

Interurban Ry. & Ter. Co 21 Sweeper 28-3 Both Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

Jacksonville Elec. Co 10 Closed* 39-1 City Std. Cincinnati 

Jersey Central Trac. Co 8 Semiconv. 42-9 Int Brill Brill 

10 Dump ... Int Kilbourne 

& J. 



Purchaser 



No. Lias 



Length Serv. J ruck Builder 



Lexington & Interurban Rys. 



Kankakee Elec. Ry 2 Closed 

Kan City, Lawr.it Top. El. R.R. 4 Closed 

Knoxville Ry. & Lt. Co 10 Closed 

La Crosse City Ry 2 Semiconv. 

L. Char. Ry.,Lt.& Wtr.W.Co. . 4 Semiconv. 
Lawton & Ft. Sill Elec. Ry. .. 1 Closed 

1 Comp., C. 

Lawrence Ry. & Lt. Co 3 Closed* 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co 10 Closed* 

1 Comb. 
1 SnowPlow 
5 Sweeper 

5 Semiconv. 
4 Semiconv. 
1 Sweeper 

Lincoln Trac. Co 1 Elec.Loco. 

Linwood St Ry 1 Closed 

Little Rock Ry. & Elec. Co.... 7 Semiconv. 

London St. Ry. . , 1 Sweeper 

Long Island R.R 100 Closed stl. 

6 Closed* 
15 Comb. stl. 
25 Exp stl. 

Los Angeles Ry 300 Cal. 

Los Angeles & Redondo Ry. . 10 Open 

1 Elec.Loco. 

Lynchburg Trac. & Lt. Co... 

Macon Ry. & Lt. Co 

Mah'g &- Shen'go Ry.&Lt.Co. 



. . . . City 

40- Both 
33-8 City 
32-0 City 

30- 1 City 
24-0 City 
57-0 City 

31- City 

41- 9 Int. 
40-0 Int. 

32- Int 

City 

30-1 Both 
55-0 Both 
28-3 City 
40-0 Both 
38-0 City 
44-0 City 
28-3 City 
63-5 Int. 

33- 4 City 
63-5 Int. 



St.L. 
Bait. 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 



St. Louis 
St. Louis 
McGuire-C. 
American 
American 
Wason 



A.L.C. Wason 



Int. 
City 
Int. 



4 Semicon \ 
8 Closed* 
12 Closed 
6 Closed 
1 Conv. 



Marion, Bluffton & E. Tr. Co 

Meridian Lt. & Ry. Co 4 Conv. 

Metropolitan St. Ry 25 Closed* 

25 Closed* 

Michigan United Rys 30 Closed 

8 Closed 

2 Ex-Trail 

1 Comb. 

1 Special 
2 



30-0 Int. 

40- City 
42-0 City 
42-4 City 

50- 10lnt. 
52-0 Both 

51- City 
47-2 City 

41- 3 City 
41-0 City 
28-0 City 
40-0 Int. 
58-6 Int 

Int. 



Minn..St.P.,Roeh.&Dub.T.Co 



Missoula St. Ry. 



Swp.& Ex. 28-3 City 
Swp & Ex. 39-8 Int. 
SnowPlow 50-0 Int. 



1 Sprinkler 
4 Trail, C. 

2 Gas. Elec. 
10 Flat 

7 Semiconv. 



City 
44-0 Int. 
60-O Int. 
.... Int 
'38-0 City 



2 Trailer, O. 42-0 City 
36-0 City 
City 



1 Work 
1 Sweeper 

Mobile Lt. & R.R. Co 3 Trailer, O. 

Mont. & South. Cos. Ry 2 Trailer. C. 

1 Plow 

Montreal St. Rv 50 Semiconv. 

2 Trailer, O. 

3 Trailer, C. 
25 Dump 

Moose Jaw Elec. Ry 6 Closed 

Morris Co. Trac. Co 5 Semiconv. 

Municipal St. Ry 1 Closed 

2 Trailer, C. 

Nashville Ry. & Lt Co 12 Closed ' 

Nelson St. Ry 2 Closed* 

New Orleans Ry. & Lt. Co. . . 50 Closed 
NewPaltz. High. & P. Tr. Co. 
N.Y.. N.H. & H.R.R.tel.div.) 



Brill 



Brill 
Brill 
Brill 



New York & Queens Co. Ry. 
New York State Rys 



31-0 City 
49-8 Int. 
35-0 Int. 
47-0 City 
49-6 Sub. 
38-0 Int. 
Int. 

31- City 
38-0 City 

32- City 
30-0 City 

33- 4 City 
41-6 City 
32-8 City 

28-8 City 

70-10T. Line Std. 
70-10T. Line Std. 
37-0 Switch Bald 

Elec.Loco. 48-0 Freight Bald 
Elec.Loco. 53-3 Freight Bald 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Std. 
Brill 



St. Louis 
Brill 
Brill 
Russell 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 

Mc.-C. McGuire-C 
Tay. Co. Shops 

Wason 

Co. Shops 
Ottawa 
A. C. & F. 
Brill 

A. C. & F. 
A. C .& F. 
St. Louis 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shop 
Brill 
Brill 
Niles 
Niles 

Cincinnati 
Southern 
Cincinnati 
Co. Shops 
Hnll Brill 
Brill Kuhlman 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
Mc;-C. McGuire-C. 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
Brill Brill 
A.L.C. Wason 

Brill American 
Brill Brill 
Brill American 
Brill Brill 
Tay. Co. Shops 
Curtis Co. Shops 

Peck 

. Ottawa 
Preston 
Ottawa 
Canadian 
Ottawa 
Stephenson 
American 



Brill 
Brill 
Brill 

Brill" 

Brill 

Brill 



St.L. 



liYill 



Co. 
Co. 
Co. 
Brill 



Tay. 
Bait. 
Std. 
Std. 



Brill 
Brill 
Bait 



1 Open 

4 Closed M. 

12 Trailer. C. 

1 Elec.Loco 



New York & N. Shore Tr. Co. 2 Semiconv. *30-8 City 
4 Semiconv. 33-4 City 

1 Sweeper .... City 
.25 Closed 41-0 Both 
.25 Semiconv.*31-0 City 

2 Sweeper 28-3 Both 

Nipissing Central Ry 4 Closed 40-0 Int. 

Norfolk & Bristol St. Ry 1 Semiconv. 41-10Int. 

1 SnowPlow 41—4 Int. 
Norfolk City & Suburban Ry. 2 Closed* 42-0 Int. 
Norfolk & Portsmouth Tr. Co.. 8 Semiconv. *42-8 City 



Northampton St. Ry 1 Closed 

3 Closed 

1 Plow 

Northampton Trac. Co 2 Open 

2 Closed 

Northern Ohio Trac. & Lt. Co. 14 Closed 

4 Closed 



North Jersey R T. Co. 



10 Semiconv. 
13 Conv. 

1 Work 
. 2 Closed 
.15 Closed* 
1 
4 
7 
1 
1 

. 6 
1 



Northern Illinois Elec. Rv 
Northern Texas Trac. Co. 

Closed 
Closed 
Trailer, C 
Express 
Work 
Closed 
Wk. & PI 

1 Flat 

3 Ballast 

Oak Bluffs St. Ry 2 Open 

Oakland & Antioch Rv 2 Open 

Oakland Trac. Co 60 Closed* 

Oak wood St. Ry 2 Closed 

Ogden R. T. Co 2 Semiconv 

3 

4 

5 

4 

1 

Ohio Elec. Ry 10 Closed 

8 Closed 
14 Semiconv. 
6 Express 
8 Ex-Trail. 

2 Sweeper 
Ohio & Southern Trac. Co. . . . 1 Closed 
Ohio Valley Elec. Ry ? Closed 



42- 8 City 

39- City 

47- Sub. 

43- Both 

40- 3 Both 

41- 10Int. 
22-6 City 

30- 8 City 

35- 6 City 
50-0 City 

31- City 

39- City 
52-0 Int. 

40- Int. 
40-8 City 
50-0 Int. 
40-O Int. 

42- Int. 
40-0 City 

City 

30-0 Int. 
City 

45- Int. 

Citv 

City 

46- Both 
38-0 Both 

48- Both 

36- Both 



Co. Shops ' 
Ottawa 
St. Louis 
Brill 

Standard 
Standard 
West. 
West. 
West. 
Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
Brill 
Jewett 
Kuhlman 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
Bemis Preston 
Std. Southern 
Wason 
Brill 
BriU 
Wason 
Wason 
Wason 
Wason 
Wason 
Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
Kuhlman 
Co. Shops; 
American 
American 
Cincinnati 
Kuhlman 
American 
Co. Shops 
Co. Shops 
Tewett 
McGuire-C. 



Was. 
Brill 
Brill 
Was. 
Tay. 
Was. 
Was. 
Was. 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Brill 
Peck 
Brill 
Brill 
Bald. 

BriU ' 
Brill 
Brill 
Bald. 

Mc.-C. 



Trailer, C 
Comb. 
Flat 
Dump 

Elec.Loco Int. 

61-6 Int. 

27- 6 City 
20-8 City 
50-0 Int. 
40-0 Int. 

28- 3 Int. 
52-6 Int. 
39-0 Int. 



Wes. Wheel 

Bemis Jones 
Brill Holman 
St. Louis 
McGuire-C. 
St. Louis 
American 
St. Louis 



Brill 
St.L. 



St.L. 



St.L. 
Tay. 
Ellio 
Ellio 
Tay. 
Std 



St. Louis 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Cincinnati 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
Mc.-C. McGuire-C 
Jew Jewett 



i6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



Purchaser 



Mo. Class 



Oklahoma Inter. Trac. Co . . . 1 

Oklahoma Rv 6 

4 

Old Colony St. Ry 8 



Closed 
Closed 
Comb. 
Open 

8 Open 
4 Express 
2 Work 
4 SnowPlow 

1 SnowPlow 
Omaha&Councit Bluffs St. Ry 25 Closed* 

2 Work 

2 Flat 
1 Lococane 

1 Sweeper 

Oneida Ry 1 SnowPlow 

Ont. & San Ant. rights R.R . .3 Closed 

Oregon Elec Rv 2 Observ. 

4 Trailer, C. 

3 Comb. 
10 Frt., Box 
15 Flat 
10 Gondola 

2 Elec.Loco. 

Ottawa Elec. Ry 18 Semiconv .* 

Pawcatuck Valley St. Ry. ... 4 Open 

2 Closed 

Peekskill Ltg. & R.R. Co 1 Semiconv. 

Pennsylvania Tun.&Ter.R.R.. 2 SnowPlow 
Peoples Ry., Wilmington .... 1 Comb. 
Peoria Ry. Terminal Co. .... 5 Comb. 

1 P1.& Loco. 

Philadelphia R. T. Co 35 Closed 

10 Closed* 

9 Express 

3 City Ash 
Phila. & West Ches. Trac. Co... 1 SnowPlow 
Pittsb ,Har.,But. & N.C. Ry. 2 Closed 
Pitts., McKeespt. ftW'l'd Ry.. . 1 Closed 

1 Comb. 

1 Coal 

Pittsburgh Rys 50 Trailer. C* 

50 Closed* 
3 Frt., Box 
Pittsfield Elec. St. Ry 1 Open 

2 Closed 

Pt. Arthur* Ft. Will. Elec. Ry. 2 Semiconv. 

8 Semiconv. 

2 Semiconv. 

Port Jervis Trac. Co 1 Sweeper 

Portland (Maine) R.R 2 Open 

3 Closed 

2 Closed 

Portland Ry., Lt. & P. Co . . .65 Closed * 
57 Closed 
6 Closed 
1 Exp.& Ml. 
15 Flat 
10 Flat 
10 Ballast 

3 Elec.Loco. 

Pough. & Wapp'r's Fls.El.Ry . 2 Semiconv. 

Public Service Ry 100 Closed*. . 

10 Closed. . . 

Puget Sound Elec. Ry 1 Closed . . 

1 Parlor 

Quebec Ry.. Lt. & P. Co 16 Closed* 

2 Closed 
2 Dump • 
2 SnowPlow 
2 Sweeper 
1 Sprinkler 

Reading Transit Co 10 Semiconv.* 

Rhode Island Co 31 Open 

50 Closed 

Richmond & Henrico Ry 12 Closed* 

Riverside Trac. Co 1 SnowPlow 

1 Sweeper 

Roanoke Gas & Water Co 2 Open 

Roanoke Ry. & Elec. Co 4 Semiconv. 

1 Sweeper 
Roch., Syr. & E)ast. R.R 13 Closed 

1 Comb. 

1 Private 

Rockford & Interurban Ry . 4 Closed 

^ J_ |. 2 Closed* 

Rock island Southern R.R . 2 Semiconv. 

2 Trailer, C. 
2 Comb. 
2 Express 

Rock. Thorn. & Cam. St. Ry... 2 Semiconv 

Rome Ry. & Lt. Co 2 Closed 

St. Joseph Ry., Lt. & P. Co. . S Closed* 

1 Sweeper 
St Jos. & Savannah Int. Ry.... 3 Closed 

St "Louis Water Works 1 Closed 

Saginaw Bay City Ry 6 Closed* 

Salt Lake & Osden Ry 10 Comb. 

San Antonio Trac. Co 10 Semiconv. 

San Diego Elec. Ry 12 Comb. 

Sandpoint&Im.Ry. Co.,Ltd. 1 Open 

2 Closed 
1 Trailer, O. 

San Juan Light & Transit Co. 10 Open 
1 Comb. 
50 Flat 

4 Dump 

Savannah Elec. Co 2 Semiconv. 

Schuylkill & Dauphin Trac.Co. 1 Gas. Mot. 

Scioto Valley Trac. Co 1 Frt , Box 

Seattle-Everett T rac. Co 6 Closed 

6 Flat 

Selma St. Srlnter. Ry 2 Closed 

Sheboygan Ry. & Elec. Co. . . 2 Comb 

1 SnowPlow 

Sherbrooke Ry. & Pwr. Co. . . 2 Closed* 

1 Sweeper 

Shore Line Elec. Ry 10 Closed 

2 Closed 

3 Flat 



Length Serv. Truck Builder 

24-0 Citv Brill Brill 

45-0 Int Niles 

30-0 Int. Brill Danville 

40-11 Both Std. Stephenson 

3 5—6 Both Std. Stephenson 

39- Both Std. Laconia 

35- Both Std. Smith & W. 
47-0 Both Was. Wason 

29- 6 Both Rus. Russell 

42- City Brill American 

City 

City i 

.... City Browning 

28-3 City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

.... Int. Rus. Russell 

20-4 Citv Brill Kuhlman 

61- 2 Int. Bald. Niles 

62- Int. Bald. Niles 

57- 8 Int. Bald. Niles 

40- Int. Bald. Seattle 

36- Int. Bald. Seattle 

41- Int. Bald. Seattle 
34-0 Int. A.L.C. Gen. Elec. 
45-6 Both Brill Ottawa 
.... City Brill Stephenson 
28-0 City Brill Brill 

30- 1 City Brill Brill 
.... Int. Rus. Russell 
30-0 City Rus. Russell 
56-0 Int. Mc.-C. McGuire-C 
.... Int 

49- 7 Elev. Brill Pressed Stl 
34-0 Citv Brill Co. Shops 
33-2 City Brill Co. Shops 
33-6 City Brill Brill 

43- 6 Int. . . . Smith &W." 
... Int. Standard 

33- Both Peck Co. Shops 

34- Both Peck Co. Shops 
20-O Both Peck Co. Shops 

45- Citv Std. Standard 

46- 8 City Std. Pressed Stl 

45- Int. Brill Kuhlman 

42- 6 City Was Wason 
.... City Jones 

46- City Ottawa 

46-0 Int. Brill Preston 

46- Int. Curtis Preston 
City Brill Brill 

35- UCity Brill Brill 
38-0 City Brill Brill 
.... City Co. Co. Shops 
45-0 City Brill American 

47- 10City Brill American 

51- 2 Int. Brill Co. Shops 

48- Int. Bald. Co. Shops 
41-0 Int Seattle 

45- Int Seattle 

36- Int Rodgers 

37- 6 Int. Bald. Co. Shops 
27-8 City Brill Brill 

44- City Brill Cincinnati 

46- 4 City Brill Co. Shops 
56-0 Int. Bald. Cincinnati 

58- 6 Int. Bald. Cincinnati 
30-0 City Tay. Ottawa 
60-0 Int. Tay. Ottawa 
33-0 Cons. Co. Canadian 
23-4 City Co. Ottawa 
27-0 City Co. Ottawa 

27- City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

41- 6 City Brill Brill 
.... City Std. Osg.-Brad. 
30-0 City Std. Osg.-Brad. 

47- Both Brill Brill 
Int. Brill Brill 

28- 3 City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
.... Incline Brill Stephenson 

40- City Brill Brill 
28-3 City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 

42- 10Int. Bald. Kuhlman 

30- Int. Rus. Russell 

55- Int. Bald. Kuhlman 

31- 6 City Brill Kuhlman 

41- City Brill Kuhlman 
62-2 Int. Bald. St. Louis 
62-2 Int. Bald. St. Louis 
62-2 Int. Bald. St. Louis 
62-2 Int. Bald. St. Louis 
40-10Both Tay. Laconia 
30-6 City Bait. Southern 
44-0 City Brill American 
28-3 City Mc.-C. McGuire-C. 
44-0 Int. Brill American 

32- Int. Brill American 
28-0 Citv Brill Kuhlman 

56- Int. Bald. Jewett 

38- City Brill American 
40-0 City Brill Co. Shops 

.... Int 

.... Int 

.... Int 

30- City Brill Brill 

.... Int A.C.&F. 

.... Int Magor 

.... Int. Canadian 

32-0 City St.L. Co. Shops 

27- Int. Brill Brill 
36-0 Int. B.&S. Bar.&Smith 

52- Int. Bald. Niles 
36-0 Int. Seat. Seattle 
36-0 City Brill Brill 

50- Int. Cincinnati 

.... Int. Russell 

31- Citv Brill Ottawa 

30-0 City Ottawa 

40-6 Int. Bald. Jewett 

28- City Bald. Jewett 
30-0 Freight Brill Brill 



Purchaser No. Class Length Serv. 

1 Snow Plow .36-0 Both 

Shreveport Trac. Co 5 Closed 30-1 City 

Sioux Falls Trac. System 1 Sweeper 22-0 City 

South Bethlehem & Saucon 

St. Ry 2 Open 30-0 Both 

2 Closed 30-0 Both 

1 Snow Plow .... Both 
Southern Pacific Co 40 Closed 72-4 Int. 

60 Trailer, C. 72-4 Int. 

2 5 Comb. 72-4 Int. 

Southern Wisconsin Ry 4 Semiconv. 31-2 City 

Southwest Missouri R.R 4 Open 45-0 Int. 

4 Closed 45-0 Int 
South Morgantown Trac. Co.. . 2 Semiconv. 40-1 City 
Spokane & Inland Emp. R.R .10 Closed 41-1 City 

2 Elec.Loco. 38-5 Freight 

Springfield Consol. Ry 5 Closed* .33-6 City 

Springfield (Mass.)JSt. Rv....l2 Open • 39-6 Citv 

6 Closed 40-llCity 
8 Closed 40-llCity 

5 Express 41-2 Both 

2 Gondola 40-6 Both 
Springfield Trac. Co 4 Closed 30-8 City 

3 Trailer, O. 37-llCity 

1 Sweeper 28—3 City 
Springfield, Troy & PiquaRy.. .3 Frt., Box 39-0 Int. 
Syra., Lakeshore& Nor. R.R.. 5 Closed 52-0 Int. 
Syracuse Rapid Trans. Ry. . .2.3 Semicn * .30-11 City 
Tayloiville Ry.,Lt.Ht.& P. Co. 2 Open 30-O City 

2 Closed 30-0 City 
2 Coal .... City 

Terre H.Jnd. &'Eas. Trac. Co. 6 Closed .... Int. 

1 Closed 22-0 City 

1 Special .... Int. 

1 Express 50-0 Int. 

Texarkana Gas. & Elec. Co... 1 Semiconv. 30—1 City 

1 Work 34-0 City 

2 Work 16-0 City 
Third Avenue R.R .30 Stor. Bat. 27-1 City 

1 Derrick 40-10City 

3 Sweeper 28-6 City 

Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co 20 Semiconv. *30-8 City 

Topeka Ry 6 Closed City 

Toronto Ry 50 Conv.* 44-9 City 

Toronto Suburban Ry 2 Semiconv. *46-0 Int. 

Trans-St. Mary's Trac. Co. ... 2 Trailer. O. 26-0 City 

Trenton St. Ry 10 Closed* 41-6 City 

Tri-City Ry 15 Closed* 44-8 City 

Tulsa St. Rv 4 Semiconv. 31-4 City 

Twin Cityi.Lt. & Trac. Co. . . . 2 Closed 40-0 Int. 

1 Express 40-0 Int. 
Twin Citv R. T. Co 75 Closed 46-8 Both 

3 SnowPlow 44-0 Both 
Union Ry 100 Semiconv. *43-0 City 

3 Sweeper. 28—6 City 
Union St. Rv 12 Open .30-0 City 

12 Closed 28-0 City 

Union Trac. Co., Sistersville. . 1 Open 42-0 City 

2 Closed 45-0 City 
Union Traction Co 1 Closed 36-4 City 

3 Semiconv. 30—1 City 
1 Semiconv. 30-1 Citv 

Unit'd Railr'ds, San Francisco 80 Closed* 47-0 City 
United Rys. Co, St. Louis . .25 Semiconv. *48-0 City 
United^Rys., Portland 1 Closed 46-10Int. 

1 Comb. 51-6 Int. 
United Rys. & Elec. Co. Bait. ..60 Closed* 42-1 City 

Utah Lt. & Ry. Co 12 Semiconv City 

12 Semiconv. 45-5 Int. 
Vancouver Trac. Co 1 Semiconv. 38-0 City- 
Virginia Ry. & Pwr. Co 20 Closed* 44-HCity 

Visalia Elec. R. R 2 Closed 57-3 Int. 

Wahpeton-Breckenr'ge St.Ry. 2 Closed 30-0 Both 

Warren- Bisbee Rv 2 Trailer, O Int. 

Wash., Bait. & Annap's Ry. .. 10 Pass. 50-0 Int. 

Washington Ry. & Elec. Co. . 50 Closed* 41-1 City 

1 Comb. 35-0 City 
Washington Wtr. Pwr. Co. . . .25 Closed* 51-0 City 
Waterloo.CedarFls.&No.Ry.. 2 Open ' City 

6 Closed 28-llCity 
.3 Comb 57-2 Int. 

3 5 Flat 36-0 Int. 

1 Sweeper 28-3 City 

1 Elec.Loco Int. 

Westchester Elec. R.R 1 Sweeper 28-6 Both 

Western Ohio Ry 8 Gondola .... Int. 

West Penn. Rys 1 Closed 56-8 Int. 

Whatcom Co. Ry. & Lt. Co... 3 Closed* 47-0 City 

Wheeling Trac. Co 8 Semiconv 30-0 City 

Wichita Falls Traction Co... . 4 Closed* 34-0 City 

4 Trailer, 0*60-0 City 
Wichita R.R. & Lt. Co 4 Open 42-0 City 

4 Closed 42-0 Citv 

4 Trailer, O. 42-0 City 
1 Sweeper 28-3 City 

Wilkesbarre Ry 1 Sweeper .... City 

Winnipeg Elec. Ry 8 Dump .... Both 

3 Sweeper 28-3 Both 

Winona Interurban Ry 6 Open .... Int. 

5 Comb. 57-8 Int. 
1 Express 60-0 Int. 

1 Work Line .... Int. 

2 Frt., Box .... Int. 

2 Stock Int. 

2 Frt.Trailer Int, 

1 Elec.Loco Int. 

Winona Rv. & Lt. Co 2 Semiconv. 18-0 City 

Woodstock & Svca. Trac. Co. . 1 Gas. Mot. 55-0 Int. 
Worcester Consol. St. Rv. ... 15 Open '. . . . City 

14 Closed 28-0 City 

2 SnowPlow 47-0 City 
Yakima Valiey Transpor.Co. . 1 Closed 34-0 Int. 

1 Closed 43-8 Int. 

2 Closed 32-0 City 
2 Closed 29-5 City 

. 1 Conv. 43-0 Both 

1 Gas. Mot Int. 

12 Gondola 42-0 Int. 

Yonkers Ry 1 Sprinkler City 

York Rys 1 Sweeper 28-6 City 



Truck 


Builder 


S.&W. Smith & W. 


Drui 


American 


vr _ P 
AlC-O. 


.vicijuire-i^ . 


Peck 


prill 




American 


was 


Wason 


jjaia. 


a. cc r . 


riala. 


A. C. & F. 


Bald. 


A. C. & F. 


Brill 


American 


Tay. 


Co. Shops 


Tay 


Co. Shops 


Brill 


Kuhlman 


Brill 


St. Louis 


Bald. 


^Vest. 


orni 


Kuhlman 


otu . 


ason 


Std. 


Osg.-Brad. 


Std. 


Wason 


Std 








American 


d_;ii 


Stephenson 


iVl C . -\, 


Mcijuire-C 


rSala. 


Kuhlman 


Brill 


Kuhlman 


£311.1 


American 


r>n .1 


American 


ota. 


Co. Shops 


Std. 


Cincinnati 




Cincinnati 




Cincinnati 


Brill 


Danville 


Mc.-C 


McGuire-C. 


Mc.-C 


McGuire-C. 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


Mc.-C 


McGuire-C. 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Kuhlman 


Curtis 


Danville 


Curtis Co. Shops 


Brill 


Preston 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Std. 


Cincinnati 


B.&S. 


Bar.& Smith 


Bald. 


Niles 






Co. 


Co. Shops 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Std . 


Bradley 


Std. 


Jones 


Jew. 


Jewett 


Jew. 


Jewett 


Brill 


Danville 


Brill 


Danville 


Brill 


American 


Std. 


Jewett 


Co. 


Co. Shops 




Brill 




Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Std. 


St. Louis 


Std. 


St. Louis 


Brill 


American 


Brill 


Brill 


Bald. 


Moran 


Mc.-C. 


McGuire-C. 


Mc.-C. 


McGuire-C. 


Bald. 


Niles 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Mc.-C 


McGuire-C. 


Mc.-C. 


McGuire-C. 


Mc.-C 


McGuire-C. 




Hicks 


Mc.-C 


McGuire-C. 


Co. 


Co. Shops 


Brill 


Brill 




Hicks 




Cincinnati 


Std. 


American 


Brill 


Kuhlman 


Brill 


American 


Brill 


Danville 


Brill 


American 


Brill 


American 


Brill 


Danville 


Mc.-C. 


McGuire-C. 


Brill 


Brill 




Canadian 


Mc.-C. 


McGuire-C. 


Tay. 


Jewett 


Bald. 


Jewett 


Bald. 


Jewett 


Peck 


Co. Shops 


Std. 


Hicks 


Std. 


Hicks 


Tay. 


Co. Shops 


Bald. 


Co. Shops 


Brill 


Stephenson 


McK. 


McKeen 


Std. 


Osg.-Brad. 


Std. 


Osg.-Brad. 


Was. 


Wason 


Brill 


Brill 


Std. 


Niles 


Brill 


Stephenson 


Brill 


American 


Brill 


American 


McK. 


McKeen 


Seat. 


Seattle 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 


Brill 



January 7, 1911.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



NEW ELECTRIC RAILWAY TRACK CONSTRUCTION 
IN 1910 



The accompanying table shows in detail the new electric- 
railway track mileage built and opened for operation during 
the year 1910 in the United Statess and Canada. The table 
has been compiled from answers received from the railway 
companies whose names appear so that the mileage given in 
each 'instance is official. The only mileage represented in the 
table is track which was completed and placed in operation 
during the year. Of course, the table is not absolutely cor- 
rect as far as the totals per state 'are concerned, since some 
companies did not reply in time for this compilation. 

The total new mileage represented this year is 1397.26, as 
against 887.16 'miles built in 1909 and 1258.51 built in 1908. 

In the classification of mileage by states New York heads 
the list with 174.66 miles as against 129.08 miles in 1909; Il- 
linois is second, with 139.56 miles 'as against 41.85 miles in 
1909. The mileage in New York is made up largely of the 
Pennsylvania tunnels and the extension of the New York Cen- 
tral's electric zone to White Plains. No reports were received 
concerning new work by Mexican electric railways. 

ALABAMA 

Miles. 



Birmingham & Edgewood Electric Ry 2.50 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co 2.00 

Montgomery Traction Co. — Through Clovcrdale 2.00 



6.50 

ARKANSAS 

Fort Smith Light & Traction Co 2.00 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Co 0.60 



2.60 

CALIFORNIA 

Bakersfield & Kern Electric Ry 2.00 

Bakersfield & Ventura R. R 5.00 

East Shore & Suburban Ry 1.00 

Monterey & Del Monte Heights Ry 3.00 

San Diego Electric Co 2.50 

Stockton, Terminal & Eastern R. R. — Between Stockton, 

Waterloo, Linden and Bellotta 17.00 

United Railroads of San Francisco 1.40 

Visalia Electric R. R 11.00 



42.90 

COLORADO 

Colorado Railway, Light & Power Co 1.00 

Colorado Springs & Interurban Ry 1.50 

Denver & South Platte Ry.— South of Littleton 0.75 

Denver & Interurban R. R. — From Westminster Station 

to Westminster University 1.82 

Grand River Junction & Grand Rivec Valley Ry. — Be- 
tween Grand Junction and Fruita 17.00 

Greeley & Denver R. R 6.00 



28.07 

CONNECTICUT 

Connecticut Co 4.84 

Shore Line Electric Ry.- — Between Ivoryton, Essex, Say- 
brook, Westbrook, Clinton. Madison, Guilford and 
Stony Creek 31.00 



. 35.84 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Washington Railway & Electric Co 1.19 

Washington, Spa Springs & Gretta R. R. — Retween 

Washington and Bladensburg 4.00 



5.19 

GEORGIA 

Athens Electric Ry 2.48 

City & Suburban Ry 2.00 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co 10.00 

Rome Railway & Light Co 0.13 



14.61 

IDAHO 

Sandpoint & Interurban Railway Co., Ltd. — Between Pon- 

deray and Kootenai 6.00 

fi.OO 

I LLINOIS 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R 3.33 

Calumet & South Chicago Ry.- Tn Chicago 1.21 

Central Illinois Public Service Co. — Tn Charleston 1.00 

Chicago, Aurora & DeKalb R. R.— Between Aurora, Kane- 

ville, Maple Park, Cortland and DeKalb (electrified).. 30.00 

Chicago City Ry. — In Chicago 10.69 

Chicago & Joliet Ry. — Turnouts on city lines 0.30 

Chicago Railways 8.11 

Dixon, Rock Falls & Southwestern Electric Ry. — Between 

Tampico, Yor.ktown and Hooppole 8.00 

East St. Louis Ry 1.20 

Illinois Central Electric Ry. — Between Norris and Fairview 7.22 

Illinois Traction System — Belt Line near Granite City.... 2.50 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry. — Surface 1.00 

Northern Illinois Electric Ry. — Between Amboy and Lee 

Center 6.00 



Miles. 



North Kankakee Electric Light & Railway Co 2. 00 

Peoria Railway Terminal Co 4.60 

Rock Island Southern Ry. — Between Monmouth and Gales- 
burg — Electrified 19.20 

Between Monmouth & Kock Island 31.00 

Taylorvllle Railway, Light, Heat & Power Co 2.00 



INDIANA 139.36 

Beech Grove Traction Co. — Between Indianapolis and 

Beech Grove 4.30 

Bluffton, Geneva & Celina Traction Co. — Between Bluff- 
ton, Vera Cruz, Linngrove and Geneva 18.50 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry 10.00 

Evansville Railways — Rockport to Grandview, Second track C.75 
Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo Electric Ry. — Com- 
pleted line, New Castle to Indianapolis 40.25 

Winona Interurban Ry. — Between Mentone and Chile 22.00 



101.80 

IOWA 

Albia Interurban Ry 1.50 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Ry 5.75 

Centerville Light & Traction Co. — Between Centerville, 

Brazil and Mystic 6.60 

Charles City Western Ry. — Between Charles City and 

Marble Hock 15. Ou 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R. — Electrified... 17.00 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Co 1.00 

Sioux City Service Co 1.25 

Tri-City Ry 3.00 

Waterloo. Cedar Falls & Northern Ry 63.10 



63.10 

KANSAS 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry. — From Wichita to Valley 

Center and Sedgwick 10.00 

Atchison Railway, Light & Power Co 2.53 

Joplin & Pittsburg Ry.— From Pittsburg to Frontenac 1.00 

Lawrence Railway & Light Co 1.00 

Manhattan City & Interurban Ry 1.50 

Topeka Ry. — In Topeka 2.34 



18.37 

KENTUCKY 

Lexington & Interuban Ry. — City 2.00 

Interurban between Lexington and Nicholsville 12.00 

Owensboro City R. R 2.00 

16.00 

LOUISIANA 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co 6.00 

6 00 

MAINE 

Aroostook Valley R. R. — Between Presque Isle and Wash- 
burn 2.20 

2.20 

MARYLAND 

Cumberland Electric Ry 0.75 

Frederick R. R 4.00 

United Rys. & Elec. Co 0.66 

MASSACHUSETTS 5.41 

Berkshire Street Ry. — Between Great Barrington and So. 

Egremont 3.45 

Boston & Northern Street Ry 6.80 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry 2.00 

Old Colony Street Ry 2.00 

Springfield Street Ry. — In Westfield 1.01 



15.26 

MICHIGAN 

Benton Harbor, St. Joe Railway & Light Co. — Benton 

Harbor to Paw Paw Lake 15.00 

Detroit River Tunnel Co. — Eleetriried 5.00 

Detroit United Ry.— In Flint City 1.47 

Escanaba Electric Street Ry. — Interurban between Wells 

and Gladstone 6.50 

Grand Rapids Ry 0.13 

Lansing & Northeastern Ry. — Between Haslett. Perry, 

Shaftsburg, Morriee and Owosso 23.00 

Menonimee & Marinette Light & Traction Co 1.33 

Twin City General Electric Co. — Toward Bessemer 1.50 



53.93 

MINNESOTA 

Grand Forks Street Ry 2.00 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Traction Co. 

— Between Blooffungton, Savage, Lakeville and North- 
field '. . 40.00 



42.00 

MISSISSIPPI 

Gulfport & Mississippi Coast Traction Co. — Built into Pass 

Christian 7.20 

Meridian Light & Railway Co 1.50 

Summit & McComb Motor Line. — Between Summit. Mc- 

Comb and Godbold Wells 5.25 



13.95 

MISSOURI 

Cape Girardeau- Jackson Interurban Ry 1.50 

Illinois Traction System 6.00 

Kansas City, Lawrence & Topeka Electric Ry. — Between 

Monrovia, Alden's Golf Club Grounds and Zarah 5.00 

Metropolitan Street Ry 11.50 

St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & Power Co.— City 2.00 

IntPrurban between St. Joseph and Savannah 12.00 

Springfield Traction Co 5.00 

United Railways Co 3.84 



46.84 



i8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



Miles. 

MONTANA 

Butte Electric Ry 2.00 

Missoula Street Ry 16.50 

18.50 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln Traction Co 3.00 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry 7.00 



10.00 

NEW JERSEY 
Atlantic Coast Electric Ry. — Extending line to North Long 

Branch 0.66 

Jersey Central Traction Co. — Between South and Perth 

Amboy 3.55 

Morris County Traction Cc. — From Denville to Boonton... 5.00 

From Morris Plains to Mt. Tabor 5.00 

From Hopatcong to Bertram Island 2.25 

From Morris Plains to State Hospital 1.60 

In Summit 0.50 

Mountain Railway Co. — South Mountain and Rock Springs 0.50 
North Jersey Rapid Transit Co. — Between Waldwick, 

Allendale, Ramsey and Mahwah 7.50 

Public Service Ry. — Englewood to Tenafly 4.38 

30.04 

NEW MEXICO. 

Citizens' Traction & Power Co 2.00 



2.00 

NEW YORK. 

Albany Southern R. R. — From Rensselaer to Electric Park, 

second track 15.00 

Auburn & Syracuse Electric R. R 0.55 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co 7.57 

Black River Traction Co 0.60 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co. — Extension of Fredonia 

City Lines 0.75 

State Line, Northeast cut-oil '. 3.40 

Cortland County Traction Co 2.10 

Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Co 1.00 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. — (Including cross-overs and 
extra track, but not the track to Henderson Street 

Yard) : 2.82 

Hudson Valley Ry. — In Saratoga Springs 1.12 

Huntington R. R 1.21 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co. — Viaduct structure 0.14 

Kingston Consolidated R. R S.00 

Long Island R. R. — Main line electrified. Jamaica to Wood- 
side 7.04 

Springfield Junction to Long Beach, electrified 9.60 

New York Central & Hudson River R. R., electrified elec- 
tric zone from Wakefield to North White Plains 30.50 

New York City Interborough Ry 1.75 

New York & North Shore Traction Co. — Between Roslyn, 
Manhasset, Great Neck, Little Neck, Douglaston, Bay- 
side, Auhurndale, Broadway, Whitestone and Flushing 13.50 

New York State Rys. — Rochester Lines 0.52 

Oneida Ry 0.07 

Pennsylvania Tunnel & Terminal Railroad Co. — From Har- 
rison through Manhattan to Woodside Avenue, Queens. 54.20 

Port Jervis Traction Co. — Port Jervis to Sparrowbush 1.00 

Poughkeepsie City & Wapplnger's Falls Electric Ry. — 

Electrified 2.00 

Schenectady Ry 0.91 

Syracuse Lake Shore & Northern R. R 14.00 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry 0.31 

174.66 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Charlotte Electric Railway, Light & Power Co 2.00 

Goldsboro Traction Co 5.00 

North Carolina Public Service Co.— At High Point 2.50 



9.50 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Wahpeton-Breckenridge Street Ry. — From Wahpeton, N. 

P.. to Breckenridge, Minn 1.60 

1.60 

OHIO 

Cincinnati Traction Co 1.13 

Dayton, Springfield & Xenia Southern Ry. — Extended 
Spring Vallev division into Spring Valley, in the city 

of Davton 64 

Dayton Street Ry 2 00 

Fostorla & Fremont Ry. — Between Fostoria, Amsden. 

Kansas, Burgoon, Havens and Fremont 21.40 

Minster & Loramie Ry. — Between Minster and Loramie... 3.10 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co 0.30 

Trl-State Traction Co 1 00 



29.57 

OKLAHOMA 

Citizens 'Traction Co. — Between Oklahoma City and Great 

Northeast Park 4.50 

Enid City Ry n -50 

Oklahoma Ry 31.00 

Oklahoma Union Traction Co 3.00 

Sapulpa & Interurban Ry.— Between Sapulpa and Kiefer. . 3.80 

Tulsa Street Ry 2.00 

44,80 

OREGON 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co 8.23 

8.23 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co. 0.50 

Eastern Pennsylvania Ry 0.50 

Frankford, Tacony & Holmesburg Street Ry. — Between 

Wissinoming and Bridesburg l.O'O 

Hanover & McSherrystown Street Ry. — From McSherrys- 

town to Edgegrove and Chapel 1.50 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co 0.35 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 1-81 



Miles. 

Pittsburg McKeesport & Westmoreland Ry.- Between 

West Newton and Blackburn <=iween 

Pittsburgh Railways 

Port Vue Street Ry 

Scranton Ry 

Southern Cambria Ry 

United Traction Street Ry. . i'Sn 

York Railways ...... . 7.7.7.7.7.7. .7 .7 084 

22 fin 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Columbia Electric Street Ry., Light & Power Co 1.75 

1 7^ 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Aberdeen Ry . „ 

Sioux Falls Traction System'.'.'.'.'.".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.';.';.'.'.', - .';,'';'; Q50 

TENNESSEE 5 '°° 

Bristol Belt Line Ry 7 c 

Chattanooga Railway & Light Co.— City ' ii'ne 130 

Interurban between Chattanooga and Rossvilie .'.'.77 ." 300 

Jackson Railway & Light Co OTS 

Johnson City Traction Co 4'nc 

Knoxville Railway & Light Co . n'cn 

Memphis Street Ry V'?^ 

Nashville Railway & Light Co "7.77.7.77.7 .".7.7.7 4 00 

TEXAS 

Austin Electric Ry '«' , 50 

Belton & Temple Traction Co... 7 7 7 q 80 
Bryan College Interurban Ry.— Between Bryan' and College 

Station K nn 

Citizens' Ry ...7.7.7.7.7.7.7.7 200 

Corpus Christi Street & Interurban Ry g'oo 

Galveston- Houston Electric Ry.— Galveston to Houston .'.' 50 00 

Haskell Traction Company 7c 

Houston El?ct-ic Co 7.7.7.7.7' 339 

Northern Texas Traction Co.... 042 

San Angelo Street Ry -,' 0(l 

San Antonio Traction Co 8 ' o 



84.86 



UTAH 

Ogden Rapid Transit Co.— Interurban between Harrisville 

o , 0t , Sl '~ ln ,? s ' Wlllai "J City, Perry and Brigham City. . . 16 00 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry.— Electrified 40 00 

Utah Light & Railway Co. — To Sandy, Midvale & Murray. 7^0 

63.00 

VERMONT 

Rutland Railway, Light & Power Co.— Between Fairhaven 

and Poultney 7 75. 

7.75 

VIRGINIA 

Danville Railway & Electric Co 67 

Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Co. 100 

Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Co " 4 - 20 

Roanoke Railway & Electric Co 7777; L00 

6 87 

WASHINGTON 

Everett Railway, Light & Water Co 1 72 

Seattle- Everett Traction Co.— Between Hail Lake and 

Everett 13.08 

Washington Water Power Co 77.7..... 7.33 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co 7.77.7 loioo 



32.13 



WEST VIRGINIA 

Elkins Electric Ry.— Between Elkins and Roaring Creek 

Junction 7,00 

Fairmount & Northern Traction Co. — Between Barnsville 
Riversville. Baxter, Granttown, Bassettville and Fair- 
view 12.00 

Morgantown & Dunkard Valley R. R 2.00 

South Morgantown Traction Co 3.10 

24.10 

WISCONSIN 

Beloit Traction Co 0.50 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co 5.00 

Sheboygan Railway & Electric Co.— Near Plymouth "... 2.00 

Sparta- Melrose Electric Railway & Power Co. — From 

Sparta to Trout Falls 10.00 

Waupaca Electric Light & Railway Co 0.25 

17.75 

WYOMING 

Cheyenne Electric Ry 0.40 



0.40 

CANADA 

British Columbia Electric Ry. Co. — In Vancouver City and 

Suburbs 13.28 

Between New Westminster and Chilliwack 63.40 

Cape Breton Electric Co 0.60 

Chatham, Wallaceburg & Lake Erie Ry. — To Pain Court.. 4.00 

Grand Valley Ry 3.50 

Hull Electric Co 0.85 

Montreal Street Ry 1.90 

Montreal & Southern Counties Ry. — Between Montreal 

South and Longueuil 4.00 

Niagara, St. Catherines & Toronto Ry. — Between Welland. 

Humberstone and Port Colborne 7.00 

Ottawa Electric Ry '. . . 1.00 

Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co. — In Quebec and from 

Montcalmville to St. Columban 5.07 

Toronto Ry. 3.18 



107.78 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



19 



RECEIVERSHIPS AND FORECLOSURE SALES IN 1 910 



The records show that a total of eleven electric railway 
properties went into receivership during 1910. This is one- 
half of the number of companies for which receivers were 
appointed during the previous year. The 1910 record involves 
companies operating 696.61 miles of track and having outstand- 
ing capitalization, according to the latest available statistics, 
as follows: Bonds, $75,490,735; stock, $12,629,400. The sta- 
tistics, according to the records of the Electric Railway 
Journal, compare for 1909 and 1910 as follows : 

No. of Miles Outstanding Outstanding 

Companies. of Track. Bonds. Stock. 

22 558 $22,325,000 $29,962,200 

11 696.61 75,490,735 12,629,400 



1909 22 

1910 : 11 

The 1910 figures of mileage and outstanding bonds would 
be made very much smaller if the complications which arose 
in Chicago, affecting the Chicago Railways Company, had not 
forced that company into voluntary receivership. The appoint- 
ment of receivers for this company was not due to bankruptcy 
but was brought about by the management, as a protective 
measure. This company contributed nearly one-half of the 
mileage and 80 per cent of the outstanding bonds shown in 
the record of 1910. The direct cause of the receivership for 
this company was a court decision favorable to the holders 
of bonds of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company, a 
corporation formerly controlled by the Chicago Union Traction 
Company, the predecessor of the Chicago Railways Company. 
In the reorganization of the Chicago Union Traction Com- 
pany's system and the acquisition of its properties by the 
Chicago Railways Company, it was believed that no liability 
under an old guarantee of securities by the Chicago Union 1 
Traction Company would accrue to the reorganized corpora- 
tion, the Chicago Railways Company. Since the court held 
otherwise, and notwithstanding the fact that the decision was 
rendered by a lower court and was subject to appeal, the 
attorneys of the Chicago Railways Company decided that as a 
protective measure receivers should be appointed. Before 
the end of the year 1910 the complication which resulted in 
the temporary receivership of the company was settled and 
the receivers were discharged without formal foreclosure sale. 

Some of the companies which went into receivership during 
the year had not progressed very far with the construction 
of the properties which they were organized to promote. 
The receiverships for 1910 were as follows : 



RECEIVERSHIPS DURING 1910. 

Miles Bonds Stock 
Company. of Track. Outstanding. Outstanding. 
Belton & Temple Traction Co., Tem- 
ple, Tex 13.40 $300,000 $300,000 

Chicago Railways Co 317-34 ■ 60,360,735 100,000 

Chicago & Southern Traction Co., 

Chicago, 111 72.00 2,500,000 2,500,000 

Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & Southern 

R. R. Co., Ft. Dodge, la 175.00 5,800,000 3,200,000 

Janesville Street Railway Co., Janes- 

ville, Wis 7.00 75,000 50,000 

Lancaster & Southern Street Railway 

Co., Lancaster, Pa 6.10 93, 700 

Nebraska Traction & Power Co., 

Omaha, Neb 11.50 1 00,000 200,700 

Portsmouth & Exeter Street Railway 

Co., Haverhill, Mass 12.27 145,000 185,000 

St. Louis, Monte-Sano & Southern 

Railway Co., St. Louis, Mo 8.00 2,500,000 3,000,000 

Sedalia Lis*ht & Traction Co., Se- 

dalia. Mo 9.00 710,000 1,000,000 

South Shore Traction Co., Patchogue, 

N, Y 65.00 3,000,000 2,000,000 

696.61 $75,490,735 $12,629,400 

The foreclosure sales during 1910 affected twenty-two prop- 
erties, operating a total of 724.36 miles of track. This is not 
far from the total number of miles of track operated by the 
companies which went into receivership during the year. If 
the receivership of the Chicago Railways Company be elimi- 
nated from consideration, it is apparent that the mileage of 
the companies whose properties were sold at foreclosure sale 
and whose reorganization was thus effected during the year 
was almost double that of the other receiverships. The fore- 
closure sales for two years compare as follows : 



No. of Miles Outstanding Outstanding 

Companies, of Track. Bonds. Stock. 

1909 21 488 $21,174,000 $22,265,700 

1910 22 724.36 26,374,065 19,106,613 

The list of companies whose property was sold at fore- 
closure includes one company concerning which an explana- 
tory note should be made. An effort was made to effect a 
reorganization of the properties of the Indianapolis & Cincin- 
nati Traction Company and avoid a foreclosure sale. There 
was no formal foreclosure sale, although a sale of the prop- 
erties was made under order of the court in the receivership, 
due to the fact that holders of $18,000 of the outstanding 
$2,000,000 of bonds refused to join in the reorganization 
agreement. The Atlantic Shore Line Railway, which is shown 
in the list of foreclosures, was placed there because a re- 
organization was effected by means of a formal foreclosure 
sale, although there was no preliminary receivership for this 
property. The Southern Colorado Power & Railway Com- 
pany is included, although the sale of the property took 
place just before the close of the year 1909, too late to be 
included in our compilation for that year. The Wilmington, 
New Castle & Southern Railway is shown in the list of fore- 
closure sales. The property of this company is undergoing 
reorganization and in this process the system has been di- 
vided into two parts. One part was sold during 1910 and the 
balance, it is expected, will be sold early during 1911. During 
the year the court confirmed the formal sale of the property 
of the Norfolk & Southern Railway, a steam railroad prop- 
erty which has been reorganized as the Norfolk Southern Rail- 
road. This company operates electric divisions with a mile- 
age of 45.6 miles, but shows no separate capitalization for 
that part of its system. It has not been included in the com- 
pilations. The foreclosure sales during 1910 were as follows : 

FORECLOSURE SALES DURING 1910. 

Miles Bonds Stock 

Company. of Track. Outstanding. Outstanding. 

Ardmore Traction Co., Ardmore, 

Okla. 5.00 $500,000 

Atlantic Shore Line Railway Co., 

Sanford, Maine 97.00 $2,700,000 3,000,000 

Belton & Temple Traction Co., Tem- 
ple, Tex.... 13-4° 300,000 300,000 

Burlington County Railway Co., 

Hainesport, N. J 14.80 475, 000 484,790 

Lamden & Trenton Railway Co., Cam- 
den N.J 31.17 1,371.500 1,750,000 

( atskill Electric Railway Co., Cats- 
kill, N. Y 5.40 132,000 138.000 

Citizens Electric Co., Eureka Springs, 

„.-:' Vrk - •• . • 3-oo 175,000 50,000 

Chicago Consolidated Traction Co... 181.00 12,459,000 '650,000 
Consolidated Railway & Power Co., 

Fayetteville, N. C 4.00 60000 

Eastern Ohio Traction Co., Cleve- 
land, Ohio 80.00 763,065 2,258.823 

Ilolmesburg, Tacony & Frankford 

Electric Railway Co., Tacony, Pa.. 17.60 400,000 100,000 
The Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Co.. Indianapolis, Ind 107.00 2,000,000 2,000,000 

Owosso & Corunna Electric Co., 

Owosso, Mich 10.00 120,000 150,000 

Philadelphia & Chester Railway Co., 

Chester Pa 8.83 350,000 350,000 

Pittsburg & Allegheny Valley Railway 

Co, Leechburg, Pa 8.50 533, 500 1,500,000 

Pittsburg & Westmoreland Railway 

Co., McKeesport, Pa 8.00 335,000 350,000 

St. Francois County Railwav Co.. 

Farmington, Mo .' 15.00 240,000 300,000 

Southern Colorado Power & Railway 

Co., Trinidad. Col 21.00 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Toledo & Indiana Traction Co. 

Toledo. Ohio 5--oo 1,650,000 2,500,000 

Trenton & New Brunswick Railroad 

Co., Trenton, N. J 23.70 1,000,000 1,000,000 

Washington, Berwvn & Laurel Electric 

Railroad Co., Washington. D. C. 8.96 220,000 500,000 
Wilmington, New Castle & Southern 

Railway Co., New Castle, Del 6.00 150,000 165,000 

. 724.36 $26,374,065 $19,106,613 

Underlying companies. 

...♦„. 

The Schoneberg (Berlin) Electric Underground Railway was 
opened to public traffic on Dec. 1, 1910. A 5-minute service is 
provided during the greater part of the day, with a 10-minute 
service early in the morning. Steps have been taken to in- 
crease the capacity of the Berlin Elevated & Underground 
Railway, which interchanges traffic with the Schoneberg line ; 
a 3^2-minute service is to be arranged. The six-car trains re- 
cently introduced on the elevated railway are being increased 
in number during the rush hours. 



20 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



INTERURBAN CONSTRUCTION IN THE CENTRAL STATES 
DURING 1910 



WITH ACCOMPANYING MAP 



The mileage of the interurban railways of the North Cen- 
tral States showed comparatively little growth during 1910. 
The largest additions to the interurban network of these 
States were made by roads that were well under way toward 
completion before the year began. Other scattering mileage is 
composed chiefly ef small extensions and short connecting 
links. The plans for 191 1 as so far announced do not in- 
dicate that any considerable mileage will be added in these 
States. 

The Electric Railway Journal again presents with the 
first issue of the year a map showing the location of the in- 
terurban lines in those Central States in which interurban 
railroading first began and has shown the greatest develop- 
ment. The preparation of the map has been made with due 
regard to accuracy. Imprints of the map as it was published 
a year ago were mailed to all the roads within the territory 
shown, with requests that corrections and additions for the 191 1 
map be indicated. The information thus received has been 
transferred to the original map, from which the accompany- 
ing engraving has been made. In addition to the corrections 
and additions as thus obtained, the proposed lines have been 
checked with the news items presented in the construction 
columns of this paper. Thus every effort has been made to pre- 
sent the map of the interurban roads of the Central States 
in as correct a form as possible. However, on account of the 
wide scope of the territory included, there may be some errors 
of location and if such are observed this paper will greatly 
appreciate any advice that may assist in making more com- 
plete the records of new construction and proposed roads. Ac- 
knowledgment is made to The Arnold Company, Chicago. Ill, 
for the use of the original drawing from which the engraving 
for the accompanying map was made. 

The growth of the interurban mileage in the North Central 
States during 1910 has been fairly well distributed among 
the different States. In Ohio no new line of any considerable 
length has been completed. Probably the most important 
road now under way is that between Fostoria and Fremont. 
This line, nearly 22 miles long, has been graded and the track- 
is about completed so that it is expected to begin service about 
March, 1911. The Fostoria and Fremont line is of particular 
interest because it is a connecting link which will greatly 
shorten the through route between Lima and Cleveland, Ohio. 
Lima, it will be noted, is now served by interurban roads 
radiating in six directions. The three lines to the south and 
west have through connections with the three lines to the north 
and east. The present business for points east of Toledo on the 
Lake Shore Electric Railway has, of necessity, been sent 
through Toledo. With the completion of the Fostoria-Fre- 
mont line a direct route from Lima to Cleveland will be avail- 
able. This line has been promoted and built by interests 
friendly to those of the Western Ohio Railway. The lines 
of the latter company form the mid-section of the well-known 
Dayton and Toledo through route over which considerable 
traffic from the southern part of Ohio is carried each year 
to the Great Lakes region by way of Lima, Findlay and To- 
ledo. The new connection from Fostoria. the northeastern 
terminus of the Western Ohio system, will offer a fast through 
route from Lima direct to the numerous resorts located along 
the south shore of Lake Frie and served by the Lake Shore 
Electric Railway. 

The interurban network of Indiana is closely connected with 
the Ohio lines. A new road crossing the State line, which is 
said to be well under construction, will connect Fort Wayne 
and Bryan, Ohio, thus offering a short route between Fort 
Wayne and Toledo via the Toledo and Indiana property. The 
line from Fort Wayne to Bryan is being graded and some 
bridges have been built. This route between Fort Wayne and 
Toledo when completed will be about 100 miles long. 



The largest piece of new track to be put into service during 
1910 in Indiana was the Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo 
road from Indianapolis to New Castle, 41.5 miles long. The 
Bluffton, Geneva & Celina Traction Company inaugurated 
service during the year on a new road extending 18.5 miles 
southeast from Bluffton toward Celina. Ohio. This company 
announces that in 191 1 it will build 21 miles of additional track 
to connect its present line with the Western Ohio Railway 
at Celina. Considered from the standpoint of long-distance 
travel, the most important track link which was completed in 

1910 was that of the Winona Interurban Railway between Men- 
tone and Chili in the north central part of Indiana. This 
link has made possible through electric travel from Sheboygan, 
Wis., by way of Milwaukee, Chicago, South Bend, Warsaw, 
the newly built section to Peru, Fort Wayne, Lima and Toledo, 
to Detroit, Cleveland and east along the south shore of Lake 
Erie to Buffalo and other New York State points. From the 
cities named in Indiana and Ohio other routes radiate to the 
important traffic centers in Indiana and Ohio and to Louisville, 
Ky. Through service is now operated between South Bend and 
Indianapolis over the lately completed section by the Chicago, 
South Bend & Northern Indiana, the Winona Interurban and 
tlu- Indiana Union Traction companies. During the past year 
the Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway, a high-speed 
single-phase line between South Bend and Pullman, 111., 
completed double-tracking 10 miles of its road through the 
densely populated manufacturing district south of Chicago. 
The Kokomo, Frankfort & Terre Haute Traction Company an- 
nounces that during 191 1 it probably will build from Kokomo 
26 miles southwest to Frankfort. This company is allied with 
the Kokomo. Marion & Western Traction Company. Another 
larger project which it is stated may be got under way during 

191 1 is that of connecting the "Ben Hur Route" at Crawfords- 
ville with the Illinois Traction System at Danville, 111. This 
link will require 42 miles of track and its completion will make 
possible fast service between Indianapolis and the larger cities 
in central and southern Illinois. 

In 1909 the Michigan United Railways completed a 37-mile 
high-speed line between Jackson and Lansing. During 1910 
this company has nearly completed construction work on a 
line 23 miles long connecting Haslett. a surburb 9 miles east 
of Lansing, with Owosso. These new lines of the Michigan 
United Railways are operated by third-rail and are built for 
high-speed passenger and freight service. In southwestern 
Michigan the Benton Harbor-St. Joe Railway & Light Com- 
pany has completed a 15-mile line from Benton Harbor south- 
east to Eau Claire and Paw Paw Lake. During 191 1 
it is announced that this company will extend this new line 
eastward to Dowagiac. 

The Detroit River Tunnel Company early in October in- 
augurated service through its twin tubes extending under the 
Detroit River and connecting its Canadian lines with those 
in Michigan. 

The increase in electrically operated track has been greater 
in Illinois than in others of the Central States, the largest mile- 
age having been added by the Rock Island Southern Railway 
and the Chicago, Aurora & De Kalb Railroad. The Rock 
Island Southern line consists of a 50.2-mile, 11,000-volt sub- 
stantially built freight and passenger road from Rock Island 
to Monmouth, 111. A 19-mile section of this track is a -branch 
of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific steam railroad system, 
which the interurban company has leased for a term of 25 
years. In constructing the new roadbed lately put into opera- 
tion 1,300,000 cu. yd. of earthwork was handled in 31 miles and 
a number of large bridges and trestles were built. One of the 
steel bridges is 625 ft. long and 75 ft. high. The Chicago, 
Aurora & De Kalb Railroad during the year electrified a 
30-mile gasoline-operated line between Aurora, De Kalb and 
Cortland. 

The ceremonies attending the dedication of the McKinley 
Bridge at St. Louis probably attracted as widespread attention 
from the public as any piece of electric railway construction 
work consummated during 1910. This bridge was formally 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



21 



opened Nov. 10 in the presence of the Governors of Illinois and 
Missouri and many other people of commercial and political 
note. The entrance to St. Louis of the Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem over its bridge and new line within that city has been 
made possible by constructing the most extensive terminal 
project ever undertaken by an interurban railway, the general 
and detail features of which have been described fully in 
numerous articles presented by this paper during the past 
year. The total cost of the project, which includes the Mc- 
Kinlev Bridge; 10 miles of double track, largely on private 
right-of-way through congested territory ; a 14,000-kw generat- 
ing station ; the improvement of a 24-acre carload freight ter- 
minal and the construction of passenger and express stations 
within St. Louis, is approximately $7,000,000. Since the com- 
pletion of the bridge link between Illinois and Missouri the 
traffic passing in and out of the St. Louis terminal has more 
than met expectations. 

The Illinois Traction System announces that during the 
present year it will complete the construction of its extension 
from Morris northeast to Joliet. This will give it a system in 
northern Illinois of more than 100 miles of track, separated 
from its principal system in the central part of the State by 
a gap of less than 50 miles. Construction plans for the latter 
gap have not been announced. 

In Wisconsin the Sparta-Melrose Electric Railway & Pow- 
er Company built 10 miles of track during 1910, from Sparta 
to Trout Falls, and now announces that the road will be com- 
pleted to Melrose during iqti. It is expected also that the 
Chicago, Harvard & Geneva Lake Railroad interests, under 
the name of the Marengo, Harvard & Northern Illinois, dur- 
ing the present year will construct to miles of track north 
from Walworth to Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. 

In Iowa during 1910 the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & North- 
ern Railway constructed an 8-mile extension to Waverly. A 
line 6.6 miles long between Centerville and Mystic was also 
put into operation in Iowa last year. The Tri-City Railway 
Company, of Davenport, expects to build about 35 miles of in- 
terurban line westward from Davenport to Muscatine and five 
miles of city track are planned for 191 1. Another new line 
put into operation in Iowa during the past year connects Charles 
City and Marble Rock and is 15 miles in length. 

The Minneapolis, Rochester & Dubuque Railway, of St. 
Paul, Minn., has inaugurated service during 1910 on 40 miles 
of line extending south from St. Paul to Northfield. Service 
is given with gasoline motor cars. 

The Lexington & Interurban Railway in Kentucky com- 
pleted during the earl)' part of the year a fourth interurban 
line out of Lexington, extending southward 12 miles to Nich- 
olasville, and passing through a rolling country which required 
particularly heavy earthwork. -, 

_ I 

TESTS ON GERMAN ACCUMULATOR CARS 



The Halle (Germany) railways have recently completed some 
tests with a six-axle accumulator car on the line between 
Koltbus and Schonwalde, which is 40 miles long. The car 
weighs 60.5 tons, and was loaded with 6 tons to represent pas : 
sengers. The route was first traversed at 30 m.p.h., stopping 
at all stations, then at 37.5 m.p.h. without stopping and finally 
at 37.5 m.p.h. including stops. The results are shown in the 
following table : 



Speed in No. of Energy consump- Watt-hours 
State of miles per stops. tion (kw. -hours), per ton mile. 

Kails. hour. Going. Return. Going. Return. Going. Return. 

Damp 30 10 10 61 63 22.9 23.7 

Damp 37.5 1 3 52.5 53.5 19.8 ao.o 

Dry 37.5 10 10 67.5 66.5 25.3 24.9 



The battery consisted of 168 cells and had a capacity of 368 
amp-hours. It can run 62^4 miles on one charge. 



Texas Traction Company, Dallas, Tex., and several gas and 
electric companies under the same management have issued a 
card extending the season's greeting. 



RECENT ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR DESIGN 

The table which is printed on pages 22, 23 and 24 of this 
issue gives the principal dimensions and other descriptive data 
of more than 100 representative types of electric railway cars 
for city, suburban and interurban service. Most of these cars 
have been built during the last two or three years, and many 
of them have been illustrated and described in the Electric 
Railway Journal. In the following explanatory notes refer- 
ences are given to the date and page number of these descrip- 
tive articles. The weights and dimensions of cars given in the 
table were obtained from the railway companies and acknowl- 
edgment is made to all those who supplied the data from which 
the table was compiled. 

NOTES ON TABLE OF CAR DIMENSIONS 

(1) This car was illustrated and described in the Electric 
Railway Journal for Oct. 9, 1909, page 841. The platforms 
are inclosed with folding doors and gates and folding seats 
holding six passengers may be let down on the front platform, 
giving a total seating capacity of 42. 

(2) The closed cars of the Little Rock Railway & Electric 
Company are not designed for prepayment operation, but the 
conductor stands near the rear door and collects fares from 
passengers as they enter the car. 

(3) All cars of the Los Angeles Railway are being rebuilt 
to conform to the standard dimensions given in the table. The 
roofs are of the arched type. 

(4) These are the new standard cars of the United Railroads 
of San Francisco. Eighty cars of this type are under construc- 
tion. 

(5) Four-motor equipments. These cars were described in 
the Electric Railway Journal for Oct. 2, 1909, page 503. 
They are the standard type of the Denver City Tramway. 

(6) Two-motor equipments. Bodies are the same as the 
four-motor equipments. 

(7) Standard trail car. Has arched roof and center side en- 
trance. 

(8) These cars were described in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Oct. 2, 1909, page 503. They have folding plat- 
form doors and steps, manually operated. 

(9) See Electric Railway Journal for Sept. 18, 1909, 
page 434, for description of these cars. Used in city and subur- 
ban service. They have sliding , platform doors and folding 
steps pneumatically operated. 

(10) These cars were described in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Dec. 24, 1910, page 1247. The platforms are open 
with folding gates over the steps. 

(11) All-steel cars. Described in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Aug. 28, 1909, page 312. These cars have the same 
dimensions and substantially the same weight as the wooden 
cars of the same design, of which the company has more than 
600 in service. 

(12) These cars have platforms arranged for conversion to 
prepayment operation at small expense. 

(13) Complete detail weights and full description of these 
cars were printed in the Electric Railway Journal for 
April 2, 1910, page 571. 

(14) Described in Electric Railway Journal for Oct. 1, 
1 910, page 498. ' 

(15) The platforms of these cars are inclosed with folding- 
gates; can be used as prepayment cars if desired. The weights 
given are actual scale weights. 

(16) See Electric Railway Journal for March 13, 1909, 
page 469. 

(17) These cars were illustrated and described in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal for Dec. 31, 1910, page 1285. 

(18) Platforms inclosed with folding gates. 

(19) Described in Electric Railway Journal for Nov. 2, 
1907, page 917. 

(20) See Electric Railway Journal for April 2, 1910. page 
566. The weights given are scale weights. 

(21) Floor plan of this car was shown in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for July 16. 1910, page 119. 



22 



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(22) These cars were described in the Electric Railway 

Journal for May 1, 1909, page 828. 

(23) See Ej-ECTric Railway Journal for Oct. 24, 1908, 
page 1259. 

(24) Illustrated in the Electric Railway Journal for June 
18, 1910, page 1072. Are convertible on one side only. 

(25) These cars are equipped with roller-bearing journals 
and ball-bearing armature bearings. 

(26) Semi-steel bodies ; rear platform inclosed with folding 
doors. Have no front platform. Described in Electric Rail- 
way Journal for Oct. 15, 1910, page 834. 

(27) Will seat 70 passengers when used as open car. De- 
scribed in Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 3, 1910, page 
11 18. 

(28) Has smoking compartment with eight chairs. Observa- 
tion rear platform ; used for limited service. 

(29) One motor and one trailer truck. Trailer truck has 31- 
in. wheels and 5-ft. 6-in. wheelbase. 

(30) These cars were described in the Electric Railway 
Journal for July 16, 1910, page 103. 

TYPES OF CITY CARS 

Four types of city cars, closed, semi-convertible, convertible 
and open, are represented in the table. Closed cars with single 
sashes, either raised part way into pockets back of the letter 
board or dropped completely down into pockets between the 
side panels and the inside lining, are being built in the largest 
numbers, but the semi-convertible cars, which are equally well 
adapted to winter and summer service, are displacing open and 
closed cars on many roads. Open cars have the two advan- 
tages of large seating capacity and light weight, but they repre- 
sent an idle investment for six months in the year and require 
storage under cover when not in use. The semi-convertible 
car permits prepayment fare collection at all seasons of the 
year and eliminates the danger from accidents to persons on 
the running board. The semi-convertible suburban cars of the 
Capital Traction Company are of a type which combines the 
advantages of cross-seats, prepayment fare collection, inclosed 
platforms and in summer as free circulation of air as can be 
had on an open car owing to the absence of the end bulkheads 
in the car and the use of drop sashes in all the platform win- 
dows. The Third Avenue Railroad cars are another type 
which is equally well adapted to congested city service in sum- 
mer and winter. On the Pacific Coast the so-called California- 
type car, in which about half the seats are in an open-side sec- 
tion and the remainder are in a closed section, is used in large 
numbers, both for city and intei urban service. This type of 
car is adapted only for mild and equable climates and has not 
been used in the Eastern or Northern States. The one-side 
convertible cars of the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Com- 
pany are adapted only for single-end operation. The cross- 
seats are made in a long section against the closed side and a 
short, removable section against the open side. When used as 
a closed car the short sections are removed to form an aisle 
along the side of the car. 

SEATING ARRANGEMENT 

The use of cross-seats with a narrow center aisle instead of 
two longitudinal seats and a wide aisle is now quite general 
for city cars. Experience with semi-convertible cars with 
cross-seats demonstrated the feasibility of handling heavy loads 
in spite of the narrow aisle, and the greater comfort of both the 
seated and standing passengers was an argument in favor of 
cross-seats. The strongest objection to the narrow aisle was 
that it retarded the conductor in collecting fares and caused 
him to jostle the standing passengers as he moved backward 
and forward through the car. The prepayment method of fare 
collection overcomes this objection. 

The semi-steel cars of the Pittsburgh Railways have a longi- 
tudinal seat along one side and cross-seats on the opposite side 
separated by an aisle 37-in. wide as compared with a 22-in. aisle 
on cross-seat cars of the same width inside. The arrangement 
of seats near the entrance and exit doors is an important detail 
and a wide variation is found in cars of the same general type. 
In the semi-convertible pay-as-you-enter cars of the Third 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



25 



Avenue Railroad there are 10 cross-seats on each side of a 
30-ft. body and folding double longitudinal seats are placed in 
each of the four corners adjoining the entrance and exit door 
openings. This arrangement provides the maximum poss.ble 
number of cross-seats without interfering with the free move- 
ment of passengers in or out at either end of the car. The 
other extreme in a cross-seat car is found in the single-end 
cars of the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company, which 
have six cross-seats on each side at the forward end and two 
longitudinal seats 13 ft. in. long at the rear. The longitudinal 
seats of the Metropolitan Street Railway cars are cut back 
about 3 in. for a distance of 30 in. away from the bulkheads so 
as to increase the width of the aisle near the end doors. 

The spacing of cross-seats longitudinally, as shown in the 
table, varies from 29-}^ in. to 33 in. The usual allowance of 16 
in. of length per passenger in longitudinal seat cars compares 
with a 32-in. spacing for cross-seats. There is a tendency to 
increase the distance between seats, especially in cars used for 
long runs on account of the greater comfort of passengers. 
While a difference of 1 in. or 2 in. in the seat spacing does not 
appear to be important it affects the entire body framing and 
must be taken into account in making comparisons of weight 
and seating capacity per foot of body length. 

The desire to provide as many seats as possible has led to 
the use of folding seats on the platforms. The Birmingham 
single-truck cars and the prepayment cars of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway and the Third Avenue Railroad, among others 
included in the table, are provided with seats of this kind. 
From four to six passengers may be seated on the front plat- 
form of a car without interfering with the motorman or the 
exit of passengers. The latest Pittsburgh cars have no front 
platform; the longitudinal seat on the left-hand side is carried 
forward to the extreme end of the car and the motorman is 
separated from the passengers only by a pipe railing. 

PLATFORMS 

Before the introduction of the prepayment method of fare 
collection the ordinary length of platforms on closed cars 
varied from 4 ft. to 5 ft This has been increased in most pre- 
payment cars to from 6 ft. to 7 ft. 6 in. The earlier designs of 
prepayment cars had excessively long platforms, but experi- 
ence has shown that the successful operation of cars of this 
type does not require platforms longer than 6 ft. The all-steel, 
single-end, pay-as-you-enter cars put in service in Montreal in 
1907 had rear platforms 9 ft. 8 in. long, and the pay-as-you- 
enter cars of the Cleveland Railway, built in 1908, had plat- 
forms 8 ft. long. In contrast with these long platforms may be 
mentioned the single-end pay-as-you-enter cars of the Detroit 
United Railway with 5-ft. 10-in. platforms and the Jacksonville 
pay-as-you-enter cars with 5-ft. platforms. The latter cars, 
however, have the bulkheads set in about 20 in. from the corner 
posts. The platforms of the Capital Traction Company's pay- 
within cars are 5 ft. 7 in. long. 

The maintenance of long platforms supported by wooden 
sills bolted and clamped to the body underframing is a serious 
problem, and in most of the recent designs of long-platform 
cars metal side knees carried well back toward the body 
bolsters have been used. One prominent car builder employs 
two channels bent to the proper shape and boated together with 
spreaders to form a shallow truss, while another builder uses 
riveted plate girder knees. 

The arrangement of platform steps, doors and gates, parti- 
tion railings and body end doors of prepayment cars is very 
varied. Hardly any two designs of cars built during the past 
year have been alike in this respect. The individual ideas of 
the car builders and their customers have largely governed the 
design of platforms. The patent situation with regard to the 
details of prepayment platforms is very complicated, and to 
some extent, at least, has been responsible for the numerous de- 
signs now in use. It is interesting to note in this connection 
a marked tendency toward the use of platform doors or gates 
as a means for effectually preventing boarding and alighting 
accidents. 



CAR FRAMING 

In nearly all of the recent types of double-truck cars more or 
less steel has been used in combination with wooden members 
for the underframing and body framing below the window sills. 
All-steel construction has not yet been developed to the point 
where it can compete in first cost and low weight with wooden 
construction reinforced with steel. Unlike a steam railroad 
car body, a street car is not subjected to severe draft stresses 
which must be transmitted from end to end through the under- 
framing, nor is it necessary to provide great strength against 
collisions. On the other hand, it is subjected to severe longi- 
tudinal stresses due to the rapid and constant acceleration and 
braking, and also to severe transverse stresses when passing 
around sharp curves. Utilization of the strength of the car 
side below the windows to carry the vertical stresses rather 
than a number of longitudinal sills in the bottom frame has 
produced greater stiffness for the same or less weight. Where 
drop sash are used with wood side panels this result is ac- 
complished by introducing a thick steel plate, 10 in. to 12 in. 
wide, to reinforce the side sills. Overhang and drop truss rods 
are also employed to stiffen the car side. Diagonal braces in 
the floor framing are essential in street car construction owing 
to the cross-bending and twisting stresses set up when running 



UNIT WEIGHTS OF CARS. 

Weight Wt. per Ft. Wt. per 

RailwayCompany. per Seat. of Length. Sq. Ft. 

Closed. 

Birmingham Ry., Lieht & Power* 831 ' 820 95 

United R. R., San Francisco no; 112; 126 

Denver City Tramway, 4-motor 738 874 107 

Denver City Tramway, 2-motor 689 816 100 

Washington Railway & Electric Co 795 838 101 

Jacksonville Electric Co 7;- 844 98 

Georgia Railway & Flectric Co 957 830 102 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co* 712 632 78 

Chicago Railways 1324 1078 131 

Springfield Consolidated Railwav* 678 550 69 

Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction*.. 628 627 73 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co.... 1012 931 no 

Detroit United Railway 973 989 "9 

United Railways, St. Louis 993 i°50 117 

Public Service Railway 11 10 984 115 

F. J. & G. Railway 1158 1096 129 

Metropolitan Street Railway 808 809 98 

Cleveland Railway 834 800 100 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit 945 859 "3 

Tacoma Railway & Power Co 622 780 112 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co.. 960 1000 117 

Semi-Convertible. 

Capital Traction Co 934 820 97 

Capita! Traction Co 1202 1100 126 

Chicago &• Milwaukee Electric Railway.. 1000 1059 124 

United Railways & Electric Co 1000 960 118 

Boston Elevated Railway 1019 1098 127 

Boston & Northern Street Railway 1070 1083 128 

Grand Rapids Railway 95 1 736 81 

Twin City Rapid Transit 923 998 119 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit 975 920 115 

Rochester Railway 1156 1092 131 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway 1242 1162 137 

Third Avenue Railroad 763 854 98 

Pittsburgh Railways 842 1028 128 

San Antonio Traction Co 1018 914 "2 

Utah Light & Railway Co 1090 1090 128 

Open and California Type. 

Los Angeles Railway (Cal.) 817 816 99 

Northern Electric Railway (Cal.) 817 915 no 

Northern Electric Railway (Open) 35,7 761 94 

Boston & Northern Street Railwav 517 886 98 

Coney Island & Brooklyn 386 643 74 

*Single-truck cars. 

around sharp curves. Some qar builders introduce these mem- 
bers at the corners between the bolster and the end sill, while 
others frame them in the center between the bolsters. They 
are not so necessary in steel underframes, where gusset plates 
can be used to stiffen the corners and hold the framing square. 

A comparatively recent development in car body framing is 
the use of cast-steel body bolsters. The loads carried by the 
side framing must be transmitted to the truck center plates 
through the bolsters and these members of the underframe 
must be strong and rigid. The Denver City Tramway has been 
using cast-steel body bolsters for nearly three years at a con- 
siderable saving of weight over built-up bolsters. The 1910 
report of the Engineering Association committee on equip- 
ment contained an interesting and valuable discussion on car 
framing in which several principles of design were given. 

The problem of reducing the weight of city cars is still 
absorbing the attention of car builders. Progress is being made 



26 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



in the direction of eliminating unnecessary weight in the in- 
numerable small parts not subjected to severe stresses rather 
than in the principal members of the framing, where both 
strength and stiffness are essential. Studies of detail weights, 
such as have been made by the Boston & Northern Street Rail- 
way and other companies have furnished data which have 
never before been in the hands of the designers of cars. Even 
the car builders did not know the weight of the cars which 
they built a few years ago. The effort to reduce weights has 
been directed chiefly toward the car body, but it will be ob- 
served from the table on pages 22 and 23 that the weight of 
the trucks and electrical equipment in most cases exceeds the 
weight of the body. There is an opportunity for reducing the 
weight of these parts also. 

Comparisons of car weights should take into account condi- 
tions of climate, schedules and track. The weight per seat is 
perhaps the most common basis of comparison, and weight per 
foot of length and weight per square foot of floor area have 
also been proposed as units. In the accompanying table of 
unit weights of a number of cars of recent design the compari- 
son has been made in each of these three ways. The weight 
used in each case is the total weight of the car, trucks and 
equipment. The length is the length over bumpers and square 
feet of floor area was computed by multiplying the length over 
bumpers by the width over belt rail. 

The wide variations in these ratios are apparent from an in- 
spection of the table. The weight per seat for closed cars 
varies from 622 lb. t 1324 lb. Single-truck cars weigh per 
seat nearly 40 per cent less than the average for double-truck 
cars, while open cars weigh as low as 357 lb. per seat. The two- 
motor and four-motor cars of the Denver City Tramway have 
the same bodies and trucks, but the difference in the weight of 
the electrical equipment alone is reflected in a striking manner 
in the three ratios which are given in the table on page 25 of 
this issue. 

,..4* 

APPLICATIONS TO BUILD TRACKLESS TROLLEY LINES 
IN GREAT BRITAIN 



Sixteen applications have been made to Parliament for 
powers to establish trackless electric railways in various 
localities throughout Great Britain. Some of these proposals 
are from local authorities, some from existing tramway 
companies and others are from companies formed expressly 
to build trackless lines. Leeds, Bradford, Sheffield and 
Newcastle have already received permission to operate 
trackless tramways and powers are being sought by the 
Northampton Corporation, Halifax Corporation, Malvern 
Electric Traction Company, Matlock District Railless Trac- 
tion Company, Brighton, Hove & Preston United Omnibus 
Company, Aberdare Urban District Council, the Maccles- 
field & District Railless Electric Traction & Electricity 
Supply Company, Rotherham Corporation, the Croydon & 
Southern District Railless Electric Traction Company, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Corporation, the Western Valleys 
(Monmouthshire) Railless Traction Company, the Rother- 
ham, Maltby & District Railless Electric Traction Com- 
pany, the Oldham & Saddleworth District Electric Railless 
Traction Company and the Chiswick Urban District Council. 
At present no trackless trolley systems are operated in 
Great Britain. 



Attorney-General O'Malley, of New York, after reviewing 
the work of his department during the year, recommends 
that power to equalize special franchise assessments should 
be given to the State Board of Tax Commissioners, thus 
rendering it unnecessary to apply to the courts, the latter 
having decided that special franchise assessments must be 
equalized at the rate at which local real property is assessed. 
Mr. O'Malley also urges an amendment to the tax law pro- 
viding that the occupation of a highway by a public service 
corporation shall be prima facie evidence of the existence 
of the special franchise. 



THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY ASSOCIATION 



BY ARTHUR W. BRADY, PRESIDENT 



The American Electric Railway Association represents a 
growth of more than a quarter of a century and now embraces 
within its membership all classes of electric railways, surface, 
elevated and subway, urban, suburban and interurban, as well 
as partially electrified steam railroads. It owes its existence to 
the principle of co-operation that has played so large a part 
in the advancement of the material growth and prosperity of 
this continent. The principal questions confronting the elec- 
tric railway industry in policy, management and operation are 
much the same north and south, east and west. The trend 
of events is to increase the similarities, rather than the di- 
vergencies, in these questions. It is obvious that the sub- 
stantially identical problems constantly presented for solu- 
tion at points hundreds or thousands of miles apart can be 
solved most wisely and permanently through the co-operation 
of all affected by them, so that the conclusion reached by one 
management may represent the combined thought and experi- 
ence of many. The American Electric Railway Association is 
intended to afford the opportunity for this necessary co-opera- 
tion. The measure of its success is the extent to which it has 
furnished and is furnishing this opportunity. 

The objects of the association are largely accomplished 
through its affiliated associations, the Engineering, Claim 
Agents', Transportation & Traffic, and Accountants' asso- 
ciations, which deal with practical questions affecting all 
branches of electric railway operation. The high quality and 
the amount of work which these associations have done in 
the past demonstrate the standard which these bodies have 
set for themselves. The work planned by them for the coming 
year will open up some new fields and add to results ac- 
complished in old ones. 

The work of the parent association is naturally of a dif- 
ferent character from that falling within the scope of the 
affiliated associations. It affects the industry at a different 
angle. Generally speaking, the parent association deals, on 
the one hand, with those problems which affect the fundamental 
relations between the electric railway industry and the public, 
and, on the other hand, with those internal concerns of elec- 
tric railway management which affect the business as a whole, 
rather than some particular part or department of it. 

A brief reference to part of the plans which have been laid 
for the coming year will indicate some of the things that the 
association is doing. 

Of the questions affecting the relations between the' com- 
panies and the public none is more important than those re- 
lating to the permanence and terms of franchises, without 
which electric railroads cannot exist, and to the kind, extent 
and method of public regulation. The determination of all 
such questions under a popular form of government depends 
finally on the views which the public shall adopt concerning 
them. The education of the public to the point of a correct 
conclusion has not been accomplished in some prominent in- 
stances without extended periods of stress and struggle, 
costly, if not disastrous, to both railways and public. There 
should be some better method of arriving at correct views. 
War in industrial affairs is to be deplored almost as much as in 
affairs of state. In either case victory is determined by force, 
not reason and justice. There is no feason for wonder at 
the universality with which false views on electric railway af- 
fairs have been entertained by the general public. The sincere 
enthusiasm of honest promoters, combined with extraordinary 
profits, real or apparent, of earlier years, te*)ded to create 
the belief that every franchise was a mine of wealth. Dis- 
illusionment on the part of owners and managers came 
quickly, as the concurrence of shrunken income and extended 
rides was disclosed, and as demands for extensions and im- 
provements, for renewals and replacements had to be met. 
The general public, however, knew little of these develop- 
ments and has often continued to cling to the old view. Recog- 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



27 



nition of the mutual interest of public and company, and of the 
fact that an unfair and excessive burden upon a company will 
necessarily at some time and in some way be shifted to the 
shoulders of the public, has made way with discouraging slow- 
ness. 

This question of fostering the formation of correct views 
on all matters relating to franchises and regulation will en- 
gage the especial attention of the association during the 
present year. Work done in this direction comes within the 
purview of the committee on public relations. It is expected 
that part of the results of its labors will be submitted to the 
members of the association before the winter is over. 

At the recent convention in Atlantic City two subjects were 
decided to be of sufficient importance to require the appoint- 
ment of additional committees to consider them particularly. 
One of these subjects is that of taxation. An exhaustive re- 
port read at the convention disclosed the heterogeneous charac- 
ter of the systems — if they may properly be called such — for 
the taxation of electric railway properties. The burden of 
taxation is a heavy one for every company and rarely can it 
be reduced, even when business conditions necessitate the 
cutting down of every other item of expense. The importance 
of the subject is so clear that unquestionably the convention 
acted with wisdom in authorizing the appointment of a com- 
mittee to give it attention. The committee has been named, and 
the plans for its work are being laid. 

The other subject referred to is that of the proper basis for 
the determination of rates and fares. This subject is of 
fundamental importance, the success of even the most favorably 
situated companies depending on the correct solution of the 
problem presented. In these days, when the fixing of rates 
and fares by legislatures, commissions and municipal bodies is 
constantly up for decis'on, the matter is of more than usual 
importance. The committee to consider this subject has been 
appointed and its work is under way. 

The association will continue to give attention to matters 
affecting the relations between electric railways and the 
federal government. The increased number of matters at 
the national capitol which the committee on interstate com- 
merce commission affairs has been forced to look after has 
caused a change of name to that of the committee on federal 
relations. The increased powers and duties of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission are of themselves likely to multiply 
the matters before the commission itself requiring the at- 
tention of the committee. In addition to these, and to matters 
of federal legislation, attention must be given to the two com- 
missions authorized at the last session of Congress, one to 
deal with the regulation of capitalization and the other with 
employees' compensation. It may be found wise to arrange 
for hearings on behalf of the association before these com- 
missions. 

Arrangements have been made to keep member companies 
advised of proposed legislation affecting those electric rail- 
ways engaged in interstate commerce and therefore subject 
to federal legislation. The number of such companies is now 
large, and even those not subject to the interstate commerce 
acts have an interest in legislation of this character, for it is 
likely to serve as a model for State legislation. 

Another item of general interest relating to the federal 
government is that of compensation for carrying United States 
mail. This matter stands apart from other federal affairs and 
falls to the charge of another committee. This subject will 
receive renewed attention during the year, and it is hoped that 
some real progress will be made. 

The highly practical value of the work which the associa- 
tion has already done through its committee on insurance is 
generally recognized. This committee will continue its ef- 
forts, and hopes to put into workable shape certain plans which 
it has developed and which it believes will accomplish important 
results for the industry. 

The association has at all times taken an interest in matters 
affecting the welfare and the training of employees. It is 
well understood that opportunity exists for the accomplishment 



of valuable results on both of these lines. This is work which 
an international organization such as the American Electric 
Railway Association is especially fitted to do. The committees 
which have this work in charge will continue to give it atten- 
tion with a view to reaching practical results. 

In all of its work the American Association is proceeding in 
a spirit of close co-operation with the various State and dis- 
trict associations. These associations and the American As- 
sociation have but one common purpose — the advancement of 
the electric rail-way industry. This being so, the work of all 
should be so planned and carried out that, as far as possible, 
each will support and supplement the other. With this end in 
view, the practice was first instituted last year, and will be con- 
tinued, of placing on the committee on public relations the 
presidents of these various associations. The field of this 
committee's work is so broad and important that any conclu- 
sions reached should be much more than a reflection of local 
views. Assurance that this will be the result is given by the 
widely representative character of this committee brought 
about by the practice referred to. 

The extent to which the association can accomplish all that 
such an association should accomplish depends largely on the 
degree of unanimity with which it has the support of the elec- 
tric railway industry within its territory. This support has 
always been freely given to the association, but there are still 
a number of companies which should become active members, 
and a much larger number of individuals who should become 
associate members. The committees on active membership and 
associate membership respectively are planning active cam- 
paigns, and by the next convention the association should be 
more nearly representative than ever before of the entire elec- 
tric railway industry of the United States, Canada and Mexico. 

Last Januarys for the first time, a mid-year conference was 
held at the offices of the association in New York. This prac- 
tice will be again followed this year, and Jan. 27 has been 
fixed as the date. The sessions at this conference are executive 
in character, and the opportunity is presented to discuss freely 
some of the more important questions relating to electric rail- 
way companies. The success of the conference last January 
demonstrated the wisdom of the innovation, and all signs point 
to a meeting fully as successful on Jan. 27. Assurances have 
been given of the presentation of matters which will be of un- 
usual interest and profit to all who attend. 

It is the belief of those who have closely watched its prog- 
ress that the association is year by year becoming a more 
potent instrument for good to electric railway companies, 
whether members or not. Every year should mark a decided 
gain, not merely in the numerical and financial strength of the 
association, but also in the beneficial results which the associa- 
tion is accomplishing for its members. If the plans which 
have been partially outlined above are carried out, as it is ex- 
pected they will be, the present year will mark such a gain. 
.>. 

ELECTRIC TRACTION IN SPAIN 

The society Hijos de Francisco Gambus Solex has applied 
to the Governor of Barcelona for authorization to build an 
electric station for the supply of light and motive power in 
Olesa de Montserrat and to a factory in Monistrol. The "Linea 
de Barcelona al Valles" is the title of another Barcelona com- 
pany just formed to construct tramways for linking the towns 
named. A third Barcelona company, styled "la Sociedad de 
Tranvais de Barcelona a San Andres," is seeking a concession 
to build an extension to San Andres from the Horta terminus 
of the Barcelona to Horta electric line. 

Governor Marshall of Indiana presented his address to the 
State Legislature on Jan. 3, 191 1. The only recommendation 
by him which affects the electric railways relates to the ad- 
visability of passing a law to give interurban railways the right 
of eminent domain to remove obstructions near the right-of- 
way which interfere with the view of the crews of cars. 



♦ 



28 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY ENGINEERING 
ASSOCIATION 



BY W. J. HARVIE, PRESIDENT 

During the last few years the American Electric Railway 
Association and its affiliated associations have been progressing 
wonderfully, and in no case is this progress more noticeable 
than in the Engineering Association. The .work done and 
the results produced have increased in volume and value to 
such an extent that the problem of providing time enough 
both for the work of its committees and for the proper han- 
dling of the committee reports is becoming a very serious one. 

It is needless to review the stages by which this has come 
about. Suffice it to say that if the present rate of increase 
continues (and there appears to be no reason for assuming 
otherwise) some very radical departure from present methods 
for conducting the association work must be devised in order 
lo provide the time required and to obtain the best results. 

The work of the past year has been very gratifying, and 
has resulted in the crystallization of a number of matters 
that have previously been before the association, among them 
the matter of laying out definite lines of procedure for the 
main portion of the association's work. The method of adop- 
tion of standards was most thoroughly investigated and the 
general plan previously laid out continued. A committee ap- 
pointed for the purpose is at present engaged in further ampli- 
fying the present scheme. The work this year will follow 
strictly the outlined procedure, and should therefore be even 
better than that of last year. 

The matter of ratification of standards and recommended 
practice by the American Association by letter ballot instead 
of by acclamation on the floor of convention is a step which 
is in line with the best practice of older associations, and 
should inure to the benefit of all concerned. 

The American Association and its affiliated" bodies stand fi r si 
of all for the advancement of the electric railway industry, 
and from this viewpoint welcome most heartily the various in- 
quiries and suggestions which have come to them recently from 
similar national or State organizations and contemplate the co- 
operation with them of this association. Joint interest estab- 
lished along the broad lines of betterment of the industries so 
represented cannot but work to the advantage of the organiza- 
tions concerned. The American Electric Railway Engineering 
Association may be relied upon to co-operate fully on any sub- 
ject so far as it is in its power to do so on any basis that is 
reasonable and equitable. That a great amount of good can be 
accomplished by a closer relationship with other like associa- 
tions cannot be questioned. 

A glance at the work for this year as laid out shows that it 
includes the investigation of some very important subjects, and 
the personnel of the various standing and special committees is 
assurance that the investigations of those subjects which are 
taken up will be most thorough. It was this year deemed wise 
to increase the membership of the various standing commit- 
tees by 50 per cent, thus increasing the number of members on 
each committee from six to nine. This increase of membership 
is a most important move, and makes possible the opportunity 
for a broader vision and a more thorough investigation of 
subjects, both of which will make the deductions and recom- 
mendations of committees and of this association of more value 
than ever before. This enlargement of committee membership 
should be carried still further from time to time as the asso- 
ciation progresses and the industry develops. This year the 
additional appointments were made for one, two and three 
year?' service. This arrangement retires three committeemen 
each year, and the three new appointments in future years will 
be made for three years each. 

The appointment on committees of associate members who 
may not be connected with member companies has resulted 
in benefit to the association in several ways, and is also an 
argument in favor of the increased size of working committees 
as well as for an increase in associate members. The increase 



in number of associate members during the last year sets a 
high mark for this year's associate membership committee, but 
the rearrangement of this associate membership committee 
work, by which each of the affliated associations will have its 
own committee on associate membership, should noticeably 
increase the efficiency of this branch of the work. 

The engineering association was never in better condition 
than now to produce the best results with its organization. It 
is safe to say that it has before it this year more live subjects 
than ever before, as well as the best facilities for investiga- 
tion of these matters that it has ever had. Developments are 
occurring so rapidly that it is extremely difficult to keep 
abreast of the advance, to select the important matters and to 
treat them rapidly enough and with sufficient care to make 
the conclusions both valuable and timely. It is only by broad- 
ness of view, co-operative effort and business methods that 
this can be accomplished, and these conditions we are more 
nearly approaching each year. This year will, without ques- 
tion, add its full share of advancement to the total progress of 
the Engineering Association. 



THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY ACCOUNTANTS' 
ASSOCIATION 



BY WILLIAM H. FORSE, JR., PRESIDENT 



The first recorded meeting of a national body of street rail- 
way accountants was the one held at Cleveland, Ohio, in 
March, 1897, when the Street Railway Accountants' Associa- 
tion of America was organized. This was the predecessor of 
the organization known since the Atlantic City convention of 
1910 as the American Electric Railway Accountants' Associa- 
tion. The arch which spans the years between may be said to 
represent the development of street and interurban railway 
accounting in America. At that first meeting the organizers 
wisely selected as the keystone of the arch, "A Standard Sys- 
tem of Accounts and Form of Report." This keystone has 
well fulfilled its purpose by serving as a strong center about 
which are grouped the other features of the association work. 

The association's committee on standard classification of 
accounts and form of report has rendered valuable service 
during the past decade. It has assisted the electric railways of 
the country in bringing order and uniformity out of what was 
formerly chaos in records and accounts. The committee is still 
actively engaged in constructive work. When the Interstate 
Commerce Commission was preparing the classifications of 
electric railway accounts which became effective on Jan. 1, 
1909, the committee was in session for days at a time with rep- 
resentatives of the commission, and the commission makes 
acknowledgment in its printed classifications of the aid ren- 
dered by the committee in formulating these systems of ac- 
counting. 

As an outgrowth of the committee's assistance in the prep- 
aration of the Interstate Commerce Commission classifications 
there is at present a permanent working arrangement between 
this association and the commission. The arrangement pro- 
vides that when any electric carrier submits a question under 
the classifications of the commission the question and the pro- 
posed reply of the commission shall be first submitted to the 
members of the classification committee. Each member of the 
committee considers the question and if any inconsistency or 
unreasonableness is manifest in the proposed reply the sub- 
ject is further discussed and a unanimous opinion agreed upon 
before the reply is finally sent to the railway and the case em- 
bodied in the official bulletins of the commission. The arrange- 
ment has resulted in decisions which are practical rather than 
purely technical. Every railway is benefited by the clearness 
with which perplexing questions are interpreted. 

During the past two years valiant work has been done by 'a 
committee of our association working jointly with a commit- 
tee of the Engineering Association. The appointment of this 
committee was an expression on the part of the associations of 



January 7, 191 1. 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



29 



the desirability for a closer working relation between them. At 
the 1908 convention the president of the Engineering Associa- 
tion delivered an address on the relation between the engineer- 
ing and accounting departments which indirectly brought about 
the appointment of this committee. The report presented by 
the committee at the 1910 convention treated in an able manner 
the subject of cost accounting as expressed by subdivisional 
accounts, shop orders and the detail forms and records in con- 
nection therewith. The committee has been enlarged and con- 
tinued during the coming year, and it will continue to accu- 
mulate data of value to the member companies of the associa- 
tion. Power costs, shop records which shall provide reliable 
units for ascertaining costs of repairs, and the broad field of 
manufacturing cost, with due regard to overhead charges, are a 
few of the studies which will probably engage the attention of 
the committee. 

At the first convention of the Transportation & Traffic As- 
sociation, which was held in 1908, a paper on the subject of 
"Freight and Express Traffic" was presented and discussed. The 
importance of uniformity in accounting for the revenue and 
expense of this service was at once recognized and much in- 
terest was manifested in considering the bases from which to 
arrive at the proper conclusions. The same subject was dis- 
cussed in the 1909 and 1910 conventions of that association and 
it has been constantly realized that the subject is one of great 
importance. In view of the experience of the steam railroads 
in endeavoring to secure adequate cost records of particular 
classes of service it is not at all unlikely that considerable diffi- 
culty will be encountered in blocking out a system of account- 
ing for the purpose of arriving at the real cost of handling 
freight and express traffic on electric railway lines. Neverthe- 
less, it is a fact that if a uniform plan is agreed upon and con- 
sistently adhered to by the numerous electric railways engaged 
in this business, it will greatly assist the owners and executive 
officers in making comparison year by year of widely separated 
properties operating under different conditions.' To gather all 
possible data upon this subject a joint committee composed of 
three members of the Transportation & Traffic Association and 
a like number of accountants has been appointed with in- 
structions to prepare a report for the next convention. The 
task of the committee will primarily be to outline a plan that 
can be used by electric railways in uniformly computing the 
revenues and expenses of freight and express traffic. 

The work of the joint committee will no doubt be facilitated 
by the special investigations to be made by the newly appointed 
committee on car miles and car hours. There is a wide field 
of usefulness for this new committee. It is impracticable and 
of little worth to make comparisons of costs per car mile 
and revenue per car mile without taking into consideration the 
varying factors which go to make up the unit. For example, 
the mile made by a heavy interurban motor car and the same 
distance traversed by a single-truck small-town car or by a 
modern prepayment type car of the large city cannot be in- 
telligently compared unless tonnage and other features are 
taken into consideration. There must also be considered the 
trailer car mileage, non-revenue mileage, etc., in order to secure 
valuable data. The new committee on this subject will inves- 
tigate and make recommendations for uniform practice in the 
preparation of such statistics. 

The interurban lines which exchange traffic, both freight and 
passengers, have received particular attention from the com- 
mittee on interline accounting, which presented a report at the 
1909 convention outlining a system of accounting for interline 
transactions. The committee has been continued for the com- 
ing year and will take up the new problems which arise in con- 
nection with this subject. Attention will also be given to de- 
tails not mentioned in the 1909 report, which was a general 
treatment of the subject. 

It has been the policy of this association to study some phases 
of accounting through the appointment of committees, while 
other subjects are treated in the form of papers prepared by 
accountants who are qualified by experience to present valu- 
able ideas. It has also been occasionally found advisable to 



invite persons outside of the association to contribute to the 
convention programs. It had been planned to have a paper on 
the subject of "Overhead Charges" by Dean M. E. Cooley, of 
the University of Michigan, at the 1910 convention, but the 
author was unavoidably detained. This is a subject of con- 
siderable interest to accountants and may be discussed at the' 
next convention. Two of the papers which were read at the 
last convention had not been printed for distribution at the 
convention, as is customary. These were the papers entitled 
"Accounting Features of the Cleveland Street Railway Fran- 
chise," by Henry J. Davies, secretary Cleveland Railway Com- 
pany, and "Census and Electric Railway Statistics," by W. M. 
Steuart, chief statistician for manufactures, Bureau of the 
Census. The papers contained so many valuable data that they 
have since been published in one pamphlet and distributed to 
members of the association. 

Our executive committee will meet during the latter part of 
lanuary and until then no definite plans for the next conven- 
tion program can be announced. It has been suggested that 
a paper describing the problems in the accounting of a small 
property will be interesting, because of the ingenuity required 
in simplifying records and forms. Methods adopted through 
sheer necessity for simplicity are sometimes found surprisingly 
valuable as eliminating waste and shortening labor. The prob- 
lems of the little company, when well solved, are everywhere 
interesting, for the accountant who can, with due regard to 
clarity and accuracy, accomplish most in the elimination of 
waste and the shortening of labor best deserves the title 
''American Electric Railway Accountant." 



THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY TRANSPORTA- 
TION & TRAFFIC ASSOCIATION 



BY H. C. PAGE, PRESIDENT 



The outlook for the work of the Transportation & Traffic 
Association in 191 1 is most attractive. Although the associa- 
tion, is in only the third year of its existence, the importance 
of its field is being widely recognized, and the large and 
enthusiastic attendance upon its meetings at the recent con- 
vention of the organization demonstrated many possibilities 
of usefulness to the industry as a whole. An excellent start 
in the coming year's activities has been made by the executive 
committee, which met in the general offices of the association 
in New York on Nov. 22, nearly six weeks ahead of the 
customary time of beginning preparations for the next con- 
vention. Present at this meeting were J. N. Shannahan, C. E. 
Learned, C. D. Emmons, J. V. Sullivan, A. Gaboury and the 
writer, only two of the committee members being absent in 
the representation of the entire country. This full attendance 
enabled the work in sight to be gone over in a comprehensive 
manner, and the subdivision of duties among the various com- 
mittees of the organization was dfscussed in considerable de- 
tail. The executive committee desires to keep in the closest 
touch with the work of all topical committees and from the 
beginning has exercised a general direction of activities which 
will unquestionably tend to bring about positive results through 
the co-operation of those responsible for the detailed investi- 
gation of assigned subjects. 

COMMITTEE ON SIGNALS 

An important task is to be undertaken by this committee, 
which has come into being this fall for the purpose of investi- 
gating in a broad way the many pressing and interesting 
problems connected with the safeguarding of traffic. In con- 
junction with a corresponding committee of the Engineering 
Association, the committee will make a thorough study of 
systems of signaling and dispatching in present use on high- 
speed electric railways throughout the country, including inter- 
urban, suburban, elevated and underground lines. Both auto- 
matic and manually operated block signaling are to be reviewed, 
and a special effort will be made to set forth the principles 



3o 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



which bear upon a maximum of safety in the operation of elec- 
tric railways. The formation of a committee on this subject 
arises from the belief held by many operating officers that too 
great a diversity exists in apparatus and methods for the safe- 
guarding of traffic, and that the influence of localities is less im- 
portant in signaling and dispatching than in many other 
branches of electric railway service. In other words, given 
the same conditions of alignment, grade, speed and frequency 
of cars, a system of signals applicable to the movement of 
traffic in Ohio ought to be equally useful in New Hampshire 
or New Jersey. The advantages of taking a few steps toward 
more standard equipment and methods need not be enlarged 
upon except to emphasize the tendency toward safer opera- 
tion which must result from greater uniformity, particularly 
at intersection points of different railway lines. The use on 
a single road of a number of signals greatly diversified in 
type is a source of great inconvenience to transportation em- 
ployees. 

COMMITTEE ON PASSENGER TRAFFIC 

On the floor of the 1910 convention the point was well made 
that too little consideration has thus far been given to the 
problems of increasing the every-day or routine business of 
electric railways, in view of the extensive discussions which 
have centered around the development of pleasure riding, ex- 
cursion business and extraordinary demands of one kind and 
another upon the operating organization and its equipment. 
The executive committee feels that there is an opportunity 
here for work of the most suggestive character, including the 
consideration of methods of encouraging short-distance rid- 
ing, admittedly highly profitable to operating companies, the 
meeting of competition in local and suburban service, and, in 
general, the adaptation of transportation facilities to the life 
of specific communities in such a way as to draw out the 
highest annual per capita patronage. While the detailed prob- 
lems which this committee will investigate this year have not 
yet been set forth, the work will be directed along the fore- 
going lines in the hope of securing recommendations which 
will be of value in enabling the member companies to enlarge 
their regular business and still further to remove electric rail- 
way service from that point of view which considers even 
short rides a luxury, and to bring it still closer to the list of 
vital necessities of modern life in the public mind. 

COMMITTEE ON EXPRESS AND FREIGHT TRAFFIC 

The growing importance of electric railway freight and ex- 
press service renders the work of this committee of great in- 
terest to the member companies. The work of the coming 
year will be directed along the lines of promoting the general 
advancement of the electric railway as a common carrier 
within the special fields in which its rapidity, accuracy and 
reasonable cost of service enable it to perform a unique duty 
to the community; of bringing home to sections at present 
without a large express development the results which may 
fairly be anticipated from such service, and of making a thor- 
ough investigation of the various State and municipal require- 
ments and regulations bearing upon this branch of the busi- 
ness. The great variety of regulations now in force in dif- 
ferent localities tends to create unnecessary burdens upon 
the companies and to hamper the full and free development 
of the service as a highly organized modern convenience. The 
committee will endeavor to frame a set of rules and regula- 
tions which it considers reasonable, and will sift in detail the 
satisfactory and troublesome features of existing regulations 
drawn from many parts of the country. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON EXPRESS AND FREIGHT ACCOUNTS 

At the meeting of the executive committee in New York in 
November it was voted to form a special committee of three 
members on the important subject of express and freight ac- 
counting. This is now in process. The committee is to confer 
with the corresponding committee of the Accountants' Asso- 
ciation regarding the proper methods of keeping records of 
the earnings and expenses of express and freight departments, 
going further into details than was possible in the report of 
the committee on freight and express traffic to the 1910 con- 



vention of the association. It is generally recognized that 
without a fairly accurate knowledge of the cost of providing 
specific express and freight services there can be no intelli- 
gent development of such business in the future, and no satis- 
factory basis for the maintenance, change or defense of ex- 
isting rates. The handling of merchandise within special 
fields is destined to become a fundamental source of electric 
railway revenue within a comparatively few years, and the 
importance of adequate accounting methods particularly suited 
to the size of the property involved needs no further comment. 
It is indisputable that not a few companies are at present 
furnishing the public with an efficient express and freight- 
handling service without certain knowledge of the extent to 
which the facilities maintained are profitable. This was thor- 
oughly appreciated by the 1910 committee. 

COMMITTEE ON TRANSFERS AND TRANSFER INFORMATION 

Important work awaits this committee this year in carrying 
the report of the 1910 committee further afield, namely, in an 
investigation of the relation of the transfer to the operation 
of prepayment cars ; in the study of the percentage of waste 
resulting from the practice of dating transfers and punching 
out the date before the conductor's period of service begins, 
and in the study of existing laws relating to the transfer. 
The able paper on transfers read at the 1910 convention has 
done much to stimulate work along these lines, and the great 
importance of the transfer problem in relation to operating 
revenue and a reasonable return upon the investment in the 
properties justifies the expenditure of a large amount of time 
and energy upon it. , 

COMMITTEE ON TIMETABLES AND SCHEDULES 

The work of the past year will be continued by this com- 
mittee, and some matters of definition will be taken up, 
notably that of the words "tripper" and "extra," in addition 
to previous definitions of traffic terms bearing directly upon 
the important matter of schedules. Other topics to be dis- 
cussed by the committee will be. the best methods of ascertain- 
ing schedule speed, problems bearing upon meal reliefs, the 
revolving extra list, and a complete study of schedules and 
timetables as applied to interurban railways. 

COMMITTEE ON THE TRAINING OF TRANSPORTATION EMPLOYEES 

Efforts to improve the quality of transportation employees 
will constitute the foundation of this committee's work in 
191 1. The important question of permanent records of train- 
men and others will be considered ; the determination of the 
minimum proper breaking-in period for both city and inter- 
urban service will be attempted ; the maintenance of records 
during this period, and State and national regulations affect- 
ing the employment of trainmen will be investigated. On ac- 
count of the intimate concern which the public has with the 
subjects of both this and the preceding committee's work, a 
thorough study of the topics assigned in each case is antici- 
pated, with permanent recognition of the possible benefits to 
be gained by the service from the strengthening of weak spots 
in the selection and training of car service employees. 

COMMITTEE ON INTERURBAN RULES 

Prepayment car service will occupy a prominent place in 
the discussions of this committee, and an effort will be made 
to formulate suitable rules governing trainmen on interurban 
lines who may be charged with the handling of equipment 
of this particular type. Conferences will be held by the com- 
mittee with the committee on city rules, with a view toward 
eliminating points of conflict in the regulations of operating 
companies. The importance of governing all trainmen in the 
same general territory by rules which are consistent with a 
given operating policy is almost self-evident.' Another con- 
ference session is planned for the committee with a commit- 
tee of the American Railway Association, the topic for dis- 
cussion being differences in the operating rules of steam and 
electric interurban railways. The possibilities of bringing the 
rules closer to a common meeting point will be considered, 
and, if feasible, recommendations will be made so as to take 
advantage of the best experience of both classes of trans- 
portation. 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



3i 



COMMITTEE ON CITY RULES 

This committee will confer with that on interurban rules 
as above indicated, striving to secure a more uniform wording 
of rules having similar meanings, and endeavoring to improve 
the service jointly given by interurban and city lines on 
through routes. In view of the larger use of prepayment cars 
on city lines, even more attention will probably be given to 

rules for the operation of this type of rolling stock than was 

accorded it by the previous committee. 

CONVENTION MATTERS 

The writer desires to express his commendation of the 
plan of stimulating the growth of membership through the 
activity of the branches of the parent organization. The 
benefits which an associate member obtains for a nominal 
sum are very great. President Brady's influence in thus sub- 
dividing the growth of membership is deserving of much 
praise. The value of the papers, proceedings and privilege of 
attending the conventions is far beyond the cost to the associate 
member. 

In conclusion, the writer desires to emphasize the impor- 
tance of the member companies adopting a liberal policy in 
sending their men to conventions with positive instructions, in 
the traffic department, to take part in or at any rate to be in 
constant attendance upon the meetings of the Transportation 
& Traffic Association. If possible every man sent from an 
operating company should figure in some way in the proceed- 
ings, at least in attempting to take part in discussions, which 
are often the most vital features of conventions, since they 
bring out differences in practice in all parts of the country 
and enable united action to be taken with justice to all sec- 
tions. Committee work is exacting and consumes valuable 
time, but companies which are willing to pay the cost of mem- 
bership should be willing to do all that they can to insure the 
highest possible return on their investment. This means that 
officials should be permitted to take sufficient time from their 
regular duties to perform committee work, and where this is 
the practice a long step has been taken toward reaping the full 
benefits of membership. 

— 

THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY CLAIM AGENTS' 
ASSOCIATION 



BY H. V. DROWN, PRESIDENT 



The general manager of one of the big street Railway systems 
remarked to a friend at the last Atlantic*-Gity convention : "If 
you want to get on a live wire, drop in at one of the Claim 
Agents' meetings." Had his friend acted on the suggestion he 
would have found a body of earnest men who had not left 
their busy desks at home with a feeling that they were going 
on a junketing trip at the expense of their companies. On 
the contrary they had come to the convention to work and 
learn, and to exchange with each other the results of their 
observations and experience. 

Although the number of claim department representatives 
at the last convention was the largest since the organization 
of the Claim Agents' Association, which began with the getting 
together of a handful of men at St. Louis in 1904, there was 
apparently not a single absentee at any of the meetings. Could 
the executive officers of all the street railway companies of 
the country have attended one of our meetings, as did the 
general manager referred to, I am sure that each company 
would have at least one claim department representative at our 
next convention. It is a significant fact that practically all of 
the claim agents who have been regular attendants at our 
conventions and have gone into the work earnestly report a 
gradual decrease in their expenditures. Certainly no man can 
stand alone in this or any other complicated business, and the 
fact that these men have been constantly exchanging their 
best thoughts and ideas with other men who have been de- 
voting the best part of their lives to the work 'must have 



helped them greatly in achieving the excellent results which 
they have shown. The time has passed when the claim depart- 
ment was frowned upon as a necessary evil and profanely 
referred to as the "rat hole" of the treasury. Broad-minded 
executive officers to-day look upon the expenditures for acci- 
dents and damages much as they do on taxes or depreciation 
in rolling stock. They insist, however, that their claim depart- 
ments be conducted in a clean, thorough and businesslike man- 
ner, to the end that the total expenditures for this account be 
minimized to the utmost and, at the same time, that the busi- 
ness be handled in such a manner as to promote confidence in 
and respect for the company and that the men engaged in 
the work be up to the minute with the latest and best methods. 
No man can keep up to date and fill these requirements unless 
he profits by the experience of others. To do this he must 
come in personal contact with the other men in his calling. 
Therefore, I cannot too strongly urge those claim men who 
have not attended our meetings to make every effort to join 
us in our 191 1 convention. After they have once attended I 
am sure they will be with us each year thereafter. It is not 
likely that the executive officers to whom they report will re- 
fuse to send them as delegates if the matter is presented in 
the right way. 

The papers read at the last convention and the discussions 
thereon were not only exceedingly interesting to members of 
our association, but attracted wide notice among street railway 
men in general. These papers were not hastily thrown together 
at the last moment. On the contrary they were the result 
of much thought and research. The subjects were assigned to 
the writers early in the year so that plenty of opportunity was 
given for careful study and the gathering of data. The sub- 
jects committee appointed this year is .busily engaged in 
selecting subjects for papers at the coming convention. The 
members of this committee are especially well fitted for the 
work, and an excellent list of subjects will be made up, and 
men will be chosen to treat them who will furnish papers well 
worth while. Some of these papers will be founded on statis- 
tics gathered from all the member companies. I earnestly 
urge that all members reply promptly and fully to any in- 
quiries for such statistical information so that the results may 
be of permanent value to us all. 

Our association has endeavored to secure beneficial results 
for its membership along a number of different lines, but its 
most conspicuous efforts have been in the promotion of two 
radical movements, viz., the prevention and proper handling 
of accidents and the establishment of a national index bureau. 
The former has already given results of inestimable value in 
reducing casualties and increasing the efficiency of employees. 
When more fully developed through the general co-operation 
of the member companies the index or reporting bureau will 
without a doubt be the direct cause of substantial reductions 
in claim expenditures. 

A great deal has been said in our conventions and a number 
of interesting and instructive papers have been written on 
accident prevention and instruction of employees, but the most 
earnest exponent of the work, and the man who probably had 
most to do with promoting it, is F. W. Johnson, of Philadelphia. 
Although others have done some work in this direction in 
recent years, he was apparently the first to take it up in earnest 
and make a comprehensive study of it, and many of his methods 
were entirely new. The results which he obtained in increas- 
ing the efficiency of employees, reducing accidents and increas- 
ing the number of witnesses obtained to accidents are now gen- 
erally known. A great many companies, and practically all 
those that have had claim representatives at our conventions, 
are now carrying on this work in some form or other with 
marked success. 

The movement for a national index bureau, more recently 
put into effect, has been for many years the claim agent 5 s 
dream, but ways and means of establishing it were not in sight. 
It was with the idea that some plan could be devised for bring- 
ing it about that a few. claim agents met in St. Louis in 1904 and 



32 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



organized what is now the Claim Agents' Association. Nothing 
concrete was accomplished, however, at that time, as we were 
then not connected with the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Association, and our members lacked the full support 
of their employers. After our association was affiliated with 
the parent body, the proposition began to tak form. Each 
year the desirability of a central reporting bureau which would 
be available to every member company was discussed. All 
agreed that such a bureau would be of tangible value and 
give the members something to which they could in later years 
point with pride and with satisfaction. All along H. R. 
Goshorn, general claim agent of the Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit Company, had taken a most active part in promoting the 
project, and naturally when a committee was chosen in 1908 to 
look into the matter he was put at its head. He devoted a 
great deal of time to a study of the situation, and it was 
through his efforts that the officers of the parent body became 
interested and were persuaded to give it moral and financial 
support. 

Mr. Goshorn, as chairman of the index committee, reported 
to the 1909 convention at Denver that it would be more feasible 
and practicable for us to accept a very reasonable proposition 
made by the well-known and long-established Hooper-Holmes 
Information Bureau, of New York City, than to attempt to 
establish and maintain a bureau entirely of our own. Aside 
from the question of economy, a great incentive for accepting 
the Hooper-Holmes service was the fact that it had for many 
years maintained a bureau including practically all the acci- 
dent insurance companies, most of the steam railroads and 
many of the trolley companies, thus covering the entire country, 
and thai from these companies it already bad in its files 
over 1,500,000 names of persons who had presented claims in 
accident cases. The proposition of this bureau was that, pro- 
viding the parent body would contribute $500 per annum, the 
bureau would index all claims reported to it at the rate of 
5 cents each and would report immediately any duplicates 
found, giving the names of the companies against which claim 
or claims had been presented. The claims were to be reported 
by the various roads direct to the secretary of the American 
Electric Railway Association (H. C. Donecker, No. 29 West 
Thirty-ninth Street, New York City), who would, in turn, refer 
them to the bureau, the bureau to look to the secretary for pay- 
ment. The secretary, in his turn, would bill periodically the 
companies reporting. The parent body looked so favorably 
upon the proposition that the executive committee voted to 
subscribe the $500 per annum. The proposition approved by 
the Claim Agents' Association was accepted by the parent body, 
and the bureau is now in active operation. Any claim agent, 
or other claim representative of a member company, can now 
report his claims to the secretary, giving claimant's name, age, 
residence, occupation and date of accident, and he will imme- 
diately be notified if duplicates are found showing that any 
claimant has previously been reported as having had a claim 
or a damage suit. 

To make this reporting service a complete success, every 
personal injury claim must be reported. It should be. and by 
this system can be, made almost impossible for a duplicate 
claim for personal injury to be made in this country against 
a street railway company without the various companies inter- 
ested being immediately acquainted with the fact. This sounds 
like a big and expensive proposition, but, on the contrary, when 
analyzed it is found to be extremely simple and surprisingly 
inexpensive. The Public Service Railway Company of New 
Jersey, which I represent, has reported every personal injury 
claim presented for . more than a year past, and although our 
system is a large one, as we cover practically all of the State 
of New Jersey, I have found the task of reporting all our 
claims very simple. It involves but a few moments' work 
each day and the cost is trifling compared with the excellent 
results obtained. To demonstrate how inexpensive it is, figure 
all your personal injury claims for a year at 5 cents each. 
You will find the total less than you often pay to dispose of 



one unimportant claim. For the smaller roads the amount is 
very trifling. In considering this proposition the accident 
faker, so-called, plays a small part, for there are few such, but 
there are a great many among the traveling public and those 
persons who migrate who have been paid by some corporation 
for injuries real or feigned, and in the event of their meeting 
with other accidents they are almost sure to attempt to palm 
ofl the old injury. Every claim agent knows how effective in 
settlements or trial is the production of evidence proving a 
previous injury or physical defect. It often wipes out the 
claim altogether and invariably reduces it to a minimum. 

Of course the longer this bureau continues the more valu- 
able it will be to us, but from the very start it has proved it- 
self to be an exceedingly good investment. The companies 
who have already taken advantage of it in real earnest report 
that the help they have received from the accident insurance 
and steam railway companies alone has paid them many times 
over on their investment. 

There are many other questions bearing on our work that 
I should like to discuss, but lack of space forbids. I wish, 
however, in the few remaining lines allotted to me earnestly to 
urge all claim men to co-operate heartily with one another 
whenever and wherever possible. If you have witnesses to 
locate, claims to adjust, or information to be got some- 
where out of your territory and in that of a brother claim 
agent, request him to attend to the matter for you, and, of 
course, to bill you for any expense incurred. I know it is 
quite unnecessary for me to ask all claim agents receiving 
such requests to put forth their best efforts in seeing that 
the work intrusted to them is properly executed. By co- 
operating in this manner you will make substantial savings 
for your companies, and the work will be more satisfactorily 
handled by the local men acquainted with the territory, con- 
ditions and people. Whenever in your travels you find your- 
self in a brother claim agent's territory, look him up and get 
acquainted. You will find yourself better off for having done 
so. Give the various committees and the individual mem- 
bers of our association to whom subjects have been assigned 
all the help you can in their work. By all means make every 
effort to attend our conventions. It will give you new life 
and confidence to mingle with the boys assembled there from 
all parts of America. You will not only profit by hearing the 
papers read and discussed, but you will have no trouble in get- 
ting some of the boys aside between sessions and threshing 
out' the problems that have been troubling you most. I am 
sure you will leirn something worth while, certainly more than 
enough to compensate for the expense of the trip, however 
long it .may be, and for the loss of your services at home 
for a few days. 



PAYMENTS UNDER CORPORATION TAX LAW 



The annual report of Royal E. Cabell, commissioner of in- 
ternal revenue of the United States, covering the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1910, gives some details of the amounts of 
special excise tax paid by corporations. The total taxes paid 
are divided into five classifications as follows: Class A. finan- 
cial and commercial, $2,663,419 ; class B, public service, $6,- 
299,046; class C, industrial and manufacturing. $9,130,896; class 
D, mercantile, $1,731,208; class E, miscellaneous, $1,135,214; 
total $20,959,783. 

The public service corporations included in Class B com- 
prise the following classes of properties : Railroad, steamboat, 
ferry boat and stage line companies, pipe line, gas and electric 
light companies, transportation and storage companies, tele- 
graph and telephone companies. The number of returns re- 
ceived from corporations of Class B was 24,252. The amount 
of capital stock of such corporations was $18,902,060,130 and 
the amount of bonded and other indebtedness was $14472,398,- 
675. The net income of such companies for the year was $808,- 
960,651. 



Jan uaey 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



33 



ELECTRIC TRACTION IN GREAT BRITAIN 

BY A SI'ECIAL CORRESPONDENT 

The year 1910 has not, on the whole, been a bad one for 
electric traction in this country. The weather, that all-impor- 
tant factor in regard to earnings, though not by any means 
ideal during the year, was better than in either 1909 or 1908, 
and the various reports published by undertakings all over the 
country tell of increased gross earnings. Trade also has im- 
proved, and if the Board of Trade returns are to be taken as 
an index it would seem that we are in for better times. The 
very first to feel the effects of trade revival are invariably the 
country's tramways. 

Owing to the unsettled political conditions, very few new 
promotions were recorded, most systems being satisfied to 
apply for small extensions of their existing lines. The London 
County Council, as usual, led the way with about 15 miles of 
new lines, a mileage doubtless small to American ears, but in 
these strenuous times in England quite a respectable addition. 

The first . overhead line in Great Britain was opened in 
Leeds in January, 1893. 

STATUS OF EXISTING LINES 

The total length of tramways now open for traffic is just 
over 2500 miles (of which 2360 are electric, 48 steam, 28 cable, 
4 gas motor and 84 horse). Of these, 1679 miles are owned 
by local authorities and 846 miles by private companies. The 
original purchasing periods under the Tramways Act of 1870 
are in many cases nearly reached, and these figures are likely 
to be changed in the near future in favor of municipalities, 
although a big field still remains open for private enterprise, 
by way of joining various systems and extending urban 
tramways into country districts. 

The largest system in the kingdom is that owned by the 
London County Council, with about 130 miles of route; next 
comes the Manchester Corporation system with over 100 miles, 
and next the Glasgow Corporation system with about 95 miles. 

The London County Council opened its first line from West- 
minster Bridge to Tooting in 1903. From that time onward 
it gradually acquired lines from the old London Street Tram- 
ways, the North Metropolitan Tramways, the London Tram- 
ways, the South Eastern Metropolitan Tramways, the South 
: London Tramways, the London, Deptford & Greenwich- 
Tramways, the London, Camberwell & Dulwich Tramways, the 
Woolwich & South East London Tramways, and the London 
Southern Tramways. These are being gradually electrified, and 
the lines now owned by the Council consist of about 75 miles 
on the conduit system, about 10 miles on the overhead system 
and about 45 miles of horse tramways, including lines in 
process of reconstruction. 

The generating station was partly opened in 1906 and ex- 
tended in 1909. The plant includes four vertical horizontal 
reciprocating engines, coupled to three-phase alternators of 
3500 kw capacity each, and four three-phase turbo-alternators 
of 5000 kw each. Substations are scattered all over the dis- 
tricts, provided with motor generators of a total capacity of 
43,100 kw, which change the current to 550-volt direct current. 
The Council has about 1200 cars ; the revenue in 1909 was 
£1,539,434. The car mileage run was about 32,000,000 car 
miles and 345,000,000 passengers were carried. 

One of the features of the year 1910 as regards tramways 
is the fact that the first lines on the trackless trolley system 
were sanctioned by Parliament. In 1909 a large number of 
municipal corporations and companies had applied for powers 
to run trackless trams. But, as this was a novelty and the 
powers that be had apparently not come to any definite de- 
cision in regard to the procedure to be adopted, the bills were 
withdrawn and nothing was done. During 1910, however, the 
towns of Leeds and Bradford obtained their powers, and a 
considerable number of others are now following suit, includ- 
ing Newcastle, Halifax, Northampton, Brighton and Rother- 
ham. 

It is not generally recognized how complete a network of 
tramways has gradually developed in certain districts, and as 



an illustration of this it may be stated that a passenger can 
now ride uninterruptedly by tramcar from Liverpool, through 
Manchester, as far as Leeds. 

Another interesting feature of the times is the supersession 
by the trolley system of other forms of electric tract on where 
these existed. At Torquay the Board of Trade has quite re- 
cently agreed to the removal of the existing surface contact 
system, and the overhead system is in course of construction. 
The lines between Rawmarsh and Mexborough in Yorkshire 
have already been converted. At Hastings the matter is under 
consideration. At Bournemouth a decision has also quite re- 
cently been come to to remove the conduit system and to set 
up the overhead wires which during so many years it was 
declared would never be tolerated. Edinburgh, the home of 
the cable tramways, is building extensions on the overhead 
system. The Highgate Hill cable tramways, in London, dis- 
appeared last year, and slowly but surely the popular trolley is 
pushing its way into London, where already short bits of lines 
have appeared, as mentioned above, and powers are being taken 
to construct more. 

PRESENT-DAY PROBLEMS 

The antagonism between local authorities and privately 
owned tramways is gradually giving way to a better under- 
standing. It is felt that the interests of the two as regards 
tramways are .identical on many points, and co-operation and 
friendly working are becoming increasingly evident. This is 
due chiefly to the fact that existing tramway legislation bears 
harshly upon both. The famous veto vested in local authorities, 
giving them power under certain conditions effectively to block 
future construction, has long been a bone of contention. At 
first only the companies felt the pinch. Now, however, when 
local authorities are promoters as well as companies, the hard- 
ship falls upon them as well. The London County Council, 
for instance, has yearly to face the uncompromising opposition 
of the neighboring local authorities when seeking to extend, 
or to unite, portions of its existing lines. This obstruc- 
tion not only delays the expansion of the tramways, which are 
badly needed by the public, but it affects the economical work- 
ing of an imperfectly laid-out whole. There has long been 
a feeling that the present procedure was unbusinesslike 
and unscientific, and the Royal Commission on Traffic as far 
back as 1904 gave voice to this feeling by recommending to 
the government the advisability of modifying, or of altogether 
abrogating, the existing veto of the local authorities. No 
effect has, however, been given to this recommendation so far. 

The question of running powers and inter-running is also 
responsible for bringing former opponents into closer touch, 
and a policy of mutual "give and lake" has in a great number 
of cases resulted in mutual advantages to both parties. 

As the tramways of the country grow older, the all-important 
question of repairs and renewals forces itself to the front. 
Every engineer and manager responsible for the financial suc- 
cess of his undertaking is faced with the problem of devising 
methods whereby the ever-increasing expenditure under these 
heads may be met by an equivalent increase in earnings or by 
cutting down the working expenses to the lowest possible mini- 
mum compatible with the maintenance of an adequate service. 
The mere suggestion of increasing fares is invariably met by 
a storm of protest from both public and press, although it is 
a fact that the fares actually charged are a good deal lower 
than the maximum fares chargeable under the parliamentary 
powers obtained. 

Various expedients suggested themselves, such as offering 
the public inducements to ride by the issue of return tickets 
at slightly reduced fares, altering existing stages to meet local 
requirements, issue of season tickets, etc. There was even a 
suggestion that a new coin of the realm be issued in order to 
meet tramway requirements. One of the larger undertakings 
in the kingdom inaugurated a system designated by the name 
of "fair fares," which is being extensively tried at the present 
moment. The idea is to issue tickets not, as heretofore, for 
specific stages, but available from any spot on the line, whence a 
passenger may ride a given distance for the smallest coin issued, 



34 

namely, one farthing. These farthing stages are marked out 
by a system of painting the poles, and the passenger may ride 
as many farthing stages as he pleases, thus securing the full- 
est value possible for his money. The system is reported to be 
meeting with a considerable amount of success. 

In order to reduce working expenses managers have been 
studying very closely the question of car meters on tramcars. 
The savings recorded in the amount of current consumed 
resulting from the use of these instruments are in some cases 
quite startling. Hour-meters, so popular on Continental lines, 
were the first meters to be tried, but they are gradually being 
replaced by watt-hour and ampere-hour meters. It is claimed 
for these instruments that not only do they very considerably 
reduce the amount of energy consumed, but that they at the 
same time teach drivers to drive more scientifically, with the 
result that great savings are effected in the life of the various 
parts both of the rolling stock and of the permanent way. 
It has been stated that whereas 12 months ago only about half 
a dozen lines used car meters over 60 now use them extensive- 
ly. One of the latest reports at hand indicates that in the case 
of a good-sized undertaking the use of ampere-hour meters re- 
sulted in a saving in current consumption amounting to £6,000 
for the first year. That this is a question of increasing interest 
to tramway men is clearly shown from the fact that at every 
recent meeting of the various tramway associations papers were 
read upon the subject. 

Another question of great importance, the solution of which 
has yet to be found, is that of rail corrugation. This is caus- 
ing grave anxiety to many managers who are face to face with 
the unpleasant fact that the life of their rails will apparently 
be of very much shorter duration than was at first anticipated. 
Nor can this anxiety be wondered at since the track is the 
most vital portion of the entire system. The disease, as cor- 
rugation is aptly termed, is of comparatively recent date, for 
although it was known in the old days of steam tramways and 
railways the introduction of electric traction has enormously 
increased its evil workings. The subject has also become a 
"hardy annual" at tramway meetings and congresses, but, al- 
though forms of inquiry without number have at various times 
been issued to managers by the various associations and other 
technical bodies, no conclusive replies have been forthcoming. 

The latest published report of the replies received from over 
70 Continental undertakings carries the matter no further, and 
the consensus of opinion still points to the eight following 
causes as being the chief offenders: (1) Composition of rail 
metal, (2) unduly hard metal tires, (3) too sudden application 
of brakes, (4) rapid acceleration, (5) high speeds, (6) side 
rolling of cars, (7) curves of large radius, (8) nature of 
foundations. 

It became increasingly evident that the gravity of the sub- 
ject demands that it should be dealt with scientifically. A com- 
bination of the various constituent associations agreed to dele- 
gate to a selected body of experts of wide experience the task 
of thoroughly investigating the whole question, and with that 
end in view various public bodies subscribed considerable sums 
of money in order to enable the committee of investigation to 
carry out the necessary tests and experiments. In England 
the matter is at the present moment the subject of an extensive 
inquiry organized by the Municipal Tramways Association, 
which invited representatives from the other British tramway 
associations to join in the researches. It is understood that 
the committee is being financially assisted by some of the 
leading cities where corrugation is most keenly felt. At a 
public meeting held not very long ago the general manager 
of the Glasgow Corporation Tramways stated that corruga- 
tions cost it from £10,000 to £15,000 annually. 

TRAMWAY ASSOCIATIONS 

The tramway industry in Great Britain is served by two 
associations, the Municipal Tramways Association and the 
Tramways & Light Railways Association. There is also an 
Association of Scottish Tramway Managers, the laws of that 
country relating to tramways being somewhat different from the 
English law. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 1. 

The Municipal Tramways Association, as its name implies, 
is formed of the various municipal tramways in the kingdom, 
their managers and other officials. It has a membership of 
about 200. Every year during the month of September this 
association holds a three days' conference, at which papers are 
read and discussed. These conferences are very well attended. 
The corporations of the towns at which they are held offer 
their hospitality to the members, and this usually includes a 
public banquet at the town hall. It is this association which is 
carrying out by means of a special committee the investigation 
into rail corrugation mentioned above. 

The Tramways & Light Railways Association is more catholic 
in its composition and numbers among its members, in addi- 
tion to every tramway company in the kingdom, several lead- 
ing municipal tramways, engineers, officials and manufacturers. 
It has a membership of from 300 to 400 and has the Duke of 
Argyll as its president. The work of this association is done 
by means of special committees appointed to carry out special 
work and to report thereon to a council consisting of 20 repre- 
sentative members. 

Both of the above associations issued in 1908 exhaustive 
reports on the question of brakes for tramcars, which have 
since become quite classical works. They have also been in- 
strumental in agreeing with the Board of Inland Revenue on a 
standard method of assessing tramway undertakings for in- 
come tax purposes. One of the special committees submitted 
a carefully worked out report, with the result that a representa- 
tive of the Board of Inland Revenue attended some of its meet- 
ings, and the above-mentioned agreement was reached. That 
this has been productive of much good is proved by the fact 
that two of the leading tramway companies were credited with 
from £4000 to £6,000 each, representing moneys paid in excess 
of the amounts really due to the government in past years, 
owing to the want of uniformity previously existing in the 
methods of assessing. Other undertakings were, of course, 
less fortunate, since it must obviously happen that where no 
standard exists some benefit while others suffer. Any dis- 
advantages which may have accrued, however, are fully com- 
pensated for by the fact that at present each undertaking knows 
exactly in what form to submit its accounts to the local sur- 
veyors. 

It may be of interest to describe very briefly the basis upon 
which this arrangement was arrived at. The life of the perma- 
nent way was calculated on a basis of the number of car miles 
run thereon, working out at 12, 14 or 16 years respectively. A 
fixed sum, amounting to £4,400 per mile of single track, was 
then allowed for renewals, as a deduction before arriving at 
the net amount to be assessed. In addition, allowances of 5 
per cent were allowed on the cost of plant and machinery, 3 per 
cent on cables, etc. 

The associations are now engaged upon similar work in regard 
to the question of rating, and one of the special committees is 
going into the matter of existing tramway legislation with a 
view to obtaining amendments thereto which it is hoped may 
benefit the industry generally. 

Another subject being dealt with at the present moment by 
a joint committee of the Municipal Tramways Association and 
the Incorporated Municipal Electrical Association refers to the 
charges to be made for electrical energy. The committee is 
appointed to consider and report upon a suitable scheme for 
the measurement of and charging for energy supplied by com- 
bined stations to tramway departments and the method of 
checking the meters u§ed for recording such supply. 

It is a matter of great satisfaction that the various govern- 
ment departments meet the representations of the associations 
with unfailing fairness and courtesy. There have been in- 
numerable cases in which, thanks to the united action taken by 
tramway undertakings in delegating their grievances to their 
associations, these have been either redressed or considerably 
mitigated. It is not surprising that the various government 
departments should infinitely prefer to deal with one or two 
thoroughly representative bodies rather than with numerous 
separate units working unsystematically on different lines. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



35 



The value of combined action is so generally recognized that 
in the last few months a further body has come into being 
under the somewhat bulky name of the Committee for the 
Protection of Electrical Interests. This committee consists 
of some 80 members representing the leading electrical in- 
terests in the country. Other institutions and associations, 
representing special sections of the industry, have joined this 
committee, which is intended to be the meeting ground for all. 
One of its first acts was to arrange that a certain number of 
members of Parliament should be available to represent elec- 
trical interests in Parliament in the event of future legislation 
affecting the electrical industry. The organization is, of course, 
entirely non-political. 

The procedure to be gone through in order to obtain Parlia- 
ment's sanction to the construction of new tramway lines is 
both cumbersome and costly, and with a view to simplifying 
this procedure under certain conditions the Light Railways 
Act in 1896 was passed. It was hoped that by means of this 
act the country would soon be covered with a network of light 
railways somewhat on the lines obtaining in Belgium and other 
countries, where both agricultural and manufacturing districts 
are advantageously served to the great benefit of the com- 
munity at large. The act has now been in force 14 years, but 
an official report recently published shows that the hopes then 
raised have not been realized. Out of a grand total of 600 
applications for the construction of lines under this act 380 
orders were granted, but the records show that of this total 
only 95 are actually constructed or in course of construction, 
representing 409 miles laid on private grounds and 327 miles 
laid on public roads. Of this total of 736 miles 333 miles are 
electric and 403 miles are steam. 

It will scarcely be maintained, therefore, that the act of 
1896 has proved an unqualified success. Indeed, the Light 
Railway Commissioners themselves, in the course of their last 
report to the government, state that in their opinion the act 
needs revising. 

HEAVY ELECTRIC TRACTION 

Turning from tramways and light railways to the heavier 
lines of electric traction it is evident that in this field we stand 
on the threshold of very considerable developments. 

The last 10 years have completely revolutionized the traffic 
problem in London, which is now served from end to end by a 
system of electrically worked tube and underground railways. 
The two old steam "Circle" lines are now worked electrically, 
and half a dozen new electric tube lines, having through-book- 
ing arrangements with all connecting lines, enable the Londoner 
to travel from and to any part of the metropolis with ease, 
comfort and celerity. Above ground, too, the successful ex- 
periment of the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway in 
electrifying its line from Victoria Station to London Bridge 
will doubtless be followed by other trunk lines in order to 
deal with the suburban traffic. 

The following is a list of the electric railways working in 
England to-day. They may be classified under the headings of 
(1) London and district, (2) provincial. 

I. THE LONDON AND DISTRICT LINES 

(1) The group controlled by the Underground Electric Rail- 
ways Company of London, Ltd., about 100 miles of line, con- 
sists of : 

(a) Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company: 
Opened for traffic in 1884 as a steam line ; converted to electric 
traction in 1905, with a route mileage of 24 miles of double 
track: 161 motors and 198 trailers; third and fourth rail system. 

(b) Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway: Opened 
for traffic 1907; 2 circular iron-lined tunnels, 11 ft. 6 in. diam- 
eter ; 8 miles double track ; 60 motors, 90 trailers ; third and 
fourth rail system. 

(c) Great Northern, Piccadilly & Brompton Railway : 
Opened for traffic, 1906 ; 2 iron-lined trnnels ; 9 miles double 
track; 72 motors, 146 trailers; third and fourth rail system. 

(d) Baker Street & Waterloo Railroad: Opened for traffic 
1906; 2 iron-lined tunnels; 5 miles double track; 36 motors, 
72 trailers ; third-rail system. 



The power house for these lines is at Chelsea ; the total 
h.t. system when complete will equal 156 miles, or 363 miles, 
including associated companies. The company also has a 
controlling interest in the London United Tramways, which 
operates about 54 miles of tramways in the southwestern 
suburbs of London and there are through booking arrange- 
ments with all connecting railways. 

(2) Central London Railway: Opened for traffic 1900; 1 
tunnel; 6 miles double track; 66 motors, 172 trailers; third- 
rail system. 

(3) City & South London Railway: Opened for traffic 
1890; 2 cast-iron ring tunnels, 10 ft. 6 in. diameter; 8 miles 
double track; 52 locomotives, 170 trailers; third-rail system. 

(4) Great Northern & City Railway: Opened for traffic 
1904; 2 tunnels, 16-ft. diameter; 3 miles double track; 32 mo- 
tors, 44 trailers; third-rail system. 

(5) Hammersmith & City Railway: Opened for traffic 1906: 
4 miles double track ; third and fourth-rail system. 

(6) Metropolitan Railway : Opened for traffic originally as 
steam line, converted into electric traction 1905 ; 26 miles 
double track ; 130. motors, 210 trailers ; third and fourth-rail 
system. 

(7) Waterloo & City Electric Railway: Opened for traffic 
1898; 1.5 miles double track; 17 motors, 12 trailers; third-rail 
system. 

II. PROVINCIAL LINES 

(8) Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway: Converted to electric 
traction 1904; 37 miles of route; 62 motors, 52 trailers; third- 
rail system. 

(9) Liverpool Overhead Railways: Opened for traffic 1893; 
6 l / 2 miles double track; 44 motors, 7 trailers; third-rail system 

(10) London, Brighton & South Coast Railway: About 9 
miles of route between London Bridge and Victoria Station; 
opened for traffic 1909 ; overhead high-tension transmission 
system ; single-phase, 7000 volts ; current taken from one of 
the London Lighting Companies' power stations. In the 191 1 
session of Parliament the company will seek powers to elec- 
trify a further instalment to the Crystal Palace. 

(11) Mersey Tunnel Electric Railway: Connecting Birken 
head with Liverpool ; converted to electric traction in 1903 ; \Vi 
miles double track; 24 motors, 37 trailers; third and fourth- 
rail system. 

(12) Midland Railway: A section of this company's line 
was electrified in 1908; about 9 miles double track; run in con- 
nection with the electrified Burton & Ashby Light Railways, 
10 miles ; 3 motors, 6 trailers ; single-phase, overhead system. 

(13) North Eastern Railway: A section of this company's 
lines was electrified in 1904 in Newcastle-on-Tyne and neigh- 
boring districts; 2 miles of four track, 35 miles double track, 
4 miles single track; 62 motors, 44 trailers; third-rail system 

As regards the. future, the promotions notified for the year 
191 1 are more numerous than was the case last year. 

Several of the existing electric railways in London are pro- 
posing to extend or to improve their systems by junctions with 
other lines, the addition of new stations, or otherwise. The 
London, Tilbury & Southend Railway seeks powers to electrify 
its lines. Between 20 and 30 tramway promotions are an- 
nounced, some by existing systems seeking further extensions, 
others by new concerns, the majority of which advocate the 
railless trolley system. In addition there are about a dozen 
applications for provisional orders under the Light Railway.' 
Act. 

THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 

The condition in the electrical manufacturing industry in 
Great Britain during the past year has been far from satisfac- 
tory. It has been a season of little work and low prices. Con- 
siderable has been done, however, in foreign trade in the sale 
of general electrical supplies, and the outlook is a little better 
than it was a year ago. The difficulty in Great Britain at 
present is that there is too much manufacturing capacity for 
the demand. If a general electrification of the railroads should 



36 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



occur during the next five or ten years a great deal of work 
would have to be done, and this, of course, would put a new 
aspect on affairs. 



THE ELECTRIC RAILWAYS OF GERMANY DURING THE 
YEAR 1910 

BY A GERMAN ENGINEER 



During 1909 the financial situation in Germany was so bad 
that most of the activities of the electric railways in that 
country were devoted to the maintenance of their properties 
rather than to extensions. During 1910, however, conditions 
improved so much that it was possible to build a large amount 
of new track and to introduce important betterments in rolling 
stock and equipment. It is fair to say that at this time the 
financial and operating conditions of the German electric rail- 
ways are very sound indeed. These conditions are due partly to 
the stringent laws, particularly in Prussia and Saxony, which 
contain about four-fifths of all the electric railway mileage in 
Germany, and partly to the fact that the electric railway equip- 
ment business is controlled absolutely by four large companies, 
whose policy forbids both the manufacture of inferior goods 
and the encouragement of doubtful enterprises. No review of 
the electric railway situation in Germany would be complete 
without referring at some length to these four companies. They 
are as follows : 

The Allgemeine Elektricitats-Gesellschaft (A. E. G.). in- 
cluding the German branch (Union Elektricitats-Gesellschaft) 
of the old Thomson-Houston Company; the Siemens-Schuckert- 
Werke (S. S. W.), which is a fusion of the Siemens-Halske 
and the Schuckert Works of Niirnberg; the Lahmeyer-Gesell- 
schaft, of Frankfort-on-Main, which recently combined with 
the Felten & Guilleaume Cable Works; and finally the Berg- 
mann Gesellschaft, Berlin, which first became noted for switch- 
board and power station work, but which has been making 
railway equipments also for several years past. Even these 
four companies are being subjected to further consolidation. 
Several months ago the Allgemeine Elektricitats-Gesellschaft 
purchased the Lahmeyer Company, and now the Siemens- 
Schuckert-Wcrke are contemplating consolidation with the 
Bergmann interests. Consequently, Germany will soon have 
only two important firms manufacturing railway apparatus. It 
is likely that the two companies will divide the territory with 
one another. All of the original Siemens lines use the sliding- 
bow col.ector, while most of the other railways are equipped 
with the under-running trolley. 

The existence of these large companies and their willingness 
to spend a great deal of money for research gave the impetus 
to the great electrification plans of the several German State 
railways. The syndicate which was formed to carry out the 
famous Zossen tests of 1902 and 1903 no longer exists, but 
the results of its work are seen in the great projects of to-day. 
The main reason for the delay in the electrical equipment of 
the German State railways is the fear that in case of war 
an electric railway could be put out of operation much more 
easily than a steam railroad. Another reason is the lack of 
money. Despite the fact that the German Empire began its 
existence in 1871 with the French indemnity of 4,000,000.- 
000 francs, the government debt now is fully as large as 
the indemnity, and little money is obtainable for developments. 
The large electrical companies have formed banking firms to 
loan money to the States and municipalities for railway develop- 
ment purposes at 4 per cent, but thus far little advantage has 
been taken of such offers. 

INTERPOLE MOTORS AND DECREASE IN POWER COST 

The most noteworthy features of the year in the street rail- 
way field proper have been the increase in mileage, the wide 
adoption of the interpole motor and the abandonment of a 
large number of small power stations, which have been replaced 
by large central generating plants. These small stations sold 



electrical energy at 5 cents to 6 1 /^ cents per kw-hour, whereas 
it is now possible in many parts of the Empire to buy 6ooo-volt, 
three-phase current for iy 2 cents per kw-hour, and in some 
districts like Schleswig for even ij4 cents per kw-hour. One 
of the largest of the new power stations is the Upper Schleswig 
Electrical Works, which were built by the A. E. G. in a great 
mining and industrial district. This station supplies energy at 
the rate of i2y 2 cents per kw-hour for the first 1000 kw-hours, 
and charges only i*4 cents for each additional kw-hour. As 
the conversion cost adds but 15 per cent to 20 per cent to the 
prices quoted, the average electric railway is now enabled to 
hire power for less than one-half the former prices. This 
reduction in power expenses has made possible the construction 
of a considerable number of new lines. 

The interpole motor has also been a factor in. encouraging 
new construction, because its use permits much higher voltages 
on the suburban divisions. However, it has not been taken up 
as fully as it deserves. Its advantages are admitted, but its 
general adoption is delayed because its initial cost is about 
15 per cent more than that of the ordinary type. Assuming 
that a motor car in Germany averages 40,000 car km (24,800 
miles) a year, the increased cost means an additional fixed 
charge of 0.0325 cent per car kilometer (0.62 car mile). But it 
is also true that the better accelerating qualities of the interpole 
motor are not appreciated as they should be, despite the fact that 
they eliminate a great deal of brush and commutator trouble. 
In short, the further employment of the interpole motor is 
simply a question of lower prices. 

The recent reduction of customs duties has encouraged some 
American manufacturers of electric railway material to enter 
the German market, and their advertisements appear quite 
frequently in German technical papers. 

TRACK AND PAVING 

Changes in the engineering and operating standards of Ger- 
man electric railways are reflected in the proceedings of the 
German Street & Interurban Railway Association. These 
changes include the standardization of rails, the use of new 
asphalt paving, cement block paving and new rail joints, in- 
cluding welded types, and improvements in motors. The 
standardization of rails, which has been described in detail in 
the Electric Railway Iournal (see issue for Ian. 1, 1910), 
was very necessary, as there are still over 100 sections in com- 
mon use. 

The maintenance of asphalt paving constitutes one of the 
most costly repair charges in the large cities, excepting Ham- 
burg, where the heavy vehicle traffic makes the use of asphalt 
impracticable. The paving in Hamburg consists of a founda- 
tion of concrete about 20 cm (7.8 in.) deep, covered with stone 
block 18 cm to 20 cm (7.1 in. to 7.8 in.) high. The joints are 
filled with bitumen. This paving is so durable that in many 
cases it does not have to be taken up until the stones have worn 
down to 4 cm (1.6 in.). 

The Berlin street railway system finally has received per- 
mission to build parked tracks in very wide streets. Various 
forms of this construction have been described in the Electric 
Railway Journal for Oct. 30, 1909. and Oct. 1, 1910. During 
the year several German railways tried the experiment of 
laying a line of wood block paving along rails in asphalted 
streets to avoid the disintegration and wear of the paving at 
the rails, but these experiments do not seem to have proved 
particularly successful. 

Many improvements have been made in rail joints. The 
Melaun milled head type is widely used and is entirely satis- 
factory except for its high cost. The Goldschmidt thermit 
joint has also been perfected within the past year. This joint 
is used by many of the principal railway systems, which report 
that the breakages are only 1 per cent or less. It was for- 
merly considered necessary to install expansion joints every 
600 ft. to 980 ft., but this is no longer done, as the open joints 
at crossings and switches permit all. the equalization necessary. 

The inventors of the electric arc rail welding process have 
also improved their method, although this system has been 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



37 



used so far to but a very modest extent. Its advantage is thai 
the various joints canTj'e treated individually so that defects 
can be corrected at once. Its disadvantages, however, as com- 
pared with the thermit joint are that it requires skilled labor 
and costly apparatus. The oxy-acetylene method also permits 
individual treatment of the joints, but has been adopted only 
to a very limited extent because it does not furnish heat 
enough to penetrate the rails deeply. This process has been 
found satisfactory for such light work as welding splice bars 
on joints. 

Track construction on -longitudinal stringers without ties, 
common in Germany, has proved unsatisfactory when used in 
streets with concrete paving. Attempts have been made to 
provide a stronger construction by using plates or cross-ties 
at intervals of from 6 ft. to 13 ft., or, in some cases, placing 
them under the joints only. These changes, however, do not 
seem to have brought the desired result because the character 
of the paving does not permit permanent uniformity in con- 
struction after service has begun. 

CAR SERVICE, INTERURBAN MILEAGE AND FARES 

The German municipal authorities, who are noted for their 
adherence to the letter of the law, are no longer so insistent re- 
garding the conditions under which railways can carry standing 
passengers. Formerly standing was permitted only under cer- 
tain conditions, such as inclement weather, after-theater hours, 
last-car schedule, etc., but these limitations are no longer en- 
forced so inflexibly. The railways are now able to relieve the 
peak of the load by a little crowding. This crowding, how- 
ever, is far from being as great as in American cities, because 
the average German would rather wait half an hour in the 
rain than travel in discomfort. 

The number of miles of interurban railway track in Germany 
is increasing, principally through the extension of city systems. 
In some thickly populated districts these extensions now meet 
those of neighboring cities, so that it has become possible to 
travel considerable distances by electric railway. These con- 
•nections have brought a welcome increase in traffic. Th° 
prosperity of these suburban and interurban lines is due to 
the improved economic condition of the people and the increase 
in the number of native summer tourists. 

Fares have been raised in a number of cities, due largely to 
the fact that the initiative was taken in cities possessing munici- 
pal railways. The authorities in these cities have found 
that it is not possible to give good service at the low 
fares which many of the privately owned lines have been forced 
to grant. The increase in fares has been especially welcome, 
because German railways, like those in America, have had 
to face the situation of higher wages and increased prices for 
railway materials. 

HEAVY ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 

The electrification of the government railways, as previously 
noted, is making slow progress. The responsible engineering 
officials are thoroughly convinced of the engineering and finan- 
cial merits of electrification under certain conditions as de- 
veloped by their study of the work done in the United States. 
Their plans are handicapped, however, by their inability to 
obtain the money, which the government thinks it can use to 
better advantage elsewhere. The military objection previously 
mentioned is especially strong because the very lines which 
could most profitably be electrified are exactly those important 
highways which the government would want to keep open in 
time of war. Aside from the Hamburg-Altoona line, which is 
a local proposition, electrification has been begun on secondary 
roads only. Thus plans have been completed by the Prussian 
government for the electrification of the Dessau-Bitterfeld sec- 
tion of the Magdeburg-Leipsic railway south of Berlin. This 
line will be operated at 15,000 volts, single phase. The experi- 
ences gained on this line and on the Hamburg system will 
form a basis for the electrification of the Berlin belt lines, a 
project which would require about 250,000,000 marks (approx- 
imately $62,500,000). 

The Bavarian government is electrifying the Basel-Zell sec- 



tion of the Wiesental Railway for operation at 10,000 volts, 
15 cycles. 

In addition to the foregoing extensive electrification plans, 
several German states, notably Prussia, Bavaria and Wur- 
temberg, are making considerable use of storage-battery cars 
on branch lines as described in the Electric Railway Journal 
for June 18, 1910. Most of these cars have a capacity of about 
50 passengers. They are intended for lines of light traffic where 
only four to six steam trains have been operated daily. Gaso- 
line and gasoline-electric cars have also shown successful re- 
sults in this work, but the storage-battery cars arc preferred 
wherever power can be bought cheaply and where the grades 
are not prohibitive. The increase in traffic shows that the pub- 
lic is greatly pleased with these cars. Most of the storage- 
battery cars are equipped with two 80-hp motors which oper- 
ate at 310 volts. The latest cars have shunt-wound motors 
and regenerative control. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS IN CANADA 

BY J. L. PAYNE, COMPTROLLER OF STATISTICS, DEPARTMENT OF 
RAILWAYS AND CANALS, DOMINION OF CANADA 



To the electric railway corporations operating in Canada the 
year 1910 brought marked and gratifying prosperity. This 
statement must, however, be accepted in the collective sense. 
They were not all prosperous. A few of the smaller roads 
failed to make ends meet and several others managed to show 
a merely nominal balance ; but, grouping the 56 reporting com- 
panies together, they did a great deal more business than in 
1909, increased their earnings substantially, added to their 
assets and broadened the foundations for successful work in 
the future. 

Canada is a growing country. With a swelling tide of 
immigration from Europe and the United States, which this 
year will reach 325,000 souls, all commercial interests have 
been stimulated to a high degree. There is activity every- 
where. The West — which we boastfully, and quite truthfully, 
speak of as "the last great West" — is rapidly filling up with 
sturdy settlers, and the growth of commercial centers is a 
natural product of pastoral development. Montreal is now a 
city of 600,000 ; Toronto has passed well beyond the 340,000 
mark: Winnipeg is climbing swiftly toward 200,000; Calgary 
and Edmonton, nestling in the very shadow of the Rocky 
Mountains, have passed from the status of prairie towns 10 
years ago to the eminence of populous cities. In short, this 
northland is fairly on the way toward realizing upon her 
splendid heritage in agricultural, forest and mineral re- 
sources. It is reasonably certain that the census of 191 1 will 
reveal an increase in population of 80 per cent within the 
decade. That would mean between 8,000,000 and 9,000,000 
people. The throb of e new life is felt throughout the land, 
and the Canadian people, at first a little slow to realize that 
things were at last coming their way, are now, in sheer excess 
of optimism, refusing to set limitations to the possibilities in 
any direction. 

In this rapid expansion, especially of urban life, one sees 
the promise of proportionate progress in electric railway in- 
terests. Many standards have been proposed to test the ad- 
vance of civilization. Some have suggested the consumption 
of soap, and others the use of writing paper. Be that as it 
may, it would appear to be a safe assumption, in the peculiar 
conditions of our day, that the application of electric power 
to the transportation and general economic needs of a com- 
munity may be taken as the measure of that community's 
progress. For the present, the electric railway mileage of 
Canada has this year passed the 1000-mile mark. To be exact, 
it reached 1,049.07 miles, as compared with 988.97 last year. 
Of second track there were 95.20 miles constructed. These 
figures do not include the mileage of lines under construction. 

Capital liability reached $102,044,979, representing an in- 
crease over 1909 of $10,439,990. Having regard to new lines 



3* 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



being built, to extensions of existing systems and to projects 
in process of taking positive shape, it may be assumed that in- 
vestments in Canadian electric railways will mount up rapidly. 
An increase of 161 per cent in 10 years fairly shows the steady 
movement which has been going on in this regard throughout 
the Dominion. 

The gross earnings for 1910 amounted to $18,458,816 — a 
betterment of $2,275,853 as against the preceding year. 
Toward this total, passengers contributed $16,125,995 > freight, 
$575,537, and mail and express, $68,604. Other car earnings 
reached $51,241, and under the head of "miscellaneous" there 
came in $1,382,692. Gross earnings have increased by 220 per 
cent within the decade. The operating expenses for the year 
were $10,121,781, representing a ratio of 59.4 per cent to total 
income. This left a net income of $8,337,035. The profits 
actually earned for the year were $9,572,315; but, as has been 
said, there were some lines which incurred a deficit. After 
making deductions aggregating $2,953,759 for taxes and interest 
on funded debt a balance of $5,383,276 was left available for 
dividends. 

Operating expenses were distributed as follows : Mainte- 
nance of way and structures, $797,895.03; maintenance of 
equipment, $1,532,542.87; operation of power plant, $1,586,- 
927.37; operation of cars, $4,814,761.63, and general expenses, 
$1,406,943.49. The wages bill included in the foregoing 
amounted to $6,316,777.20, or 62.4 per cent of the total. This 
is not up to the proportion established by steam railways, 
which is somewhat surprising. It may be that the same method 
of accounting is not observed ; but there would not seem to be 
any specific reason why the ratio of labor to aggregate oper- 
ating expenses should, in the case of electric roads, fall below 
the percentage which obtains among other railways. The rates 
of pay are not by any means uniform. They are considera- 
bly higher at the Pacific Coast than the Atlantic, and are also 
higher in the larger centers than in the smaller. Conductors 
and motormen r eceive nearly equal rates, and the maximum 
is not over 24 cents an hour in Ontario and 32 cents in the 
West. 

The equipment consisted of 3789 cars of all classes, divided 
up as follows: Passenger cars — closed, 1795; open, 994, and 
combination, 337. Other cars — freight, 282; mail, express and 
baggage, 25 ; combination, 7 ; work, 87 ; snow plows, 62 ; sweep- 
ers, 97, and miscellaneous, 103. This represented an increase 
for the year of 106 closed passenger cars, 130 freight cars, 
5 mail and express cars, 8 snow plows, 7 sweepers and 10 
miscellaneous cars. It might be said that all the cars added 
during the year were manufactured in Canada, although the 
trade returns show a very considerable importation of parts 
from the United States. Altogether about $3,000,000 worth 
of motors, generators and electric apparatus of one sort and 
another was brought in ; but it would be impossible to say 
now much was distinctly for electric railways. The estab- 
lishment of a large branch of the Westinghouse business in 
Canada has led to a marked reduction of imports as com- 
pared with 15 and 20 years ago. 

The addition of eight snow plows and seven sweepers sug- 
gests the difficulties which have to be overcome in the Do- 
minion during the winter season. The snowfall in all the 
Eastern cities, except Toronto, is usually heavy, and when 
electric lines were first mooted in Montreal, Ottawa and other 
centers capital was exceedingly shy because of the well-founded 
fear that operation would be impracticable during at least 
three months of the year; but ingenuity and dogged per- 
sistence won out against the obstacles interposed by our winter 
conditions. To-day electric railway investments are regarded 
with special approbation, and those who backed their faith in 
the early nineties do not look back with regret upon the 
venture. 

Victory was not gained, however, without a desperate and 
sustained struggle. When a blizzard from the West was blow- 
ing it was found that the relatively small sweepers at first 
available were not always able to keep the tracks clear, and if 
a tie-up for half an hour took place the battle was lost. The 



larger sweepers now in use, .with much greater motive power 
beneath them, have quite satisfactorily overcome that trouble. 
In nearly all cases electric lines are obliged to keep the ;,now 
on the streets down to a certain depth, and wing plows are 
generally used for this purpose. The wing plow follows so 
closely after the sweeper that the snow is never permitted to 
accumulate to a depth of more than 2 in. or 3 in. After each 
storm the snow piled up along the extreme margin of the road- 
way is removed by sleighs to convenient dumping points. The 
company supplies large boxes for the purpose and, at a speci- 
fied contract figure, sleighs are provided by private owners. 
Last year the cost of removing snow amounted to $238,882. 

The public service of electric railways in 1910 was repre- 
sented in the carrying of 360,964,876 passengers, over and above 
transfers, and 852,294 tons of freight. This was a better pas- 
senger business by 46,938,205 than for 1909, and 246,030,220 
above the figures of 10 years ago. A growth of over 200 per 
cent in the volume of traffic within the decade must be ac- 
cepted as highly encouraging. The contribution of the larger 
centers to the total was, of course, large. Montreal had 102,- 
377,923 passengers; Toronto, 103,480,724; Winnipeg, 28,841,161; 
Ottawa. 15,987,849, and the cities at the Pacific Coast, 33,417,659, 
apart from transfers. The conduct of the entire service of the 
Dominion involved 65,249,166 car miles, of which 889,561 were 
identified with the movement of freight and mails. 

The freight business has not reached relatively large pro- 
portions, but it is growing steadily. Like the passenger traffic 
to which allusion has just been made, it has increased by 200 
per cent within 10 years. The outlook, however, points to 
expansion. In the Niagara orchard district the electric lines 
carry small fruits to the markets much more expeditiously 
and conveniently than can the steam roads. In fact, this 
method of handling orchard and garden products has very 
decided advantages, and the business is developing rapidly. In 
the western sections of Ontario rural lines are also doing well, 
and their success has led to the projecting of quite a number 
of roads in other parts of the Province. In fact, apart from 
the fast filling up West, the extension of electric railway in- 
terests in Canada will probably take place to a considerable 
extent along the line of these freight roads. They will not be 
devoted exclusively to the carrying of products of various 
sorts, but to passengers as well. 

Right here it may not be amiss to refer to an aspect of this 
freight business which has recently arisen. The Railway Com- 
mission of Canada has large and comprehensive powers with 
respect to the regulation of rates, and the question of jurisdic- 
tion over lines holding charters from the Provincial Legisla- 
tures has become a matter of legal controversy. At the present 
time a suit is pending before the Imperial Privy Council to 
which the Railway Commission and the Montreal Street Rail- 
way are parties. The issue will affect electric roads directly, 
but will also have an important bearing on steam lines. 

This whole subject of electric railways in Canada cannot, 
unhappily, be dismissed without a reference to accidents. Dur- 
ing the year 95 persons were killed and 2538 injured. Of the 
killed, 14 were passengers and 13 employees; of the injured, 
1 595 were passengers and 227 employees. This toll of life and 
limb is reflected in the operating expenses to the extent of 
$340,000 for damages. The steam roads killed one passenger 
in every 598,243 during 1910, while the electric lines had one 
killed in every 25,783,205. This showing is favorable to the 
latter; but the fact remains that loss of life and injury to pas- 
sengers and others exhibits an ascending tendency. 



STATISTICS OF THE GENERAL ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY 

In this week's issue of the Electrical World the statement is 
made that 1910 was not a bad year for the general electrical 
industry. In fact, all industries enjoyed a steady advance 
much more sound and healthy than marked the notable ex- 
pansion up to four or five years ago. In support of this state- 
ment it presents the table published on the next page as an 
estimate of the approximate sums for the items given. 



January 7, 1911.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



39 



In connection with this table it says : "The gain in electrical 
manufacture has been taken at about 10 per cent; in electric 
railways at 10 per cent, which may be slightly low ; in central 
station work at 20 per cent, which is about right ; in telephony, 
nearly 20 per cent; in telegraphy, about 7 per cent; in isolated 
plant service, nearly 30 per cent, which may be excessive, but 

1909 I9'0 

Electrical apparatus made $275,000,000 $300,000,000 

Electric railway earnings 475,000,000 520,000,000 

Central-station sale of energy, etc 250,000,000 300,000,000 

Telephone earnings 250,000,000 275,000,000 

Telegraph earnings 60,000,000 65,000,000 

Isolated light and power plant earnings 75,000,000 100,000,000 

Miscellaneous electric service 50,000,000 75,000,000 

$i.435.ooo.ooo $1,635,000,000 

includes a lot of big power work, mines, battleships, etc. ; in 
miscellaneous service, 50 per cent, which also may be high, 
but is likely to be correct. In other words, the largest single 
item of gain is taken at a low rate, and this method of computa- 
tion would offset any excess in the smaller gains assumed at 
a higher rate." 

COMMUNICATION 



PITTSBURGH CAR SERVICE 



Chicago, Dec. 29, 1910. 

To the Editors : 

I have delayed answering the letter in your issue of Sept. 
24 from Judge J. H. Reed, vice-president of the Pittsburgh 
Railways Company, while making an effort to secure more in- 
formation about the relative car service in Pittsburgh, in re- 
gard to which there has been some correspondence in your 
columns. 

The main point at issue is whether or not, as originally stated 
and as questioned in Judge Reed's first letter, "according 
to this record the standard of service furnished decreased 
from 1902 to 1908, with a considerable improvement in 1909." 

This statement was made in my report in connection w.th a 
table showing the total passengers per revenue car mile for 
each month from January, 1902, to March, 1910. This record 
was shown graphically in the diagram therewith, together with 
the corresponding records of "gross earnings per revenue car 
mile" and the "operating expenses per revenue car mile," so that 
as far as the records, using the car-mile unit, can indicate, 
this diagram tells the story by months of the operation of the 
Pittsburgh Railways Company since the formation of the com- 
panies into one combined system a little over eight years ago, 
and proves the statement to be correct when the service is 
compared on a "car-mile basis." 

There seems to be no question that the standard of service 
in 1909 was considerably improved over that of 1908, which 
confirms the latter part of the original statement. 

Whether or not the standard of service in 1908 was higher 
or lower than in 1902 can be more accurately determined 
only by a study of the "seat-mile record," and in order to 
avoid any further approximations I have made an unsuccess- 
ful effort, as shown by the following letters, to secure the ex- 
act information : 

"Chicago, Oct. 10, 1910. 

"Judge J. H. Reed, 
"Vice-president Pittsburgh Railways Company, 
"Pittsburgh, Pa. 
"My dear sir : 

"I have read your interesting letter, published in the Sept. 24 
issue of the Electric Railway Journal, replying to my letter 
published in the Sept. 17 issue of the same journal, and it 
seems to me that, notwithstanding the interest that this con- 
troversy might have to some, there is no necessity of its con- 
tinuing, for my only object is to know the exact facts and draw 
correct deductions from them, and if I find that I have based 
my original statement upon wrong information and drawn 
wrong deductions, I shall be very glad to correct it. Your 
letter seems to indicate that you have correct records of the 



exact number of seat miles operated by your company during 
the period of years under discussion, and if you have and 
will place this information at my disposal, so that I can check 
it up, I shall be very glad to do so, and, after I have done so, 
write a reply to the Journal which will rectify any error, if 
one has been made, and also correct my report accordingly be- 
fore its final publication. 

"I have ready what appears to me to be a very satisfactory 
reply to your last communication to the Journal, which I shall 
hold until I have had time to hear from you, as it seems to me 
that the plan I have outlined above would be better if we can 
carry it out. 

"I shall be in Pittsburgh on Saturday, the 15th inst., and if 
you should think well of my suggestions I will appreciate it 
if you will place the information so that it will be available to 
Messrs. Damon and Bibbins, of my Pittsburgh office, between 
now and that time, so that it could be got in shape for me 
to look it over on the 15th inst. when there. 

"Yours very truly, 

(signed) "Bion J. Arnold." 
"Pittsburgh Railways Company. 

"Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct. 31, 1910. 

"Mr. Bion J. Arnold, 

"181 La Salle Street, Chicago. 
"My dear Mr. Arnold : 

"Your letter of Oct. 10, addressed to Judge Reed, has been 
referred to me. 

"I owe you an apology for not having replied at an earlier 
date, but many things have occurred since my personal inter- 
view with you which have caused me to think it would be un- 
wise at this time to have any more checking of our records, 
although I can assure you that the statements contained in 
Judge Reed's letters are correct and- can be proven at any time 
the necessity may arise. 

"Very truly yours, 
(signed) "James D. Callery, President." 

As the matter stands at present the records originally fur- 
nished me by the company do indicate that the standard of 
service decreased from 1902 to 1908, but it now appears that 
the railway company has other records, which it feels that it 
cannot furnish at this time, which apparently show considerable 
improvement in the standard of service in 1908 over that of 
1902. By the company's statement, as given in Judge Reed's 
letter of Sept. 19, that it had cars stored in 1908 which were not 
operated, it seems to admit that the service in 1908 was not 
as good as the company could have made it, and that the 
service was improved in 1909. The question, therefore, as to 
whether the crowding, and, therefore, the service, was better 
or worse in 1908 than in 1902 can only be determined by a 
comparison of the "seat-mile records," which I regret are not 
available to me. 

In conclusion, I might say that this statement in regard to 
the service is only one of possibly several statements made in 
the report which, in order to maintain a consistent position, 
the company may find it necessary to question. But I have 
endeavored in my analysis of the Pittsburgh transportation 
situation to maintain an impartial attitude, and I believe that 
an examination of my entire report, which is now in press, will 
show such an attitude. In order to maintain this attitude, in 
view of the present conditions, I am sending you this letter in 
place of the reply which I had previously prepared, and which 
is referred to in the second paragraph of my letter to Judge 
Reed of Oct. 10, 1910. 

Bion T. Arnold. 



Note: The report on car service in Pittsburgh to which this 
letter refers was submitted by Mr. Arnold to Mayor Magee on 
July 28, 1910, and was printed in abstract in the Electric 
Railway Journal for Aug. 13, page 265. The other letters to 
which Mr. Arnold refers were printed in this paper as follows : 
Aug. 20, page 304; Sept. 17, page 441; Sept. 24, page 475. 

[Eds.] 



40 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE RULES ADOPTED BY THE 
AUSTRIAN STREET RAILWAY ASSOCIATION 

The Austrian Street Railway Association has recently pub- 
lished a set of standard rules for operation and maintenance. 
This code which went into effect Jan. i, ign.has been formally 
approved by the Austrian government. It has been issued 
to the members as a pamphlet which is sold for about 21 cents 
a copy. There are four sections, as follows: General rules, 
track, line and rolling stock. 

The section on track recommends that the track construction 
should be examined at least twice a week on unpaved sections 
where the operating speed does not exceed 20 km an hour 
(12.8 m.ph.) and on paved sections where the operating speed 
does not exceed 30 km an hour (18.6 m.p.h,). Daily inspection 
is recommended for higher speed lines. Switches should be 
examined every day on all lines, irrespective of operating 
speeds. An inspection means the tightening of joints, the re- 
adjustment of bonds, the operation of switches and signal 
towers, the inspection of drainage, the cleaning of grooves and 
the lubrication of curves. The annual track examination should 
include the measurement of gage, rail wear and curve elevation. 
Rails in cross-tie construction should not remain in service if 
the dead weight on them exceeds 1200 kg per square cubic 
centimeter (16,500 lb. per square inch). The grooves of rails 
must not exceed 65 mm (2,'S in.) in width on' curves except 
where steam cars are also run. In the latter case the groove 
must not exceed the original width by more than 25 mm 
(0.88 in.). The wear of the railhead must not exceed 30 per 
cent of its original width. The test widths of the groove and 
of the railhead must he taken along a line 10 mm (0.39 in.) 
below the tread. 

The line section states that the insulation of underground 
feeders should be measured four times a year and that under- 
ground cable boxes should be examined twice a year. The 
insulation of the overhead trolley wire connections and its 
supports is to be measured four times a year when located 
near telegraph, telephone and other weak current circuits; 
otherwise twice a year will be sufficient. The insulation against 
trolley and ground of all span and other supporting wires must 
be at least 1 megohm. The trolley wire should be examined 
twice a year to observe its wear, position with regard to the 
center of the track, suspension and the condition of the ears. 
This inspection should also include the insulation, section break- 
ers, overhead circuits, switches, auxiliary wires, circuit-breaker 
boxes, telephone wires, span wires, lightning protection, etc. 
Inspection should be made every two years of the connections 
between span wires and wall rosettes, strain insulators, etc. 
The permissible wear of trolley wire on tangents should not 
exceed 65 per cent of the original cross-section. Spans and 
suspension wires must be removed when one- fourth of the 
cross-section has been lost through rust or other causes. 

Iron poles should be examined for oxidation every three 
years and for painting. Wooden poles should be tested an- 
nually during the dry season. These examinations are to be 
made by sounding and in doubtful cases by boring the pole 
directly above the ground line. The sawdust, of course, will 
show the condition of the wood. All boring holes must be 
plugged up with a piece of hard wood. The wooden poles 
should be exposed for a depth of 20 Cm (7.8 in.) every two 
years to permit the inspection of the wood fibers with some 
sharp instrument. The latter examination should be made an- 
nually on poles which have been used for over 10 years. 

The rolling stock section recommends that motor cars should 
be examined daily. The general overhauling should be made 
every 50,000 km (31,000 miles) or at least once a year. Trail- 
ers should be overhauled at least every 60,000 km (37,000 miles) 
or iy 2 years. Limits of wear also are specified for different 
portions of the car equipment. Brake shoes without special 
heads must not be used if less than 10 mm (0.39 in.) thick. 
The tires of driving wheels used for wheel loads up to 3 
metric tons should be at least 16 mm (0.6 in.) thick and for 



wheel loads up to 4.5 tons, at least 18 mm (0.7 in.) thick. 
Trailer wheels and tires for the same load may be 2 mm 

(0.078 in.) thinner. If the tires are keyed to the wheels the 
corresponding limits of tire wear are 20 per cent less than those 
hereinbefore given. The wheel flanges may be worn to 8 mm 

(0.31 in.) thickness and 12 mm (0.47 in.) height. The same 
wheel flange rule applies to curved T-rails if the latter have 
guards on the inner side at least. If this is not the case the 
minimum flange height should be 15 mm (0.59 in.) and the 
minimum flange thickness 12 mm (0.47 in.). 



NOTES ON THE NORTHERN ELECTRIC STREET RAILWAY, 
■ SCRANTON, PA. 



On July 1, 1910, the Northern Electric Street Railway Com- 
pany, Scranton, Pa., was leased to the Scranton-Binghamton 
Railroad Company for 990 years. According to the agree- 
ment, the stockholders of the leased company, will receive 3 
per cent on their stock during the first year ( 191 1 ) of the lease 
and x /i per cent more for each year following until a permanent 
dividend rate of 6 per cent is attained. 

Since publication of the description of this company's prop- 
erty in the Electric Railway Journal of March 21, 1908, the 
railway has built an extension of 6 miles to a large private park 
on Lake Winola, giving a total trackage of 20 miles. The 
gross earnings of this company for the year ended June 30, 
rgio, were practically $169,000 on 20 miles of track. It is ex- 
pected that the gross earnings for the next fiscal year will show 
an increase of 10 per cent to 15 per cent owing to the comple- 
tion of the Lake Winola extension and the general growth of 
the business. The detailed figures for the fiscal year ended 



June 30, 1910, are as follows: 

Passenger earnings $155010.71 

Freight earnings 8,090.89 

Other earnings, including car advertising 6,028.37 

Total gross earnings $169,129.97 

Operating expenses 106,737.37 



Income less operating expenses $62,392.60 

Xet income after deduction of fixed charges, taxes, 

etc 416.21 



The net earnings for July and August, 1910, were $24,835.52, 
which is $2,247.48 more, or 10 per cent greater, than for the 
corresponding months of 1909. 

The figure of $8,090.89 given as the freight earnings covers 
the work of a single milk car. This car makes two trips, or 80 
miles, a day on weekdays and one trip, or 40 miles, on Sun- 
days. The weekday business amounts to 80 40-quart cans. 
While profitable, this business is no larger because most of 
the producers have a rather short haul to market. The business 
emanating from the vicinity of Lake Winola, which is 20 miles 
from Scranton, is handled for 18 cents a 40-quart can. 

Since the opening of the line in 1907 four more sidings have 
been installed on the 20-mile section between Scranton and 
Lake Winola. This makes 17 sidings in all, thereby permitting 
a 15-minute instead of a 30-minute schedule. During the sum- 
mer a 15-minute service is given over the entire line, and the 
same schedule is maintained half way out of Scranton for eight 
months in the year. About $46,000 was spent in the last fiscal 
year for various track improvements, such as the reballasting of 
the track, straightening out of curves and the construction ,of 
6600 ft. of track around Lake Winola. All of the sidings have 
Pennsylvania split switches. The special work within the 
limits of Scranton is of solid manganese. 

The company has recently installed in the Dalton power sta- 
tion a 100-k.v.a. motor generator set, which converts current 
from the 370-volt station busbars to supply light for Factoryville, 
La Plume, Dalton, Waverly, Glenburn and Clark's Summit. 
This plant will also be enlarged later to take two 750-kw tur- 
bines for the projected Scranton-Binghamton Railroad. 



January 7, 191 1 .] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



4i 



The company now has 14 passenger cars and four service 
cars. Rolling stock in service is inspected every night and 
overhauled on a basis approximating 50,000 miles. Wheel sets 
are sent to Scranton and turned for $7 per set exclusive of 
the transportation charges, which are paid by the railway. All 
of the wheels are of solid steel of Latrobe, Schoen or Standard 
design. As a rule 60,000 miles is secured before a turning. 
Some of these wheels have already run for over 200,000 miles. 
It is proposed to install wheel-handling machinery when rolling 
stock is purchased for the allied Scranton-Binghamton Rail- 
road. Since beginning operation in 1907 the company has not 
had a single breakage of the motor frames or malleable iron 
gear cases originally installed. All armature and field winding 
is done by an outside electrical contractor. The mo- 
tors, which are of the Westinghouse 101-D type, have given ex- 
cellent satisfaction and have required no change except in the 
field coil terminals. The original terminals proved too light, for 
the service because the plain solder connection did not give 
enough contact area. The terminals are now re-soldered and 
riveted to the ribbon winding by two copper rivets which are 
passed through the terminal slot. 

The cars of the company are painted Tuscan red. They are 
washed twice a week with cold water and at intervals of four 
to six weeks with the No. 000 emulsion of the Imperial Car 
Cleaner Company. After the dried cleaner has been rubbed 
off, Devoe's furniture polish is applied to secure a high finish. 
The cost of this work is as follows : Imperial cleaner at 
$1.05 per car; y 2 quart furniture polish at 75 cents per quart; 
14 hours of labor at 15 cents per hour, a total cost of $3.52^. 



BLOCK SIGNAL SYSTEM ON BALTIMORE VIADUCT 



An interesting installation of signals has just been completed 
by the Kinsman Block System Company, New York, on the 
Guilford Avenue line of the United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany's system in Baltimore, Md. These signals are located on 
a double-tracked elevated structure known as the North Street 
Viaduct. They are used to protect the spans and stations at 
Mad ison Street and Center Street, and also to give protection 
on account of steam and smoke which are caused by steam 
locomotives which run underneath this portion of the structure. 
The length of track protected is about 1500 ft. There are six 
signals, three on the southbound track, "A," "B" and "C," and 



the signal and before it passes the section point the signal in- 
dicates either "Clear" or "Stop." When the signal indicates 
"Clear" the semaphore is in the vertical position and a white 
light is shown as a night indication. When it indicates "Stop" 
the semaphore is horizontal and a red light is shown. 

If the signal indicates "Clear," or that the block is unoc- 
cupied, the car passes onto the setting section and the signal 




To 55 Volt Feeder ) 



Signals in Baltimore — Arrangement of Circuits and Apparatus 
at Signal "B" 

operates from the vertical position to the oblique or 45 deg. 
position. In this case, the light changes from white to green. 
This movement of the semaphore or its change of position is 
an indication to proceed through the block at usual speed. 

If the signal is in the "Stop" position the motonnan of an 
approaching car is instructed to stop at the section point and 
wait until the signal changes to "Clear." Then he may pro- 
ceed with caution until he gets his indication to proceed at 



NORTH 5T ELL va TED 



Release Section 
I Rail in Length, 



(Box Containing 
'^ReloydSatlenes 



rlodison St. Span 



Signal 'A' 



Release Sect ion 
IR01I in Length) 

S9 f 

I I, 



Signal SetfingSection 
$ F ' /3 Roils m Length _ 




SetfingSection I IRail in Length 
2 'fails in Length Signol'B' Setting Section) StgnalX 
J Units 11? Length • 

Signals in Baltimore — General Arrangement of Signals and Circuits 



Setting Section 
c2Roilj in Leng th 



I Center St Span \ 




x Conlamng^l^Relccsr Section 
Re lor and Bolter ies i Rail in L cnqth 



three on the northbound track, "D," "E" and "F." The aver- 
age length of each block is about 500 ft. 

The signals are operated by track circuits. As a car ap- 
proaches a signal and before it enters the block it passes over 
a section of track known as the setting section, which is from 
60 ft. to 90 ft. long. As it leaves the block it passes over a 
section known as the release section, which is 30 ft. long. It 
will be seen from the track plan that a car passes over the 
setting section to signal "A" as it approaches that signal and 
it passes over the release section to signal "A" after it has 
passed signal '"B." 

A marker has been installed at the left of the track and 
at the beginning of the setting section. This marker is a 
green board with a green light for night indication. It marks 
what is known as the "Section Point." When a car approaches 



his customary speed as described hereinbefore. Should the 
motorman run past the section point before bringing his car to 
a stop, he is instructed not to back up but to wait on the setting 
section. The signal will remain at "Stop" until the car which is 
in the block passes out into the block ahead ; as it passes over 
the release section the signal in the rear will operate to the 
"Clear" position, and will then fall to the 45 deg. position. 
The latter change of position of the semaphore is the "proceed" 
indication to the motorman who has his car on the setting 
section. The rule that the motorman stop his car at the 
section point should be obeyed so as to give him ample time 
to observe the operation of the signal. However, a failure to 
observe this rule does not prevent the signal from giving its 
proper indication. 
After a car passes over the setting section, and as it passes 



42 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



the signal and enters the block, the semaphore moves to the 
horizontal posit. on and shows a red light by night, indicating 
"Stop." The signal remains in this position as long as the 
block remains occupied. 

If the apparatus should become deranged either of three 
things would happen : First, the semaphore would immediately 
operate by gravity to the "Stop" position and remain there 
until repairs are made ; second, the signal would operate 



give^ protection for reverse movements. The signal operates 
for each car when run independently, or it will operate once 
for each train if a number of cars are coupled. 

In this system only one line wire is required. The circuit 
drawing shows grounded circuits, but the circuits are metallic 
and are only grounded because the wires are connected to the 
grounded rails. The signals, the controller and other ap- 
paratus used are the same as employed in the single-track 




Signals in Baltimore — Proceed Indication 

normally to allow the first car to enter the block and would 
assume the "Stop" position and remain in this position; third, 
the signal would not operate as the car passes the section point 
to give the indication to proceed. This failure of the signal 



Signals in Baltimore — Clear Indication 

system which this company has installed. All wires are carried 
to the, tops of the poles and to the track in loricated conduit. 

It is necessary to insulate only one of the traffic rails, and as 
the insulated sections are short jumper cables are used, the 




Signals in Baltimore — Stop Indication and Section Point 



to operate is a danger indication. The burning out of the lamp 
in the signal is also considered as a danger indication. 

If a signal is out of order or shows a "Stop" indication con- 
tinuously the motorman is instructed to hold the car at the 
section point or on the setting section long enough to assure 
him that if there is a car ahead it has had time to pass entirely 
through the block. Then the motorman may proceed with 
extreme caution according to the regular operating rules 
governing traffic on trestles and bridges. As the traffic is al- 
ways in one direction on each track it is not necessary to 



ends being bonded to the uninsulated rails near the joints. 

The relays are operated by current from caustic soda bat- 
teries. The Edison cell with a low temperature electrolyte 
is used so that it is not necessary to install the batteries in 
wells or chutes placed underground. 

In the diagram relating to signal "B," the point marked "A" 
is the operating magnet; "B" the magnet which slots the sig- 
nal at 45-deg. position ; "C" the spectacle which carries colored 
glasses ; "E" the contacts which are closed when the release 
magnets are energized. . 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



43 



LONDON LETTER 



(From Our Regular Correspondent) 

The work of extending the use of electricity on the Lan- 
cashire & Yorkshire Railway system converging on Liver- 
pool has been commenced on the line from Maghull to 
Town Green. When completed this line will form a portion 
of the original electric "belt" system from Liverpool to 
Southport via Ormskirk. 

The Metropolitan Electric Tramways, Ltd., operating in 
the north of London, was recently summoned by the Tot- 
tenham District Council for the recovery of £371, the 
balance of the general district rate for the half year. The 
company contended that the tramway came within Sec- 
tion 211 of the Public Health Act, 1875, and should there- 
fore be assessed in the proportion only of one-fourth of 
the annual value. The tramway is, in fact, linked with a 
light railway, and the company claimed that on this account 
it was also exempt from the full rate. The court decided 
that the tramway was not a railway within the meaning of 
Section 211 and ordered the payment of the full rate with 
costs. 

Robert Hammond, as arbitrator, has determined the 
price which the Paisley District Tramways Company is to 
pay the Paisley Corporation for electricity for operating 
the tramways. Under the Paisley District Tramways order 
of 1901 the rates were fixed for seven years and subse- 
quently fixed for two years additional as follows: 2d. per 
unit for the first 200,000 units per annum, i%d. per unit 
for the next 100,000 units per annum, ij^d. per unit for the 
next 100,000 units per annum and i%d. per unit for all 
additional energy. Mr. Hammond has decided that the 
rate to be paid by the company to the corporation for 
seven years shall be a fixed sum of £4 15s. per kilowatt per 
annum of the maximum power delivered to the tramway 
feeders and in addition the sum of o.47Sd. per unit for all 
units delivered to the tramway feeders and metered at the 
generating station. The maximum power delivered to the 
tramway feeders during the year is to be taken as the 
average power delivered to the tramway feeders during 
the period of 30 consecutive minutes in which the electrical 
energy supplied to the company is a maximum for the 
year. Pending the determination of the amount of the 
maximum power and of the cost of coal each year monthly 
payments of £275 are to be made by the company and 
o.47Sd. per unit for all units supplied, the necessary adjust- 
ments of the accounts to be made at the end of each year. 
As the company has been taking about 1,300,000 units 
from the corporation and the maximum load for the tram- 
ways has been about 575 kw, the capital charge to be made 
by the corporation is o.504d. per unit and the total charge 
o.Q7Qd. per unit. The corporation claimed that the average 
price of i-4d. per unit which the company has been paying 
should be continued and the company asked for a reduc- 
tion to o.s6d. per unit, so that the award is almost the mean 
of the two prices. 

The highways committee of the London County Council 
reported at a recent meeting that it had considered the 
tenders submitted recently for 5000 tons of track rails and 
about 700 tons of conductor rails. It has been decided to 
award the contract for the conductor rails to the Froding- 
ham Iron & Steel Company, the lowest bidder. The lowest 
tender for the track rails was received from a London firm 
which proposed to supply rails manufactured by the Belgian 
Steel Rail Syndicate, but as this tender was only about 
£800 lower than the tender of Walter Scott, Ltd., Leeds, 
which amounted to £32,855, it was decided to order the 
rails from that firm. The committee pointed out that the 
difficulties of inspection during manufacture were greatly 
increased when the rails were made abroad, and that the 
same control could not be exercised over the work as 
when the product was turned out at home. 

The libel action against Sir John Benn by Griffiths & 
Bedell for remarks which he had made against the G. B. 
surface contact system, constructed for the London County 
Council in the Mile End Road, which was referred to in 
the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 3, 1910, page 1121, 
continued for 12 days, and resulted in the jury awarding 
the plaintiffs £12,000 damages, to be equally divided be- 
tween them. The defence contended that Sir John Benn 



had made the disparaging remarks in political speeches, 
and that they referred to the system as laid down in Lon- 
don and not to the system as a whole. Evidence was pro- 
duced to show that the system had been greatly modified 
as applied to London, and Mr. Bedell, the inventor, claimed 
that if the system had been installed as he desired it would 
have been satisfactory. The decision rested upon whether 
the remarks made by Sir John Benn were libelous and 
made with malice. Sir John described the G. B. system 
as constructed in the Mile End Road as a "mischievous 
and impossible system," a "jerry-built system" and a system 
that "had been condemned by all experts as unsuitable for 
London." He also referred to the system as a "fiasco." 
During the action he maintained that the system was in- 
efficient, unsafe and unsatisfactory. The judge decided 
that the comment which had been made could not be said 
to apply only to the system as laid down in the Mile End 
Road. The case was interesting, but it is hardly necessary 
to go into the details. Briefly, the system was constructed 
by other contractors with modifications insisted upon by 
the London County Council. When it was put in opera- 
tion it was found to be unsatisfactory on account of so 
much trouble with live studs. William Mordey, an inde- 
pendent expert, after a careful investigation of the system 
under the very worst circumstances, reported that the 
system could be made to work satisfactorily with certain 
changes. Afterward the London County Council decided 
to replace the system by the overhead trolley. Since the 
decision the impression has grown that Justice Ridley, 
before whom the case was tried, did not sum up the case 
impartially and an appeal has been taken. 

The British Electric Traction Company tried recently 
to solve the problem of fares by adopting farthing fares. 
Now Mr. Dalrymple, the general manager of the Glasgow 
Municipal Tramways, has reported on the question. As 
is well known, Glasgow has been very liberal in the matter 
of fares. One can travel between two and three miles for 
a penny, and there are stages a little more than half a mile 
for which one can travel for a halfpenny. Notwithstanding 
this, efforts have been made for some time to increase the 
length of this halfpenny stage. It has practically been 
decided by the committee not to change the penny stages, 
which are about 2 l / 2 miles, but to institute a three-farthing 
stage.' the distance of the three-farthing stage to be equiva- 
lent to two halfpenny stages. To avoid the difficulty which 
the British Electric Traction Company had in regard to 
the farthing, a coin which is not in general use, the Council 
of Glasgow has decided to issue books containing 12 tickets 
for 9d. The two-stage coupon books are to be tried for 
a period of four months. It is feared that the new system 
will interfere with the penny traffic. At first it was con- 
tended that the three-farthing fare would benefit the work- 
ingman, but as it has been decided to sell books of a 
dozen coupons it is thought that well-to-do people will 
benefit most. Should it be found that this new departure 
interferes with the traffic receipts, it will be discontinued 
at the end of four months. Mr. Dalrymple is opposed to 
the conductors themselves handling the coupon books, so 
passengers will have to purchase them in the offices of 
the company. The conductors will be supplied with three- 
farthing tickets and they will exchange them for the 
coupons. 

The Stepney Borough Council and the London County 
Council are unable to agree with regard to the proposed 
reconstruction of the horse trams along Burdett and Grove 
Roads, forming a junction with Commercial Road and 
Mile End Road. The London County Council has proposed 
that the overhead trolley system be installed, especially 
as the line is not expected to be remunerative at first. The 
Stepney Council insists upon the conduit system being 
adopted. 

In order to encourage efficiency at Bradford, C. J. Spen- 
cer, general manager of the Bradford Corporation Tram- 
ways, who had to report recently on the application of 
the employees for increased remuneration, has suggested 
that increases in pay should not be granted automatically 
by right of seniority. Mr. Spencer evidently believes that 
many of his employees could increase their efficiency ap- 
preciably, and that only those who become known for 
their general efficiency should be rewarded with an increase 
in pay. A. C. S. 



44 



^ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVIi, No. i. 



News of Electric Railways 



Cleveland Traction Situation 



N. W. Harris & Company, New York, N. Y„ in their 
proposal to finance the Cleveland Railway, which was pre- 
sented to the board of directors of the company on Dec. 
31, 1910, suggests three changes in the conditions of the 
grant, the most important of which is to the effect that an 
annual reserve fund be established to amortize the fran- 
chise valuation of $3,615,843.89, which was fixed by the late 
Judge R. W. Tayler. The establishment of such a reserve 
fund would add another division to the distribution of the 
income, and it is believed that the present fare of 3 cents 
plus a cent for a transfer would not cover the additional 
charge. The suggestions made by N. W. Harris & Com- 
pany are contained in the following portion of the propo- 
sition placed before the directors: 

"As a result of our recent investigation of the street 
railway situation in Cleveland, we are prepared to enter 
into a contract to purchase an issue of bonds sufficient to 
meet your present financial obligations. 

"Our examination of the franchise under which you are 
at present operating, however, leads us to make certain 
suggestions to you which we believe to be of vital im- 
portance, looking particularly to the increase of facilities 
and the development and extension of the property. 

"We have been familiar with the street railway con- 
ditions in Cleveland since about 1893, when we made our 
first purchase of the bonds of your company. We have 
observed the rapid growth of the city and the consequent 
necessity for increased service and extension of facilities. 
There is every reason to assume that this growth will 
continue and it will inevitably mean greater service and 
increased facilities to be provided by the continued con- 
tribution of new capital. 

"It is of vital importance that you should be in a position 
to raise new money by the sale of stock as well as by the 
sale of bonds, that you may have these combined resources 
to avail yourselves of as other companies do, and in order 
that a proper ratio between bonds and stocks should be 
preserved. 

"The financial stability of a company and the resources 
which it has on hand to raise money in the future are 
points carefully considered by the discriminating investor. 
Your bonds would be more secure and we could therefore 
make the terms of purchase more attractive to you if the 
Tayler ordinance were amended in the following par- 
ticulars : 

"First — You are given the right to sell 6 per cent bonds, 
but in our judgment, from the standpoint of credit, the 
bond issue should not bear more than 5 per cent interest. 
You should therefore be given the right to sell 5 per cent 
bonds at not lower than a 6 per cent basis, to meet varying 
market conditions with the right to amortize any discounts 
which may, from time to time, be made to dispose of the 
bonds. At the present time some discount would have to 
be allowed to sell a 5 per cent bond. 

"Second — To make possible any future sales of stock, the 
intrinsic value of the same must be protected and the fran- 
chise should be so amended as to make it clear that all 
future extensions and actual additions to the present prop- 
erty shall be maintained at 100 per cent of their repro- 
ductive value through a reserve fund set apart annually. 

"Third — Tor the same reason an annual reserve fund 
should be provided to amortize the principal of the fran- 
chise value of $3,615,843.89 established by the Tayler ordi- 
nance. 

"With these three items corrected, we would feel that 
you were in a position to take care of the future expansion 
of the street railway business by the sale of both stock 
and bonds, instead of being absolutely limited to bonds, as 
seems to be ycur present situation. 

"It has been suggested by Winthrop Coffin in his report 
that the growth of the city before the expiration of the 
franchise may require such extensions, betterments and 
increased service that the present maximum rate of fare 
will be too low: but we judge that should this at any time 



be found to be the case, the city would grant such rea- 
sonable modifications as would continue to insure a 6 per 
cent return on your stock, without which it could not be 
sold at par; which in turn would prevent the company 
from meeting the requirements of a growing city." 

Messrs. Harris & Company did not state that they would 
refuse to purchase the bonds unless their suggestions were 
adopted. They said that if other bond houses were invited 
to consider the matter they might be willing to take the 
bonds under present conditions. The proposal was presented 
to the directors by Horace E. Andrews, former president of 
the company, and a discussion covering three hours fol- 
lowed. Nothing was given to the public at that time regard- 
ing the view of the directors. 

J. J. Stanley, president of the Cleveland Railway, has 
since transmitted a communication to Mayor Baehr in which 
he asks that the changes in the Tayler grant suggested by 
N. W. Harris & Company be made. Street Railway Com- 
missioner Dahl is opposed to any change in the franchise 
except such as will provide against loss in marketing bonds 
below par. Mr. Dahl says the provisions named were asked 
for the purpose of placing the stock in a better position 
and not for the benefit of bondholders. The bond house, 
however, stated that the stock should' be of such value that 
the company would not be compelled to depend solely 
upon the disposal of bonds to take care of its needs. The 
letter by Mr. Stanley follows in part: 

"The Cleveland Railway has realized for some time the 
inadequacy of the service rendered by it to the public, .and 
has hoped to dispose of stocks or bonds sufficient in amount 
to enable it to make needed extensions and additions. It 
has found, however, that investors decline to purchase its 
stock, mainly for the reason that, while for a series of 
years 6 per cent income may be relied upon, they feel that 
the return of the principal at the expiration of the franchise 
is not so well assured. As bearing upon this question, we 
inclose a letter received Dec. 31, 19TO, from N. W. Harris & 
Company. 

"We desire to call your attention to the situation- as it 
exists. The company has accepted a valuation of its prop- 
erty and has agreed to be satisfied with 6 per cent upon its 
stock. The elements of speculation having been taken out 
of the stock and the rate of profit definitely limited, it is all 
the more necessary, in order to invite new capital, to make 
the payment of the limited rate of interest, together with 
the return of the entire amount of the principal, perfectly 
secure. The company must, however, rely upon the sale 
of its stock and bonds for additional financing, and now 
finds that under the Tayler ordinance careful investors do 
not feel that any new principal they may invest in the stock 
of the company is protected. 

"While it was the idea and purpose, frequently expressed, 
that the stockholders of the company should be assured not 
only of 6 per cent interest upon their stock, but of the re- 
turn of the principal of their stock if the city should exer- 
cise its option to purchase the property, and while the ordi- 
nance itself declares that the purpose of the settlement is 
the making of a contract between the company and the city 
which, in the words of the ordinance, 'will secure to the 
Cleveland Railway unimpaired the capital value' fixed by 
Judge Tayler, yet prospective investors in the company's 
securities are of the opinion that the ordinance imperfectly 
provides for the accomplishment of this purpose, and they 
ask that it be so modified as to protect the principal of both 
present and future investment. 

"It is to the mutual interest of the city and the. company 
that additional capital to provide for reasonable service and 
proper extensions be obtained. The company wishes to 
join with the city in any method that may be found feasible 
for the fullest investigation of all conditions and for work- 
ing out the fewest changes possible in the Tayler ordinance 
necessary to attract and protect investment. 

"We are ready to meet you or any representatives that 
may be appointed by you for that purpose, feeling confident 
that if investors can be assured of the security of their in- 
vestment, we shall be able at once to obtain money for the 



January 7, 191 1.] 

purchase of 200 new cars, the building of necessary exten- 
sions and the improvement of the service." 

The annual meeting of the stockholders of the company 
will take place on Jan. 25, 191 1, and it is said that the ques- 
tion of issuing $3,500,000 of bonds, bearing 5 per cent in- 
terest, will be submitted to them for consideration at that 
time. This will open the way to compliance with the de- 
mands of the city and the directors will ask that the terms 
and conditions upon which the securities are issued be 
left to them, so that further action will be unnecessary 
should an agreement that is considered fair be reached. 
Should the city agree to the establishment of a reserve 
fund to take care of the franchise value, it will require 
something like $u,oco per month for the franchise term 
to aggregate the amount necessary. 

Mayor Baehr, Street Railway Commissioner Dahl and the 
special committee of the City Council named some time 
ago made a report to that body on the evening of Dec. 27. 
The report states that it will never be possible to operate 
the system efficiently without a subway .terminal under 
the public square and reaching out a reasonable distance 
in the downtown section. A high-level bridge across the 
Cuyahoga River to reach the West Side, the elimination of 
grade crossings ever steam roads and the addition of 200 
cars to present equipment are other needs that were men- 
tioned. The construction of the bridge has been provided 
for and many grade crossings will be eliminated within 
the next year or two, but the other requirements are yet 
uncertain. The committee stateb that the service during the 
rush hours in the evening is inadequate. The report, in 
part, follows: 

"There are certain physical obstacles in the way cf rapid 
and efficient service during the rush hour period in the 
evening which have always obtained in Cleveland, and 
which will be removed in the immediate future. The most 
serious obstacle to service on the West Side is Superior 
viaduct. On the East Side the various grade crossings have 
the same effect, though, of course, in a smaller degree. 

"At the present time, during the evening rush hour, there 
is a car operated east on Euclid Avenue, between the square 
and East Ninth Street, every 20 seconds; south on Ontario 
Street from the square every 18 seconds, and west across 
the Superior viaduct every 18 seconds, ft is difficult to 
operate under a much closer headway, and no matter how 
many cars are in operation, it will never be possible to 
operate efficiently without a subway terminal under the 
square and reaching out to a reasonable distance in the 
downtown section in order to avoid congestion. 

"But before the gr.ade crossings are eliminated, the high- 
level bridge constructed, and surely before a subway termi- 
nal at the square can be constructed, it will be necessary 
to better the service during the evening rush hour, and 
it is apparent that the Cleveland Railway should acquire 
additional equipment at the earliest possible time. At 
least 200 more cars should be purchased. 

"To procure money for these cars and in view of further 
financing, which it will soon be necessary to undertake, a 
comprehensive scheme of refinancing and refunding the 
present debt of the Cleveland Railway is necessary, and the 
practicability of this financing is now in process of investi- 
gation and, we hope, successful solution by the railway 
company and the street railroad commissioner, fn its last 
analysis, then, the problem of immediate efficient service 
is the problem of financing." 



Toledo Traction Situation 

Dr. J. F. Demers, a member of the board of directors 
and the executive committee of the Toledo Railways & 
Light Company, Toledo, Ohio, died at his home in Levis, 
a suburb of Quebec, Can., on Dec. 26, 1910. 

The resignation of William B. Hale, Chicago, as a mem- 
ber of the board of directors and chairman of the executive 
committee was received on Dec. 29. Mr. Hale stated that 
he desires to devote his entire time to private business 
in Chicago. The remaining members of the executive 
committee are Albion E. Lang and Jay K. Secor, Toledo, 
and William E. Hutton, Cincinnati. The board of direc- 
tors consists of six Toledo men and Mr. Hutton. The 
vacancies will not be filled until the annual meeting on 
Jan. 19, 191 1. 



45 

At a meeting of the council committee of the whole on 
the evening of Dec. 28, 1910, the following form of reply 
to the letter of A. E. Lang, president of the company, 
was agreed upon : 

"In response to your letter of Dec. 24, 1910, in which 
you proposed that as a basis for the discussions suggested 
in my letter of Dec. 15, 1910, an ordinance be drawn 
based upon the principles enunciated in my letter, I am 
authorized to say that we shall prepare memoranda of 
such an ordinance at once, copies of which will be at the 
disposal of your company and others who may be inter- 
ested in inspecting them. The city authorities are pleased 
by your acquiescence in the method of procedure sug- 
gested, and we now go forward on the understanding that 
the public discussions before the Council between rep- 
resentatives cf your company and of the city will begin 
immediately upon the completion of the memoranda." 

City Solicitor Schreiber stated at this meeting that he 
will proceed as rapidly as possible with the preparation 
of memoranda for the ordinance, and he will have the aid 
of Mayor Whitlock, Chairman John B. Merrill, of the 
committee on railroads and telegraph, and others. 

Several important points have not yet been decided by 
the administration. One of them is the question of insert- 
ing the rate of fare in the draft that is to be prepared; 
another is whether the valuation should be placed in the 
grant before the public discussions are opened. 



Program Wisconsin Electrical Association. 



The tentative program for the annual meeting of the 
Wisconsin Electrical Association, which is to be held at the 
Hotel Pfister, Milwaukee, Wis., on Jan. 18 and 19, 191 1, was 
published in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 24, 1910, 
page 1249. Under date of Dec. 30, 1910, J. S. Allen, Lake 
Geneva, Wis., secretary and treasurer of the association, 
has announced the following definite program: 

"Publicity Campaigns." 

"Some Principles Established by the Wisconsin Railroad 
Commission." 

"Electric Meter Testing." 
"Ornamental Street Lighting." 
"Insurance." 

"Electric Railway Repair Shop Practice." 

Mr. Allen says that the question of holding a banquet on 
the evening of Jan. 18, 191 1, is under consideration by the 
executive committee of the association. Suggestions are 
solicited in regard to the convention and the work of the 
association. 



Transit Affairs in New York 

The joint committee of the Chamber of Commerce and 
the Merchants' Association appointed at the Mayor's re- 
quest to examine the subway problem and report its con- 
clusions has submitted a unanimous report approving the 
offer of the Interbcrough Rapid Transit Company and ex- 
pressing the hope that the plan of subway construction 
therein proposed would be promptly accepted by the city, 
in order that the work of construction may begin as soon as 
possible. The committee examined the question from all 
sides — that of the financial interests of the city, that of the 
merit of the routes held out with respect to the accommo- 
dation of the public and to the distribution of traffic, and 
that of the taxpayer and the farepayer. The committee was 
broadly representative of the city. It contains the names of 
an ex-Mayor of New York who had also been Mayor of 
Brooklyn, of an ex-Mayor of Brooklyn, of men of great ex- 
perience in finance, of men of technical qualifications, en- 
gineers and architects, of leading merchants, of men who 
represent broadly distributed real estate interests, of law- 
yers and of representatives of the commercial interests of 
the port. The members of the committee on engineering 
were Charles Sooysmith, chairman; Alfred P. Roller, 
William E. McCord, Samuel Rea, Franklin Remington, 
William J. Wilgus and Seth Low, ex officio. 

The long-standing dispute over the claims for extra work 
(m the original subway contract has been settled. The Pub- 
lic Service Commission sent to the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment a communication which embodied the set- 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



46 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 1. 



tlement reached by arbitration after a year and a half or 
more. It was not a finding by the arbitrators, however, as 
an agreement had been reached already by representatives 
of the city and the Interborough interests. It was announced 
in August that an agreement had been reached by which the 
city should pay $2,000,000 in settlement of the extra claims. 
The claim was made under the original contract with 
John B. McDonald, which the Rapid Transit Subway Con- 
struction Company took over. The full amount was $6,198,- 
514.92. This has been reduced to $1,684,109.33. 



Association Meetings. 



Massachusetts Street Railway Association — Boston, Mass., 
Jan. 11. 

Central Electric Traffic Association — Indianapolis, Ind., 
Jan. 16. 

Wisconsin Electrical Association — Milwaukee, Wis., Jan. 
18 and 19. 

Central Electric Railway Association — Indianapolis, Ind., 
Jan. 19. 

Interstate Electric Railway Association — Chicago, 111., 
Jan. 19. Meeting to organize. 

New England Street Railway Club — Boston, Mass., 
Jan. 26. 

American Electric Railway Association — New York, N. 
Y., Jan. 27, 19 1 1 . Mid-year meeting. 

Central Electric Accounting Conference — Springfield, 
Ohio. Date to be fixed. 



Public Utility Measure Advocated in West Virginia. — 

A committee appointed by the State Board of Trade has 
conferred with Governor Glasscock for the purpose of fram- 
ing a bill to be presented to the Legislature of West Vir- 
ginia to create a public service commission to have control 
of all public utilities in the State. The plan outlined for the 
bill provides for a non-partisan commission of three persons, 
with the right to appeal to the courts from the decisions of 
the commission. 

Winnipeg Strike Settled. — The strike of the employees of 
the Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Railway, which was begun 
on Dec. 16, 1910, was declared off on Jan. 2, 191 1. The com- 
pany is said to have agreed to reinstate the four men who 
were discharged for violating the rule of the company which 
prohibits employees from entering a saloon while in uni- 
form, but to have insisted upon its right hereafter to deal 
summarily with all men who are found guilty of breaking 
the rule regarding drinking while in the uniform of the com- 
pany. 

Report by City on Value of Des Moines Property. — The 

City Council of Des Moines, la., has adopted a resolution 
authorizing Mayor James R. Hanna to negotiate for the 
services of expert engineers to examine and report on the 
physical value of the Des Moines (la.) City Railway. The 
Mayor recently introduced a resolution in the Council 
which provides that the Council approve municipal owner- 
ship of street railways and that the legislators elected from 
Polk County be asked to assist in securing to cities in Iowa 
the right to acquire, own, operate and lease street railways. 
Action on this resolution was postponed pending further 
discussion. 

Volume of Business of the Second District Commission in 
New York. — At the close of business for 1910 the Public 
Service Commission of the Second District of New York 
had presented to it for action 2071 different matters. These 
included 1438 complaints, which were handled informally 
by the commission and settled without the necessity of 
formal orders; 371 formal complaints and 262 applications 
from various corporations for authorization by the commis- 
sion. During the year the commission disposed of and closed 
1670 of the matters presented. During the three years of 
the commission's existence 5496 matters have been presented 
to it for action. In addition to daily sessions and consider- 
ation of disposition of cases, the commission handled 554 
hearings, covering a period of 196 days. During the year 
the commission authorized capitalization to the amount of 
$151,048,108. In 1909 there was authorized $142,855,035.85; 
in 1908, $92,253,900; for the last six months of 1907, $17,730.- 
745.49; a total for the three and a half years of the commis- 
sion's existence of $403,887,789.34. 



Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Market 



Jan. 3, 191 1. 

The opening of the new year brought no relief to the 
stock market. The conditions that prevailed in 1910 
seemed to hold over and the market to-day was dull and 
inactive. While the prices of stocks have been well main- 
tained, it has only been because there was no trading. 
Every one in the stock market seems to be waiting the 
decision of the Supreme Court in the important trust cases. 
The money market has been higher, but rates have not been 
prohibitive. Call money went to 7 per cent last week, but 
this rate held only momentarily. Quotations to-day were: 
Call, 3%@6 per cent; 90 days, 3^4 @4 P^ 1 " cent. 

Other Markets 

There has been considerable trading in traction shares 

on the Philadelphia market during the past week, but prices 
have not materially changed. Rapid Transit, which is the 
most active of the lot, closed the year at 18^ and was 
dealt in to-day at about the same price. 

In Chicago there has been considerable dealing in Chi- 
cago Railways certificates Series 2, but otherwise trac- 
tions have been neglected. Prices have not advanced with 

the activity and the close of the year was Other 
traction securities were not traded in on the market. 

In the Boston market during the last week of the old 
year there was little trading in traction shares. Massa- 
chusetts Electric was the most active of the list, but prices 
for these issues were unchanged. 

In the Baltimore market there were some sales of United 
Railways certificates, but prices were unchanged. The 
bonds continued to sell at former prices. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

Dec. 27. Jan. 3. 

American Railways Company a42}4 SA2 l /t 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) 45 a43 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) *%>i l A &3 l A 

Boston Elevated Railway 128 129 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common) *i6 ai6 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) .... 70 a72 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common).... aio aio 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred)., a.ioj^ a29'A 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit a74?4 75 ?4 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, ist ref. conv. 4s.... 82% 83% 

Capital Traction Company, Washington a 129 a 129 

Chicago City Railway 165 165 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common) *3 l A *3/4 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred).. *7'A *7/4 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 a95 aioo 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 &2S l A Z25 J A 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 aio an54 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 a6;4 a.6 l A 

Cleveland Railway *9iV* *9i}4 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey a73 872 

Consolidated Traction of N. T-, 5 per cent bonds. .. .ai04 ai04 

Detroit United Railway *68 *6gJ6 

General Electric Company ai53& n$iA 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) aii7 H7?4 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred).... 88 87'A 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (common) 19^4 19& 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 5354 54/4 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (4I/2S) 79*A 79}& 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common).... a22'A s.22 l A 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) ... . &7\ l A a72 

Manhattan Railway 139 ai40 

Massachusetts Electric Company (common) ai8A *i8!4 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) a86 a8s 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) 21 'A a22 l / 2 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (preferred) a68 a7o 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York *i9K *i9 l A 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred) *no *no 

North American Company 64 % 6sJ4 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) a22 a22 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) a6o a6s 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common) a4934 5°% 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (preferred) a43 43 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company ai8J4 ai8!4 

Philadelphia Traction Company 83H a84 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent col. notes 2-9SYA ag6 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs aioo^s aiooj4 

Seattle Electric Company (common).. aioS aio6H 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) aio2 aio2j4 

South Side Elevated Railroad (Chicago) 69K 372 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York 10 ro 

Toledo Railways & Light Company a8 a8 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) io8i4 aiog 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia a42?^ a43j4 

United Rys. & Electric Company, Baltimore *i4!4 *I454 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (common) aig 31^ 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (preferred) *52 60 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) a33?4 3.33% 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) 38614 865<£ 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) a9i agi 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) aioi ai03 

Westinehouse Elec. & Mfg. Co 66 66 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (rst pref.) *I24 '124 

a Asked. *Last sale. 



January 7, 191 1. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



47 



Annual Report of the Boston Elevated Railway 



The thirteenth annual report of the Boston Elevated Rail- 
way covers the period of nine months ended June 30, 1910. 
This is due to the fact that the fiscal year has been changed 
by the Board of Railroad Commissioners so as to end on 
June 30, instead of Sept. 30. A summary of the business 
for nine months is as follows: 

Gross earnings from operation $11,383,686 

Operating expenses 7,321,396 

Net earnings from operation of owned and leased 

lines $4,062,290 

Interest accrued and charged to construction ac- 
count 135,998 

$4,198,288 

Subway rental $158,813 

Less amount collected from the Boston & Northern 

St. Ry 20,189 

$138,622 

Interest on funded debt of West End St. Ry 510,135 

Dividend on preferred stock of West End St. Ry., 

8 per cent 384,000 

Dividend on common stock of West End St. Ry., 

7 per cent 583,808 

Dividend on stock of Somerville Horse R. R., 6 

per cent 6,885 

Taxes on West End St. Ry 468,033 

Interest and taxes on leased property of the Old 

Colony St. Ry 35,6oi 

Interest on leased property of the Boston & Northern 

St. Ry 678 

Total payments on account of leased railways... 2,127,762 

$2,070,526 

Interest on funded debt $417,000 

Taxes, Boston Elevated Ry 342,417 

Compensation and income taxes 106,239 

Washington Street tunnel rental .i 255,000 

East Boston tunnel rental ! 41,674 1,162,330 

Balance $908,196 

Dividend paid Feb. 15, 1910, 3 per cent $598,500 

Dividend reserve 299,250 897,750 

Surplus for nine months $10,446 

The details of gross earnings and operating expenses are 
as follows: 

Earnings from Operation: 

From passengers carried $10,984,441 

From carriage of mails 28,006 

From tolls for use of tracks by other companies 31,518 

From rentals of real estate 106,152 

From advertising 87,047 

From interest on deposits, etc 138,064 

From miscellaneous income 8,458 

Total $11,383,686 

Operating Expenses: 

For general expenses ; $862,443 

For maintenance of roadway and buildings 831,538 

For maintenance of equipment 736,871 

For transportation expenses 4,890,544 

.Total $7,321,396 

William A. Bancroft, the president, states in part in his 
report to the stockholders: 

"No additional capital stock has been authorized during 
the nine months covered by this report. At the close of the 
last fiscal year the capital outstanding amounted to $13,450,- 
100, and there were capital stock subscription payments to 
the amount of $4,520,075, covering payments on account of 
subscriptions to the stock authorized by the vote of the 
stockholders of Nov. 18, 1908, and by the order of the 
Board of Railroad Commissioners of Dec. 18, 1908. The 
final subscription due Jan. 25, 1910, has all been paid, and 
the capital outstanding as shown in the balance sheet is now 
$19,950,000, par value. 

"The year has been one of activity on the company's part. 

"The construction of the East Cambridge elevated exten- 
sion has been continued. The temporary bridge has been 
removed, the piers completed, and eight concrete arches 
are nearly completed. Portions of the foundations in both 
East Cambridge and Boston have been completed, plans for 
the station on Causeway Street iff front of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad station have been approved by the Railroad 
Commissioners, and contracts for the steel work for the 
extension have been let. 

"In connection with the Forest Hills extension tracks 
have been laid in the terminal yard to connect by incline 
with the elevated structure on Washington Street. 

"At Dudley Street the platforms have been extended, and 
miscellaneous changes made for the purpose of providing 
for the increased business. The waiting rooms on the 
upper level have been completed, and many alterations made 
for the comfort and convenience of our patrons at this point. 



upon the three levels now in use. Little remains to be done 
to provide for the operation of 8-car trains at this station. 

"The route of the Maiden and Everett elevated extension 
has been approved by the Railroad Commissioners, and a 
portion of the land has been purchased. The engineers are 
now designing the structure and stations. 

"Plans for the alterations of the Sullivan Square station 
for the operation of the Maiden extension, for 8-car trains, 
and for separate platforms for in and out passengers have 
also been approved by the Railroad Commissioners. 

"Upon the Cambridge Main Street subway construction 
work has been pushed vigorously during the year. The 
main line is now substantially completed, except portions 
of the Harvard Square station and of the terminal yard. 

"At the South Station the elevated structure has been 
changed to provide for a shuttle track to accommodate 
trains between the North and South stations. 

"The Railroad Commissioners have approved the route 
for the elevated structure in Boston, between the Boston 
end of the Cambridge bridge and the Beacon Hill tunnel, 
which the Boston Transit Commission is now constructing. 

"At the Thompson Square station changes in the steel 
work for track structure, incident to changing the platforms 
for 8-car trains, are now completed. The material for the 
platform changes has been delivered. 

"The Railroad Commissioners have determined that we 
should build an elevated station at Green Street in Jamaica 
Plain, and plans therefor have been approved. 

"On the surface an additional track has been laid on 
Hyde Park Avenue, so that that thoroughfare is now double- 
tracked to the Hyde Park line. 

"On Oct. 27 last cars began to run over the Mystic Ave- 
nue bridge, on the Middlesex Fells line, enabling the com- 
pany to abandon the Union Street tracks and to run its cars 
direct. 

"A large lot of land, containing nearly 24 acres, situated 
in South Boston at tide water, has been purchased as a 
site for a power station. Contracts have been made with the 
Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation for the erection 
thereon of a large coal unloading and coal storage plant, 
and also for the erection of a power station, to contain 
turbo-generators of the largest type, designed to supply an 
alternating current system, together with a distributing 
system, and the provision of transformer stations, to be 
located at suitable points. 

"Besides its ordinary taxes the company's contribution to 
the public during the 12 months ending Sept. 30 amounted 
to at least $497,307, made up as follows: 

Compensation tax for the use of streets under the acts of 1897. . $130,846 
Interest at 4 per cent on $4,382,000, cost of paving laid in 

streets by company 175,280 

Cost of maintaining street paving by company 105,236 

Amount of subway rental devoted to sinking fund 51,945 

Moving snow removed from sidewalks and roofs (estimated), 

not less than ; 34,000 

Total extraordinary payments to the public $497,307 

Add taxes assessed on real es'tate 308,843 

Add taxes assessed on capital stock and income 703,864 

Total $1,510,014 

To the above may be added the balance of subway rental 132,378 

Also the rental of the East Roston tunnel 56,077 

Also the rental of the Washington Street tunnel on account.... 336,000 

Grand total, which is about 13.2 per cent of the gross 

revenue of the company for the year $2,034,469 

"Concerning the capitalization of the properties owned 
and leased by this company, your directors wish you to 
know that the capital stock of the West End Street Rail- 
way Company on June 30, 1910, was as follows: Preferred, 
$6,400,000.; common, $11,120,150; total, $17,520,150. Of this 
capitalization the preferred stock was the amount author- 
ized by the Legislature for the purchase of the horse rail- 
roads which made up the West End system, and was con- 
sidered only the value of these properties. Of the common 
stock $7,150,000 was paid in in cash at par, and the balance 
was sold under orders of the Railroad Commissioners for 
cash at prices ranging from 40 to 80 per cent in excess of 
the par value, realizing a premium of $1,978,331. 

"Of the $19,950,000 par value of the stock of the Boston 
Elevated Railway the first $10,000,000 was paid in in cash at 
par, and the balance was sold under orders of the Railroad 
Commissioners for cash at a price of from 10 to 55 per cent 
in excess of the par value, realizing a premium of $2,510,958 
above the par value. The capitalization of the two com- 
panies on June 30, therefore, represents an actual payment 



48 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



in cash of $4,489,289 above the par value of the outstanding 
stock. So there is not only no capital inflation of these 
properties, but much more has been paid in than is repre- 
sented by the par value of the stocks. The dividends paid 
on the stocks and the interest paid on the bonds of the two 
companies make an average return to the capital invested of 
5.15 per cent per annum. It is not true, therefore, of these 
properties that 'excessive dividends are paid on watered 
stock.' 

"From the summary of stockholders of record June 30, 
1910, it appears that the total number is 4539, holding 199,500 
shares of stock. Of these 4014, holding 176,799 shares, live 
in Massachusetts. In other words, over 88 per cent of the 
stock is held in Massachusetts. The average number of 
shares held by each stockholder of the company is a little 
less than 44 shares. 

"The total length of surface tracks controlled by the 
company is now 461.049 miles. This,- with the elevated 
mileage of 24.170 miles, makes a' total mileage of 485.219. 

"For a number of years there have been petitions to the 
Legislature for the construction of more subways in various 
parts of the community than there is any probable revenue 
to support. Moreover, interested people have endeavored 
to give the impression that the company has not accepted 
"i- built additions or extensions. 

"To show to the public that the company has in fact 
accepted, built and undertaken large additions and exten- 
sions, during the months of September. October and Novem- 
ber last we advertised in the newspapers by map and state- 
ment a recital of the additions and extensions which have 
been made to our system since we began to operate it in 
1898, together with the funds which have been provided 
therefor. 

"We showed that when this company took charge the 
population of the cities and towns in which it operates was 
approximately 843.090. Now it is approximately 1,098,917 — 
an increase of only about 30 per cent. At the beginning of 
the period there was invested $25,960,000. To-day the 
investment stands at $81,440x00 — an increase of 213 per cent. 

"Our advertisements, in reply to the charge that we have 
not been progressive, of course, show conclusively that the 
company's accomplishments and undertakings have, far out- 
stripped the growth of the community in which we operate, 
so far as that growth is represented by population and 
wealth, progressing eight times as fast as the population 
and five times as fast as the wealth. Not only have we been 
extremely progressive, .but obviously for the present we 
must act with caution in respect to future extensions." 
Traffic statistics compare as follows: 

Nine Months 

Ended Year Ended Sept. 30, 

June 30, 1910. 1909. 1908 

Round trips 1,299.-05 5.549.774 5.571,459 

Revenue car miles, surface $32,890,016 $43,599,806 $43,818,640 

" " elevated 6,234,967 7,295.450 7,806,503 

" " U. S. mail cars.. 171,530 232,425 232,746 

" " total 39,296,522 51,127,681 51,857,889 



Total revenue passengers carried. $220, 127,890 $281,008,471 $273,132,584 
Average receipts per passenger $.04990 $.04991 $.04989 



Metropolitan Street Railway Reorganization Plan Filed with 
Commission 



The joint committee on reorganization of the Metro- 
politan Street Railway, of which Guy E. Tripp, of Stone & 
Webster, is chairman, filed with the Public Service Commis- 
sion of the First District of New York, on Dec. 29. 1910, 
a petition asking the approval of a plan of reorganization 
of the company prepared by the joint committee with the 
sanction and co-operation of the committee representing the 
5 per cent general mortgage bonds and the committee repre- 
senting the 4 per cent refunding mortgage bonds. Briefly, the 
plan provides for a total of securities of about $96,000,000, in- 
cluding new securities and old securities which will be al- 
lowed to remain undisturbed. This is a reduction of about $40,- 
000,000 from the present outstanding securities and obliga- 
tions. The new securities to be issued are approximately as 
follows: $11,768,000 of new fixed-charge 4 per cent bonds; 
$39,ooo.oco of new adjustment income bonds and $14,000,000 
of stock. The fixed charges represented by the interest on 
the bonds have been reduced by more than $1,000,000 a year 
by the readjustment. 

The holders of the stock and improvement notes of the 



Metropolitan Street Railway are given the right of partici- 
pation on the payment of an assessment sufficient to furnish 
the new cash needed, which it is estimated will not exceed 
$10,000,000. The plan does not, however, provide for the 
participation of the Metropolitan Securities Company or the 
New York City Railway. A novel feature is that, subject to 
the permission of the Public Service Commission, the hold- 
ers of personal injury claims are offered the right to partici- 
pate under the same terms as the most favored bondholder. 
No assessment is required of these tort claimants. Ford, 
Bacon & Davis, the experts employed by the receivers, have 
prepared an inventory and appraisal of the properties of the 
system which show a valuation largely in excess of the total 
securities to be outstanding after the adoption of the plan. 
A summary of the plan follows: 

Decrees of foreclosure, respectively, of the $12,500,000 
general mortgage and of the $16,604,000 refunding mortgage 
have been entered by the court, and the said properties sub- 
ject thereto ordered to be sold under these decrees. The 
joint reorganization committee contemplates the purchase of 
these properties at the sale. It is proposed that a new rail- 
road corporation shall be formed under the provisions of 
Sections 9 and 10 of the stock corporation law. In accord- 
ance with the provisions' of the statutes of the State of 
New York the joint committee proposes to utilize for the 
consummation of such proposed purchase, to wit: 

Outstanding Securities of System: 

Bonds, debentures and collateral notes $57,285,000 

Stocks 67,900,000 

Total $125,185,000 

Less Those to be Acquired Under Foreclosure: 

Ponds $3,700,000 

Stocks jjk. 5,792,000 

9,492,000 

Total held by public $115,693,000 

Added to the above $115,693,000 held by the public the 
following special items are to be included: Improvement 
notes made by the Metropolitan Street Railway to the 
Metropolitan Securities Company, $4,000,000; allowances 
decreed by the court in favor of the tort claimants, the 
full amount of which is estimated to be $1,875,000; a maxi- 
mum estimate of cash requirements, $10,000,000; accrued 
and defaulted interest on the following bonds and notes 
held by the public, and interest thereon, as of Oct. 1, 1910: 



On 5 per cent., bonds $2,116,969 

On 4 per cent, bonds 2,094,800 

On Central Crosstown notes 92,635 

On Metropolitan Crosstown first mortgage bonds 78,884 



Total $4,383,250 



This planes the total of public holdings and special items 
at $135,951,250. Regarding the above amount of $10,000,000 
estimate of cash requirements, the plan states that the 
minimum of the bids which the court has authorized to be 
accepted at the foreclosure aggregate $12,000,000. It is 
stated to be certain that a sum not to exceed the above 
maximum estimate will ultimately and in any event be re- 
quired to be paid under a purchase made for the purpose 
of this plan. Out of this fund the outstanding receivers' 
certificates, substantially $6,500,000, claims adjudged or 
which may be adjudged to be preferential, receivers' lia- 
bilities and obligations, costs, allowances and other sums 
ordered to be paid by the court will have to be met, 
and in addition the charges and expenses of reorganization 
will be provided for. 



Securities to Remain Undisturbed: 

Bonds $25,646,000 

Stocks 15,300,000 



Total $40,964,000 

Less those to be acquired under foreclosure 9,492,000 



Total held by public $31,454,000 



The $9,492,000 to be acquired on the foreclosure are 
securities to be pledged under a new mortgage or held as 
muniments of title, or canceled, or otherwise disposed of to 
effectuate the plan. 



Securities to be Readjusted: 

Bonds $31,369,000 

Stocks 52,600,000 



Total $84,239,000 

To which must be 'added for special items aforesaid: 

Improvement notes 4,000,000 

Tort claimants 1,875,000 

Interest as above stated 4.383.25* 

Cash requirements, estimated 10,000,000 



Total $104,497,250 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



49 



The total, of new securities, as proposed, will consist of 
the following: 

New 4 per cent, bonrls $11,768,100 

New adjustment bonds 38,933,400 

Stock 14,150,000 

Total $64,851,500 

The Public Service Commission has fixed Jan. 11, 191 1, as 
the date for the hearing on the proposed plan for reorgani- 
zation of the Metropolitan Street Railway. 



Chicago Railways 



On Dec. 27, 1910, Judge Grosscup, of the United States 
Circuit Court at Chicago, signed the necessary orders pro- 
viding for the payment of the various judgments and claims 
against the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company on a 
compromise basis and ending the receivership, and also con- 
firmed the sale of the property of the company and its 
subsidiaries on Nov. 30, 1910, to Andrew Cooke, and the 
sale by him of all the property of the Chicago Consolidated 
Traction Company within the city limits of Chicago to the 
Chicago Railways and the property outside of the city to the 
County Traction Company. The sale of the property 
of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company under fore- 
closure was referred to in the Electric Railway Journal 
of Dec. 10, 1910, page 1170, and the acceptance by the Chi- 
cago Railways of the ordinance passed by the city which 
granted it permission to absorb the Chicago Consolidated 
Traction Company was noted in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal of Dec. 17, 1910, page 1212. 

On Dec. 28, 1910, the day following the orders of Judge 
Grosscup, the physical connection between the lines of the 
old Consolidated Traction Company within the city limits 
and those outside of the city was broken and passengers 
coming into the city over the lines of the County Traction 
Company, or going out of the city on the lines of the Chicago 
Railways Company, formerly operated by the Chicago 
Consolidated Traction Company, were required to pay an 
extra fare. As the public had not been fully informed in 
regard to the change considerable disorder resulted among 
passengers. On Dec. 29, 1910, a compromise was arranged 
whereby passengers from all the suburbs will be carried 
to and from the city until Feb. 12, 1910, for a 5-cent fare. 
Heated shelters will be provided for the convenience of pas- 
sengers at the city limits. The resolution providing for the 
temporary armistice which was adopted by the various 
bodies which represented the public in the negotiations 
with the companies follows: 

"Whereas, The Chicago Railways has expressed a willing- 
ness to enter into an arrangement for the period and upon 
the terms hereinbefore stated, provided the entering into 
the performance of such an arrangement on its part shall 
be without prejudice to its legal rights; and, 

"Whereas, The arrangement above referred to shall com- 
mence within 24 hours after the passage and approval of 
this ordinance and shall continue from such time until and 
including Feb. 12. 191 1, and shall at midnight of that day 
cease and determine; and, 

"Whereas, Said arrangement is as follows: 'First, the Chi- 
cago Railways during said period shall give without charge 
to any passenger upon its railway lines desiring same a trans- 
fer entitling such passenger to transportation over connect- 
ing lines of the County Traction Company located in this 
municipality. 

" 'Second — The Chicago Railways shall cause such trans- 
fers above mentioned to be honored during said period by 
the County Traction Company. 

" 'Third — The Chicago Railways shall make arrangements 
with the County Traction Company, which said last-named 
company shall give during said period to each passenger 
without charge from its lines of railway desiring same a 
transfer entitling such passenger to transportation over con- 
necting lines of the Chicago Railways to the business district 
of Chicago and intermediate points. 

" 'Fourth — The Chicago Railways shall honor upon its lines 
between the city limits and the business district of Chicago 
such transfers so given by the County Traction Company 
during said period.' 

"Therefore, Be it and it is hereby ordained: 

"Section 1 — That if the Chicago Railways will enter into 
and carry out the above-mentioned arrangement during the 



period aforesaid, this municipality shall not claim or insist 
that by virtue of the entering into and carrying out of such 
arrangement the Chicago Railways loses or prejudices any 
of its legal rights, and that during the continuance of such 
arrangement and until the expiration thereof this munici- 
pality shall not commence or prosecute or allow to be com- 
menced or prosecuted in its name or on its behalf against 
the Chicago Railways any action at law or in equity, or 
prior to the date of the termination of said period upon any 
grounds or for any relief whatever, provided that nothing 
herein contained shall be construed as affecting or prejudic- 
ing any rights of the municipality of any kind whatsoever 
against the Chicago Railways which the municipality may 
seek to have enforced after the expiration of said period. 

"Section 2 — If the County Traction Company shall be 
prevented by the action of any municipality, its officers or 
agent from operating its cars from the city limits of Chicago 
to and from that part of said lines lying within this munici- 
pality, the Chicago Railways shall be under no obligations 
to carry out said arrangement, and may terminate said 
arrangement as to the line or lines of street railway so 
affected, nor shall the Chicago Railways be under any obli- 
gations to carry out such arrangements unless and until the 

villages of and have each passed an ordinance 

of the same tenor as this ordinance." 



Street Railway Bonds and Massachusetts Savings Banks 



In accordance with Chapter 590 of the Acts of 1908, the 
Massachusetts Railroad Commission has transmitted to the 
Bank Commissioner the following list of street railways 
which have annually earned and properly paid, without im- 
pairment of assets or capital stock, dividends at the rate 
of 5 per cent or over upon their outstanding capital stock in 
each of the five preceding years: Boston Elevated Railway, 
Boston & Northern Street Railway, Boston & Revere Elec- 
tric Street Railway, Citizens' Electric Street Railway, Dart- 
mouth & Westport Street Railway, East Middlesex Street 
Railway, Fitchburg & Leominster Street Railway, Holyoke 
Street Railway, Springfield Street Railway, Union Street 
Railway, West End Street Railway. Worcester Consolidated 
Street Railway. The bonds of these companies are legal 
investments for savings banks in Massachusetts. 



Alton, Jacksonville & Peoria Railway, Jerseyville, 111. — 

George M. Seward & Company, Chicago, 111., as fiscal agents 
of the Falkenau Electric Construction Company, Chicago, 
111., offer for subscription at 95 and interest, with a 40 per 
cent stock bonus, the unsold portion of a block of $100,000 
of first mortgage 5 per cent 30-year gold bonds of the 
Alton, Jacksonville & Peoria Railway, dated July 1, 1910, 
and due July 1, 1940, but redeemable at 105 after July 1, 
1920. The Alton Banking & Trust Company, Alton, 111., is 
trustee of the issue. The total authorized issue of bonds is 
$6co,ooo. 

City Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — The City Railway, 
which was incorporated recently to build new extensions 
and new lines for the Los Angeles Railway Corporation, 
will issue a mortgage for $5,000,000 to cover the new lines 
when built. The City Railway has a capital stock of $5,000,- 
000, fully subscribed, all of which is owned by the Los 
Angeles Railway Corporation. 

Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad, Brooklyn, N. Y. — 
The Public Service Commission of the First District of New 
York has granted permission to the Coney Island & Brook- 
lyn Railroad to issue $500,000 of 3-year 6 per cent notes, 
to be redeemable at 101. The purposes for which the money 
will be used follow: (1) For reconstruction and relocation 
of railroad on Coney Island Avenue, from Prospect Park 
to Coney Island, $354,945.50. (2) To discharge or refund 
obligations, $36,684.93. (3) To pay for or on account of the 
reconstruction of railroad on Franklin and De Kalb Avenues, 
the relaying of the rails on Smith Street, and paving all 
three streets, $98,369.57. (4) To pay the expenses of the sale 
of the notes authorized and the discount thereon caused by 
the sale at 98 per cent of the face value, $10,000. 

Denver (Col.) City Tramway.— The Metropolitan Rail- 
way, Denver, has made provision for the redemption of its 
first mortgage 6 pei cent gold bonds on Jan. 1, 191 1, at 
the office of the Mercantile Trust Company, New York. 



5° 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



Pursuant to the terms of the first and refunding sinking 
fund mortgage 25-year 5 per cent gold bonds of the Denver 
City Tramway, $953,000 of these bonds are authorized to be 
issued to pay off the bonds of the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way, and the latter may be exchanged for the bonds of the 
Denver County Tramway referred to prior to Jan. 1. 
The exchange may be made at the office of Clark, Dodge & 
Company, New York, or the International Trust Company, 
Denver, the Metropolitan Railway bonds to be received at 
100 and accrued interest to Jan. 1 for the Denver City 
Tramway bonds at 95 and accrued interest to date of ex- 
change, or. if exchange is not desired, the bonds of the 
Metropolitan Railway will be purchased at 100 and accrued 
interest to date of delivery. 

Hocking-Sunday Creek Traction Company, Nelsonville, 
Ohio. — The Hocking-Sunday Creek Traction Company has 
made a mortgage to the Columbus Savings & Trust Com- 
pany, as trustee, to secure an authorized issue of $200,000 
of first mortgage, 6 per cent, 20-year gold bonds, dated Nov. 
1, 1910, issuable at $13,333 P er mile of road. 

Louisville & Eastern Railroad, Louisville, Ky. — The prop- 
erty of the Louisville & Eastern Railroad was purchased at 
foreclosure sale on Jan. 3, 1911, by the Louisville & Inter- 
urban Railroad, a subsidiary of the Louisville Railway, for 
$1,000,000, the upset price. 

Manistee Light & Traction Company, Manistee, Mich. — 
The property of the Manistee Light & Traction Company 
will be sold at the Court House in Manistee on Jan. 18, 
191 1, by order of the United States District Court. 

New Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, 
La. — Bertron, Griscom & Jenks. New York, N. Y., and 
Philadelphia, Pa., offer for subscription at 83 and interest 
the unsold portion of $500,000 of general mortgage 4J/2 per 
cent gold bonds of the New Orleans Railway & Light 
Company, dated July 1, 1905, and due July 1, 1935. but re- 
deemable, in whole or in part, after 60 days' notice, on any 
coupon date at 105 and interest. 

Old Colony Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — The Railroad 
Commission of Massachusetts has been asked to approve an 
issue of $300,000 of additional common stock of the Old 
Colony Street Railway on account of extensions, equipment, 
etc. 

St. Francois County Railway, Farmington, Mo. — The St. 

Francois County Railway, the property of which was sold 
under foreclosure in August, 1910, has been succeeded by 
the St. Frangois County Railroad, which has elected officers 
as follows: M. P. Cayce, president; William P. Taylor, vice- 
president, general manager and purchasing agent; William 
P. Lang, secretary; F. V. Isenman, general freight and 
passenger agent. 

St. Louis (Mo.) Terminal Electric Railway. — The St. 
Louis Terminal Electric Railway, which is controlled by the 
McKinley interests, has filed for record in Missouri a certif- 
icate increasing its authorized capital stock from $1,000,000 
to $2,000,000. 

South Shore Traction Company, Patchogue, N. Y. — Judge 
Chatfield, of the United States Circuit Court, on the appli- 
cation of Paul T. Brady, appointed Paul T. Brady and Wil- 
lard V. King receivers of the South Shore Traction Com- 
pany, on Dec. 31, 1910. 

Syracuse (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Railway. — William H. 
Newman, formerly president of the New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad, has been elected a director of the 
Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway to succeed the late E. V. 
W. Rossiter. 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York, N. Y. — Justice Amend 
of the Supreme Court has granted a writ of certiorari giv- 
ing the Public Service Commission of the First District of 
New York 20 days within which to file in the county clerk's 
office all the records cf protests before it and decisions 
upon which it refused to approve the plans for the organ- 
ization of the Third Avenue Railroad dated Dec. 2, 1909, 
and further agreement of plan of readjustment dated Feb. 
23, 1910. The suit was brought by the -Third Avenue Rail- 
road and by James N. Wallace and others of the bond- 
holders' committee. 

West Chester, Kennett & Wilmington Electric Railway, 
Kennett Square, Pa. — In the Electric Railway Journal 
of Dec. 17, 1910, page 1215, mention was made of the 
appointment of a protective committee, consisting of R. J. 



Brunker, Geo. B. Atlee, Morris Ebert and Wm. S. J. Weth- 
erill, as the result of the default of the West Chester, Ken- 
nett & Wilmington Electric Railway in the payment of the 
coupons of its $420,000 of 5 per cent bonds dated 1905, 
which are outstanding. George B. Atlee & Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., now state that sufficient bonds have been de- 
posited with the committee, which they represent, tp permit 
foreclosure. 

Wilmington, New Castle & Southern Railway, New Cas- 
tle, Pa. — Solomon Hanford, New York, N. Y., purchased at 
foreclosure sale, on Dec. 23, 1910, the portion of the Wil- 
mington, New Castle & Southern Railway, between Wil- 
mington and New Castle, covered by the first mortgage of 
the Wilmington & New Castle Railway, which was dated 
1896, and drawn for $150,000. The purchase price was $100,- 
000. Mr. Hanford is said to represent E. Clarence Jones 
& Company, New York, N. Y, 



Dividends Declared 



Auburn & Syracuse Electric Railroad, Syracuse, N. Y., 
quarterly, i l / 2 per cent, preferred. 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, Chicago, 111., quarterly, 
\ x / 2 per cent, preferred; quarterly, % of 1 per cent, common. 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, Birming- 
ham, Ala., 3 per cent, preferred; 2 l / 2 per cent, common. 

Boston & Northern Street Railway. Boston, Mass., $3, 
preferred. 

Boston (Mass.) Suburban Electric . Companies, $1, quar- 
terly. 

Cedar Rapids-Iowa City Railway & Light Company, Cedar 
Rapids, la., 3 per cent, preferred. 

Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey, Newark, 
N. J., 2 per cent. 

Denver & Northwestern Railway, Denver, Col., 2 per cent, 
quarterly. 

Ft. Smith Light & Traction Company, Ft. Smith, Ark., 
quarterly, 1^4 per cent, preferred. 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company, Indianapolis, 
lnd., 1 per cent. 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark.. 3 per cent, preferred; 4 per cent, common. 

Manchester Traction. Light & Power Company, Man- 
chester, N. H., quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Memphis (Tenn.) Street Railway, quarterly, 1% per cent, 
preferred. 

Nashville Railway & Light Company, Nashville, Tenn., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred; quarterly, ^ of I per cent, 

common. 

New England Investment & Security Company, Boston, 
Mass., 2 per cent, preferred. 

New Orleans City Railroad, 2^2 per cent, preferred; 1 per 
cent, common. 

New York State Railways, Rochester, N. Y., quarterly, 
tJ4 P er cent, preferred; quarterly, i T 4 per cent, common. 
Old Colony Street Railway, Boston, Mass., $3, preferred. 
Ottawa (Ont.) Electric Railway, 2 l /2 per cent; 2 per cent 

extra. 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Company, Ottumwa, la., quar- 
terly, per cent., preferred. 

Philadelphia (Pa.) City Passenger Railway, $3.75. 

Porto Rico Railways, Ltd., San Juan, P. R., quarterly, 
i-)4 per cent, preferred. 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, quarterly, 1% 
per cent. 

Ridge Avenue Passenger Railway, Philadelphia, Pa., quar- 
terly, $3. 

St. Charles Street Railroad, New Orleans, La., 3 per cent. 

Scioto Valley Traction Company, Columbus, Ohio, quar- 
terly. i*4 per cent, preferred and first preferred. 

Syracuse (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company, quarterly, i l / 2 
per cent, preferred. 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
Terre Haute, lnd., quarterly, per cent, preferred. 

Toronto (Ont.) Railway, quarterly, 1% per cent. 

Tri-City Railway & Light Company, Davenport, la., quar- 
terly, \y 2 per cent, preferred. 

Union Railway, Gas & Electric Company, Rockford, 111., 
quarterly, \V 2 per cent, preferred. 

West End Street Railway, Boston, Mass., $2 preferred. 

West India Electric Company, Ltd., Kingston, Jamaica, 
1 Yi, per cent. 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



51 



Traffic and Transportation 



Transfer Talks in Toledo 



The Toledo Railways & Light Company, Toledo, Ohio, 
has placed reading matter on all transfers. For the last few 
weeks the following has appeared on the transfers: 

"If there is any dispute over this transfer, pay your fare, 
keep the transfer and refer matter to company. Conductors 
are governed by certain fixed rules, and to avoid disputes 
take up complaints direct with company. 

"We would also consider it a favor to be notified when a 
conductor is not courteous or polite to our passengers, but 
don't blame the conductor if it's your own mistake." 

The company intends to change the transfer talks at fre- 
quent intervals and has prepared a second transfer talk, to 
read as follows: 

"Twenty-five years ago people rode in horse cars. They 
paid a 5-cent fare, received no transfer and could not ride 
over two or three miles. 

"To-day electric cars take you five times as far, five 
times as quickly and five times more comfortably. Despite 
enormous increased operation expense the fare is still 5 
cents. 

"Doesn't this show the important part electric roads play 
in contributing to the public welfare?" 



Subway Service Order Protested 



The Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, 
N. Y., has filed a protest with the Public Service Com- 
mission of the First District of New York against the 
order of the commission dated Dec. 23, 1910, which fixes 
the conditions of service on the subway lines of the com- 
pany, and the commission has set Jan. 12, 191 1, for a re- 
hearing on its order. The question of service came before 
the commission in a series of hearings which were reported 
in the issues of the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 
10, 1910, page 1152: Dec. 17, i9io_page 1206, and Dec. 31, 
1910, page 1271. in the last of which the order of the com- 
mission requiring the company to reduce from 30 minutes 
to 15 minutes the time within which to supply seats suf- 
ficient for all passengers or to operate the maximum 
■service at all hours was referred to. The objections made 
by the company to the order follow: 

"That the terms of said order and the regulations therein 
attempted to be made are impossible of performance. 

"That said order makes no provision for the temporary 
prevention of this company from complying with said order 
by accident or other controlling emergency for which it 
is not responsible, and that in this respect said order and 
its terms and each of them are unjust and unreasonable. 

"That said order deprives this company of the right of 
ownership and management and protection of its property 
and the property of others committed to its care. 

"That said order illegally substitutes the judgment of 
the commissioners for the judgment of this company's 
directors and stockholders with respect to the matters 
which it attempts to regulate. 

"That said order impairs the obligation of contracts to 
which this company is a party, in violation of the Consti- 
tution of the State of New York and in violation of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

"That the law under which said commission purports to 
act, being Chapter 48 of the Consolidated Laws, known as 
the public service commissions law, enacted by Chapter 
480 of the Laws of 1910, is unconstitutional as not having 
been duly enacted in accordance with the Constitution of 
the State of New York and as being contrary to the pro- 
visions thereof: that the sections of said law under which 
the commission acted or purported to act herein are un- 
constitutional and deprive owners of property of their 
property without due process of law and discriminate 
unjustly between classes of property owners. 

"That the regulations attempted to be fixed and enforced 
by the order of the commission -hereinabove referred to 
are not, nor are any of them, just or reasonable. 

"That the determination made by the said order and 
each and every part thereof is against the evidence sub- 
mitted to the commission and against the weight of such 



evidence and is wholly without support or justification on 
any evidence submitted to the commission. 

"The commission is hereby respectfully notified that the 
terms of the order modifying final order purporting to 
have been made on Dec. 28, 1910 (excepting paragraphs 
marked 2, 3 and 4, which are accepted and will be obeyed 
and are not referred to hereinafter), are not accepted, and 
that it is a physical impossibility for the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company to obey said order." 

The paragraphs which the company indicates that it 
accepts provide for the discontinuance of the expresses 
which have heretofore skipped all stations between Ninety- 
sixth Street and 137th Street, and the operation of every 
other Broadway local train to Dyckman Street instead ot 
their withdrawal at 137th Street, as has been the custom. 
This change is devised to relieve the crowded condition on 
the Broadway branch, and was put into effect on Jan 
3. fan- 



Relations of Boston Elevated Railway with Employees 



William A. Bancroft, president of the Boston (Mass.) 
Elevated Railway, refers as follows to the relations of the 
company with its employees in the annual report of the 
company, an abstract of which is published on page 47 of 
this issue of the Electric Railway Journal: 

"The company has continued its liberal policy toward its 
employees in respect to their wages, as well as in other 
matters. Compensation for learners during 12 months ending 
Sept. 30 amounted to $37,813. There was paid during 12 
months ending Sept. 30 the sum of $6,869, as a guaranteed 
minimum wage for new or extra men. There was also paid 
as increased compensation to long-service men the sum 
of $71,895. There was paid in pensions, under the provisions 
recited in former reports, the sum of $11,260. There was 
also paid in 'satisfactory service' money, in sums of $20 or 
$25 to each of the employees deemed worthy thereof, the 
sum of $74,130. The aggregate sum of increased payments 
to employees, under the provisions adopted seven years ago, 
amounted during the year to $201,969. The provisions of 
four years ago and this year raising the rate of wages 
increase this amount by about $201,012, making a total of 
about $402,981." 



Pensions for Public Service Employees 



The Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and its 
allied companies will provide, after Jan. 1, 1911, old age 
pensions, sick and accident benefits and life insurance for 
all its permanent employees of the various railway, gas 
and electric companies. The entire cost will be borne by 
the companies without any expense to the men. 

Approximately 10,000 employees will be affected by the 
benefit scheme. The annual cost to the companies will, 
it is estimated, be upward of $50,000. 

The Public Service will pay sick or disabled employees 
$1 per day for not more than 90 days in any one 
year: the smallest pension to be paid will be $240 a year 
and at the death of an employee $300 will be paid to his 
dependents. 

Employees who reach the age of 65 years after 25 years 
of continuous service with the corporation, its allied or 
predecessor companies will be eligible to retire on pension. 
Compulsory retirement is provided for when an employee 
shall have reached the age of 70 years, after 20 years of 
continuous service. Pensions are to be paid monthly by 
the employing company and are to be fixed on a basis of 
percentage of the average compensation of the person 
pensioned. This is to be for each year of service 1 per 
cent of the average salary for the 10 years preceding re- 
tirement, but with the proviso that no pension shall be 
less than $240 a year. It is also provided that if an em- 
ployee does not voluntarily retire when he reaches the 
age of 65 years he may, if he likes, do so at any time before 
reaching the compulsory retirement age. 

The insurance feature provides that $300 will be paid 
at death to the dependents of permanent employees whose 
compensation at the time of death does not exceed $1,800 a 
year. Those receiving more than $1,800 a year do not come 
within the scope of the insurance plan, 



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ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



In the payment of benefits to sick or injured employees 
it is stipulated that no money will be given in cases where 
the disability is due to immoral conduct or the use of 
intoxicants. Nor will the employees who receive $r,8oo 
per year or mere and those whose regular pay is continued 
during disability share in the sick benefit fund. All others 
will, after the first week of disablement, be paid at the 
rate of $i a day for not more than 90 days in any one 
year. Employees receiving a pension will not be entitled 
to sick benefits also, but retirement on pension will not 
deprive any employee of the benefits of insurance. 

The administration of the beneficial funds has been 
placed in the hands of a welfare committee, which consists 
of the president, the second vice-president, who is chair- 
man, the treasurer and the general claim agent. It is fig- 
ured that for the first four years at least the companies 
will have to spend annually for pensions $12,000; for insur- 
ance, $21,600; for sick benefits, $17,900, a total of $51,500. 
The necessary money will be appropriated annually, prop- 
erly apportioned among the several companies and charged 
to operating expenses. 



Collision on Oregon Electric Railway. — Sixteen persons 
were injured in a head-on collision at 9:15 p. m., on Dec. 14, 
1910, between a limited car and a local car on the Puget 
Sound Electric Railway, between Seattle and Tacoma. 

Safety Gates in Louisville. — The Louisville (Ky.) Rail- 
way is experimenting with safety gates, and will install the 
gates on all of its cars, if after trial they prove successful.. 
The gates on the Louisville cars will be operated by the 
conductor. 

Increase in Wages by Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Rail- 
way. — On Jan. 1, 191 1, the Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Rail- 
way, Fostoria, Ohio, increased the wages of all motormen 
and conductors who have been in the employ of the com- 
pany three years 1 cent an hour. 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — This 
company has issued a calendar for 191 1, accompanied by a 
circular letter extending the season's greetings and telling of 
the new rapid transit express service at freight rates between 
Philadelphia and Allentown, and intermediate points. 

Special Attendants in Kansas City, Mo. — The Metro- 
politan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., placed 30 
uniformed men at the principal points in the downtown 
trading district during the holiday season to assist and 
direct passengers of the company and otherwise promote 
their comfort. 

Near-Side Ordinance in Connersville, Ind. — The city 

attorney of Connersville has prepared an ordinance for 
introduction in the City Council of Connersville, Ind., to 
compel the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company, 
which operates through Connersville, to stop its cars on 
the near side of the street in that city. 

Special Transfer for New Year's. — The St. Joseph Railway, 
Light & Power Company, St. Joseph, Mo., used a special 
decorated transfer on Jan. 1, 191 1, 2J4 by 5 in. in size, and 
printed in red and green. The upper half of the slip bore 
a New Year greeting from the company to the passenger. 
The border design was a reproduction of holly leaves and 
berries. 

Effect of Cold Weather at Akron. — Early on the morning 
of Dec. 30. 1010, 25 poles carrying the power lines of the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, the wires of 
the two telephone companies and the police and fire wires 
broke and fell into South Main Street, Akron, Ohio, paralyz- 
ing street car service for hours, except in the northern part 
of the city. 

Uniforms as Christmas Presents in Portland, Ore. — The 

Portland Railway. Light & Power Company. Portland, Ore., 
has announced that it will present all platform men who 
have been with the company five years or more, known as 
"gold stripe men," with Christmas gifts in the form of new 
uniforms, provided they apply for them within six months. 
There are about 300 men in the service of the company who 
are entitled to the new uniforms. 

Complaint Against International Railway Closed. — The 
Public Service Commission of the Second District of New 
York has closed upon its records the complaint of H. H. 
Glosser and others against the International Railway, Buf- 



falo. N. Y., as to service on the Cazenovia, Abbott Road 
and South Park lines, in Buffalo. The company has ex- 
pressed its willingness to continue the present service on 
the Cazenovia line, and this is satisfactory to the complain- 
ants. 

Transporting Policemen. — The Louisville & Southern In- 
diana Traction Company and the Louisville & Northern Rail- 
way & Lighting Company, Louisville, Ky., have announced 
that policemen will no longer be carried free on their lines 
outside the limits of the towns in which the companies 
operate. The franchises of the companies require that 
policemen be given free transportation within the municipal 
boundaries, but the companies have heretofore allowed 
policemen to ride anywhere on the lines. 

Indiana Commission's Recommendations Observed. — The 
Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company has trans- 
ferred its train dispatcher's office from the tower at the 
interlocking crossing at Bluffton, Ind., to Ft. Wayne, Ind., 
with authority over the running of trains between Ft. 
Wayne and Bluffton and Ft. Wayne and Peru. This 
change is in accordance with the recommendations of the 
Indiana Railroad Commission that train dispatchers should 
give their entire time to the movement of interurban trains, 
without attending to interlocking crossings. The dispatch- 
er's office for the Peru-Lafayette division of the road will 
be removed from Huntington to Logansport. 

Joint Rates in New York. — On Dec. 25, 1910, the Metro- 
politan Street Railway, New York, and the Central Park, 
North & East River Railroad established the joint rate for 
the transportation of passengers provided in the order of 
the Public Service Commission of the First District of New 
York as referred to in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 
10. 1910, page 1 171. The operation of the joint rate as 
explained to the public in the notices displayed in the cars 
follows: "Passengers on the avenue cars of the Metro- 
politan Street Railway may purchase from conductors, for 
the additional sum of 5 cents, upon request at the time cash 
fare is paid, a joint rate ticket, valid for fare on the .cars of 
the Fifty-ninth Street Crosstown Line, with the privilege 
of continuing the journey northward or southward, accord- 
ing to the color of the ticket, on another intersecting line 
of the Metropolitan Street Railway system, as specified on 
Coupon 2 of the ticket." 

Interurban Railway Replies to Complaint. — The Roches- 
ter. Syracuse & Eastern Railroad, Syracuse, N. Y., has filed 
with the Public Service Commission of the Second District 
of New York its answer to the complaint of the residents 
of Galen, N. Y. The company states that if it is compelled 
to increase the number of stops the running time between 
Rochester and Syracuse will be increased materially. It 
now takes about 2 hours and 30 minutes to make the run 
between the cities, and if the time is increased the company 
will lose the patronage of a large number of persons who 
daily travel between the two terminals. The company's 
earnings are derived largely from the limited cars. A num- 
ber of towns have recently been eliminated from the regu- 
lar stops of limited cars, but the company claims that the 
service of these towns is adequate and much better than 
the service afforded by the steam railroads prior to the con- 
struction and operation of the electric railway. 

New Schedule on Auburn & Syracuse Electric Railroad. — 

The Auburn & Syracuse Electric Railroad, Syracuse, N. Y., 
arranged to put a new schedule in effect on its line on 
Jan. 3. 191 1. Under the new schedule there is a 40-minute 
instead of a 30-minute service on all days except Saturday, 
when a 30-minute service, differing from the present one, 
will be in force. A new feature of the schedule is a limited 
car service between Syracuse and Skaneateles at 5:20 p. m. 
every day except Saturday and Sunday. Under the new 
service the first car leaves Syracuse at 6:30 a. m., the next 
at 7:20 a. m., and thereafter every 40 minutes up to the 
last car at midnight. On Saturdays the first car leaves 
Syracuse at 6:30 a. m., the next at 7 a. m., the next at 8 
a. m.. and thereafter every 30 minutes until 11 p. m. The 
last car for Auburn leaves at 11:50 p. m. On the Saturday 
schedule the first car leaves Auburn at 5:40 a. m., the next 
at 6:40 a. m., and the next at 7 a. m., and thereafter every 
30 minutes up to 9:30 p. m. The last two cars for Syracuse 
leave at 10:30 p. m. and 11:45 P- m - 



January 7, 191 1. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



53 



Personal Mention. 



Mr. D. H. McMichael has been appointed claim agent of 
the Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, Fort Smith, 
Ark., to succeed Mr. H. R. Bennett. 

Mr. Arthur E. Tweedy has been elected president of the 
Danbury & Bethel Street Railroad, Danbury, Conn., to 
succeed the late Samuel C. Holley. 

Mr. John Otto has been appointed purchasing agent of 
the Santa Barbara Consolidated Railroad, Santa Barbara, 
Cal., to succeed Mr. W. T. Sterling. 

Mr. J. M. Thomas has been appointed chief engineer of 
the power station of the People's Traction Company, Gales- 
burg, 111., to succeed Mr. E. P. Shanks. 

Mr. George L. Colgate has been appointed purchasing 
agent of the Ontario Light & Traction Company, Canan- 
daigua, N. Y., to succeed Mr. J. B. Eaton. 

Mr. Horace R. Hudson, treasurer of the Plumboldt Tran- 
sit Company, Eureka, Cal., has also been elected secretary 
of the company to succeed Mr. Burke Corbet. 

Mr. D. J. McGuire has been appointed roadmaster of the 
Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District Railway, Colo- 
rado Springs, Col., to succeed Mr. D. Dwyer. 

Mr. C. D. Emmons, general manager of the Fcrt Wayne 
& Wabash Valley Traction Company, Fort Wayne, Ind., 
lias been elected president of the Railroad Young Men's 
Christian Association of Port Wayne. 

Mr. B. E. Tabler, formerly traffic agent of the Illinois 
Traction System at St. Louis, Mo., has been appointed 
freight and new business manager of the Choctaw Rail- 
way & Lighting Company, McAlester, Okla. 

Mr. Walter W. Cook has been appointed master me- 
chanic at the shops of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 
Eastern Traction Company at Greenfield, Ind. Mr. Cook 
was formerly connected with the Pullman Company. 

Mr. J. B. Sucese, formerly superintendent of the Chicago, 
Indianapolis & Louisville Railway, Lafayette. Ind., has been 
appointed general superintendent of the Chicago, South 
Bend & Northern Indiana Railway and the Southern Michi- 
gan Railway, South Bend, Ind., effective Feb. 1, 1910, to 
succeed Mr. M. P. Reed, who will engage in business for 
himself at South Bend. , 

Mr. Ralph H. Rice has been appointed division engineer 
of electrical transmission and distribution, Board of Super- 
vising Engineers, Chicago Traction, vice Mr. E. N. Lake, 
resigned. Mr. Rice was formerly assistant engineer of this 
division, having held that position since the organization of 
the Beard of Supervising Engineers. Before becoming 
connected with the Board of Supervising Engineers Mr. 
Rice was one of the engineers of The Arnold Company, 
Chicago, 111. Mr. W. F. Sims, formerly field engineer of 
the power department, has been appointed assistant di- 
vision engineer to succeed Mr. Rice. 

Mr. Peter E. Hurley, whose resignation as general man- 
ager of the Trenton (N. J.) Street Railway was announced 
in the Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 5, raio, was 
tendered a reception on Dec. 30, 1910, at which all of the 
employees of the company were present. Mr. Hurley was 
presented with a gold watch by Mr. C. Howard Gibbs on 
behalf of the employees, who thanked Mr. Hurley for his 
courteous treatment of the men. Mr. Oscar T. Crosby, 
president of the Trenton & Mercer County Traction Com- 
pany; Mr. Rankin Johnson, vice-president of the company; 
Mr. John T. Thompson, superintendent of the company, 
and Mr. Henry C. Moore, former president of the company, 
all made short addresses. 

Mr. E. D. Smith resigned as superintendent of power sta- 
tions of the United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., effective Jan. 
1, ion. to become chief engineer of the Board of Education 
of St. Louis. Mr. Smith was born in Galion, Ohio, on March 
29, 1877. He was educated in the district schools of Mis- 
souri and at Missouri University, from which he was gradu- 
ated in June, 1901, with the degree of electrical engineer. 
Immediately after he was graduated from college Mr. Smith 
entered the employ of the St. Louis Transit Company, the 
predecessor of the United Railways, as a helper in one of 
the electrical construction gangs. Sub sequently he was 
employed in various capacities in the different power .sta- 
tions of the company and in the office of the superintendent 
of power of the company. In 1904 Mr. Smith was appointed 
superintendent of power stations of the company. 



Mr. E. F. Schneider, secretary and general manager of 
the Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, was tendered a dinner by the company on the 
evening of Dec. 28, iyio, at the conclusion of which the 
party adjourned to the directors' room, where Mr. A. E. 
Akins, first vice-president of the company, on behalf of the 
officers, presented Mr. Schneider with a traveling outfit. 
Among those present were: Mr. A. E. Akins, lir^t vice- 
president of the company; Air. J. O. Wilson, treasurer; Mr. 
H. B. Cavanaugh, auditor; Mr. J. A. Nestor, superintendent; 
Mr. W. E. Rolslon, superintendent of power and shops; 
Mr. Ensign Johnson, superintendent; Mr. W. B. Demaline, 
superintendent of Ohio lines; Mr. G. F. Reidy, traveling 
passenger agent; Mr. G. McGraw, traveling auditor; Mr. 
C. G. Taylor, superintendent of lighting, and Mr. C. E. Mc- 
Kisson, claim adjuster. 

Mr. W. H. Rushton has recently been appointed master 
mechanic of the Altoona & Logan Valley Electric Railway, 
Altocna, Pa., to succeed Mr. W. H. Dickson. Mr. Rushton 
began his railway career as an apprentice in the electrical 
department of the Hestonville, Mantua & Fairmont Rail- 
way, in 1896, after graduating from the Philadelphia High 
School. In 1897 Mr. Rushton was appointed foreman with 
the Union Traction Company, Philadelphia, Pa., and con- 
tinued with this company and the Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit Company, its successor, until June, 1904. He then ac- 
cepted a position as foreman with the Pacific Electric Com- 
pany, Los Angeles, Cal., and continued with this company 
until June, 1905, when he contracted with J. G. White & 
Company, Inc., to act for five years as master mechanic of 
the Manila Railway & Light Company, Manila, P. I. Mr. 
Rushton returned to the United States in June, 1910. 

Mr. B. R. Stephens, formerly general traffic manager of 
the Illinois Traction System, Champaign, 111., has been ap- 
pointed general superintendent of the Choctaw Railway & 
Lighting Company, McAlester, Okla. Mr. Stephens has 
had more than 20 years' experience with railroads. He 
began his career as a trainman and has at various times 
been connected with the Toledo, St. Louis & Western Rail- 
road, Ohio Southern Railroad, Cleveland, Akron & Colum- 
bus Railroad, New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad and 
the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad. He was con- 
nected with the Illinois Traction System for eight years. 
During the last four years of his connection with the Illinois 
Traction System Mr. Stephens acted as general traffic 
manager with headquarters in Springfield. Previous to 
serving the company in the capacity of traffic manager he 
was connected with the Indiana interests of the company for 
two years and served for two years at Champaign, 111. 

Mr. Samuel J. Dill, who has been assistant to the presi- 
dent of the Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power Company, 
New York, N. Y., has been elected vice-president of the 
company. Mr. Dill is also president of the United Service 
Company, which is purchasing agent of the Susquehanna 
Railway, Light & Power Company. This company con- 
trols a number of electric railway, light and power and 
gas properties in different cities. The principal railway 
properties are those in Elmira, N. Y., and Lancaster. Pa. 
Mr. Dill began his railway career with the Metropolitan 
Street Railway, New York, N. Y. He was promoted by the 
company to division foreman and was in charge of the 
Forty-second Street and Crosstown and the Boulevard 
lines when they were equipped with electricity. In 1901 he 
became superintendent of the Detroit, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor 
& Jackson Railway, and later was appointed general super- 
intendent in charge of the operation of the city lines in 
Kalamazoo and Battle Creek and the interurban railway 
connecting the two cities. In 1904 Mr. Dill was appointed 
general manager of the Youngstown & Southern Railway, 
and continued in that capacity until he was appointed resi- 
dent general manager of the Elmira Water, Light & Rail- 
road Company, Elmira, N. Y. 

Mr. J. W. Smith has been appointed superintendent of 
railways of the Chattanooga Railway & Light Company, 
Chattanooga, Tenn., in charge of transportation, shops and 
car houses. Mr. Smith was graduated from Cornell Univer- 
sity in 1893 as a mechanical and electrical engineer, and im- 
mediately after graduation was employed as one of the engi- 
neers in charge of converting the lines of the Union Trac- 
tion Company, Philadelphia, Pa., from horse-power to elec- 
tricity. After completing this work Mr. Smith took the ex- 



54 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



pert course of the General Electric Company at Schenec- 
tady and Lynn, and in 1896 was one of the engineers on the 
construction of the system of the Fairmount Park Transpor- 
tation Company, Philadelphia, Pa. Subsequently he was 
appointed manager of the Fairmount Park Transportation 
Company, and continued in that capacity until 1901. From 
1901 until 1903 Mr. Smith was superintendent in charge of 
construction of the Augusta-Aiken Electric Railway, Au- 
gusta, Ga.; the Hampton Roads Railway & Electric Com- 
pany, Newport News, Va., and the Jersey Central Traction 
Company, Keyport, N. J. From 1903 until February, 1907, 
Mr. Smith was general manager of the Schuylkill Railway, 
Girardville, Pa., and from February, 1907, until Dec. 1, 1910, 
he was general manager of the City Railway and the City & 
Elm Grove Railway, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Mr. F. W. Bacon, whose resignation as general manager 
of the New Jersey & Hudson River Railway & Ferry Com- 
pany, Edgewater, N. J., followed the purchase of the prop- 
erty of that company in October, 1910, by the Public Service 
Railway, had been con- 



nected with that company 
and its predecessors for the 
last 10 years. During this 
time the road grew from a 
small single-track suburban 
property of a few miles to 
an interurban system 45 
miles in length operating 53 
cars. Mr. Bacon, who is a 
brother of Mr. George W. 
Bacon, of Ford, Bacon & 
Davis, New York, N. Y., be- 
gan his railway work in 1895 
in the reconstruction of the 
Canal & Claiborne Railroad, 
New Orleans, La., where 




he was engaged in the gen- 
eral engineering depart- F. W. Bacon 
ment and later was placed 

in charge of the overhead line construction. Fol- 
lowing this, he was engaged in the reconstruction 
of the New Orleans & Carrollton Railway, of which work 
he had charge, including the complicated construction on 
Canal Street. In 1896 these two companies were con- 
solidated and Mr. Bacon served as traffic superintendent 
until 1900, when he became connected as general superin- 
tendent with the Bergen County Traction Company, of 
Edgewater, N. J. The Riverside & Fort Lee Ferry Com- 
pany and the Hudson River Traction Company were added 
to the Bergen County Traction Company, the properties 
being afterward consolidated under the name of the New 
Jersey & Hudson Railway & Ferry Company. Mr. Bacon 
was appointed general manager of this property in 1905. 

OBITUARY 

R. Winder Johnson, president of Lawrence Johnson & 
Company, who was also connected with the Abrasive 
Material Company, died suddenly at Jefferson Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa., on Dec. 27, 1910, from injuries which he 
had received a short time before. 

Sir Charles Scotter, the chairman of the London & 
Southwestern Railway, London, England, is dead. Born at 
Hull, in 1835, he entered the service of the Manchester, 
Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway, at the age of 18, as a 
clerk. In i860 he was appointed passenger superintendent. 
Twelve years later he became assistant goods manager and 
goods manager in 1873, under Sir Edward Watkin, who 
was then chairman of the company; and again 12 years 
later he left the Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Rail- 
way to become general manager of the London & South- 
western Railway. This position also he held for more than 
12 years. Subsequently he was elected director and became 
first deputy chairman and then, in 1904, chairman, in place 
of Lieutenant-Colonel H. W. Campbell. The Waterloo & 
City Railway was added to the Southwestern system 
through Sir Charles, who advocated the construction of a 
deep-level electric railway which should virtually prolong 
the Waterloo & City Railway to the Bank. Another line in 
which Sir Charles was interested was the Great Northern 
& City "tube" from Moorgate Street to Finsbury Park, Lon- 
don. 



Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously 
reported. 

RECENT INCORPORATIONS 
*Shreveport & Memphis Railway Company, Shreveport, 

La. — Incorporated in Louisiana to build an electric or 
steam railway to connect El Dorado, Homer and Minden, 
a distance of 45 miles. Later it is expected to extend this 
railway to Memphis. Surveys have been completed. Chi- 
cago capitalists are said to be backing the project. Incor- 
porators: O. C. Ferguson and A. R. Johnson, Homer, La. 

Northern Minnesota Railway, Virginia, Minn. — Incor- 
porated to build an electric railway in Minnesota. Capital 
stock, $25,000. Incorporators: Edward Himes, Chicago; 
S. J. Gusson, Virginia; G. F. Lindsay, Davenport, Iowa; 
William O'Brien, St. Paul; H. C. Hornby, Cloquet. 

Oklahoma-Kansas Railway, Joplin, Mo. — Incorporated in 
Missouri to build a 23-mile electric railway to connect 
Columbus, Galena and Baxter Springs, Kan., and Sunny 
Side, Lincolnville, Hattanville and Miami, Okla. This 
company was recently incorporated in Kansas as recorded 
in the Electric Railway Journal for March 12, '10. C. F 
Lambert, Kansas City, chief engineer. [E. R. J., July 
16, '10.] 

*Oklahoma Short Line Electric Railway, Shawnee, Okla. — 

Incorporated in Oklahoma for the purpose of connecting 
the electric and interurban systems of Kansas, Missouri, 
Texas and Oklahoma. The main line will be 175 miles and 
will connect Oklahoma City and Joplin, Mo. A branch 
line of 125 miles will be built from Shawnee, Okla., to 
Denison, Tex. Construction will begin about Jan. 20. It is 
the intention to build from Shawnee to Muskogee and 
Oklahoma City first. It is expected to lay 90-lb. steel and 
to construct the railway for hauling freight, passengers and 
mail. Options and right-of-way have been secured through 
all the counties through which the lines will pass. The 
power plant and car shops will be located east of Shawnee. 
Capital stock, $100,000. Incorporators: C. C. Wright, Ada; 
M. J. Bentley, Tecumseh; Peroy Paddock, Oklahoma City; 
Z. V. Sanders, Albermarle; S. C. and Thomas E. Armen- 
trout, Kirkwood, Mo. 

FRANCHISES 

Montgomery, Ala. — The Montgomery Traction Company 
has asked the City Council for a franchise to build several 
extensions to its railway in Montgomery. 

*Phoenix, Ariz. — Selim Michelson, Phoenix, has asked 
the Board of Supervisors for a franchise to build an elec- 
tric railway over Center Street bridge in Phoenix to Tempe 
and Mesa. Dr. H. H. Stone and Charles Goldman have 
asked for a franchise to build an electric railway from 
Phoenix to Mesa. 

Nanaimo, B. C. — A by-law is being prepared authorizing 
the Nanaimo Electric Railway to build its railway over 
certain streets in Nanaimo, B. C. 

San Jose, Cal. — The San Jose & Santa Clara County 
Railroad, San Jose, has asked the Common Council for 
switch and turn privileges and the use of T-rails in Santa 
Clara Street. In return the company will lower its tracks 
and pave streets at once in San Jose. 

Danbury, Conn. — The Danbury & Bethel Street Railway 
will ask the General Assembly for a franchise to extend its 
lines from the present terminus of its lake division on 
Kenosia Avenue, Danbury, to the New York State line. 
Plans are also being considered to extend this railway 
between Danbury and Brewster. 

Waterbury, Conn. — The Waterbury & Milldale Tramway, 
Waterbury, has asked the General Assembly for an exten- 
sion of time to its franchise in which to buikd its proposed 
9-mile electric railway from Milldale to Waterbury over 
Wolcott Mountain. The company wants the time limit 
for building the railway extended to July 1, 1915. John H. 
Cassidy, Waterbury, secretary. [E. R. J., Aug. 13, '10.] 

*Oak Park, 111. — D. O. Ward has asked the Village Board 
for a franchise to build an electric railway from Harrison 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



55 



Street on the south to Chicago Avenue on the north in 
Oak Park. 

Pekin, 111. — The Pekin & Petersburg Interurban Railway 
has received a franchise from the City Council to build an 
electric railway through Pekin. This projected line will 
connect Pekin and Petersburg. J. E. Melick is interested. 
[E. R. J.. Dec. io, '10.] , 

*South Bend, Ind.— P. E. Hall, representing the South 
Bend Electric Company, has asked the City Council for a 
franchise to build an electric railway in South Bend. Jay 
D. Crary has also asked the City Council for a similar 
franchise. 

Waltham, Mass. — The Boston & Western Electric Rail- 
way will file a petition with the Railroad Commissioners 
asking for a location for tracks in Marlboro, Waltham, 
Weston, Wayland and Sudbury. [E. R. J., Oct. r, 1910.] 

Worcester, Mass. — The Worcester Consolidated Street 
Railway has accepted three franchises for short extensions 
in Worcester. 

*Eveleth, Minn. — The Range Electric Railroad has asked 
the City Council for a franchise to build its railway through 
Eveleth. 

Virginia, Minn. — The Great Northern Power Company, 
Duluth, will ask the City Council for a franchise to build 
an electric railway through Virginia. This proposed 40-mile 
railway will connect Hibbing, Chisholm, Buhl, Kinney and 
Gilbert, with a probable extension to Stevenson and Kewatin 
on the west to Elb, McKinley and Biwabik on the east. 
[E. R. J., Dec. 10, '10.] 

*St. Louis, Mo. — Benjamin Westhus and associates will 
ask the City Council for a franchise to build an elevated 
railway connecting the central business district of St. Louis 
with South Broadway, and extending to Southampton and 
the southwestern city limits. 

Lambertville, N. J. — The New Jersey & Pennsylvania 
Traction Company, Trenton, has received a franchise from 
the City Council to construct a track on Lambert Street 
in Lambertville to be used for freight purposes. 

Corning, N. Y. — The Elmira, Corning & Waverly Rail- 
road, Elmira, has received a franchise from the Town Board 
to cross the highways of the town at convenient points 
and also to occupy with its double tracks the new Corning- 
Caton road*at Brown's Crossing. In return the company 
will provide a subway under the Erie Railroad tracks. 

Wilson, N. Y. — The Wilson Railway has asked the City 
Council for a franchise to build a 2-mile electric railway 
over certain streets in Wilson. It will connect the rail- 
road station in Wilson with Island Lake Park and Sunset 
Beach on Lake Ontario. S. M. Conant, Wilson, president. 
[E. R. J., Oct. 15, '10.] 

Memphis, Tenn. — The Clarksdale, Covington & Collier- 
ville Interurban Railway has received and accepted the 
franchise from the City Council to build a railway over 
certain streets in Memphis. 

Seattle, Wash. — The Seattle Electric Company has re- 
ceived a franchise from the City Council to build an elec- 
tric railway over certain streets in Seattle. 

*Tomahawk, Wis. — John Oelhafier, Andrew Oelhafier, 
Robert Thielman and W. G. Foss have asked the City 
Council for a franchise to build an electric railway in 
Tomahawk. 

TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Calgary (Alta.) Municipal Railway. — This company has 
decided to extend its railway in Calgary in the spring. 

Northern Electric Railway, Chico, Cal. — This company 
will build an extension of its railway from Del Paso station 
in Oroville to Fair Oaks and Orangeville during 191 1. 

Los Angeles-Pacific Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — This 
company has awarded to Palmer, McBride & Quayle Com- 
pany, Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, the contract 
for the construction of a 10-mile extension of its railway 
from Hollywood to Lankershine and Kester. 

♦Monrovia, Cal. — J. M. Holmes, San Diego, and W. R. 
Stoats, Pasadena, are said to be arranging to build a pro- 
posed electric railway to the summit of Mount Wilson. 

Chicago, Terre Haute & Southeastern Railway, Chicago, 
111. — This company reports that this proposed railway will 



be operated by steam and not by electricity. [E. R. J., 
Dec. 24, 'io.l 

Sterling-Moline Traction Company, Sterling, 111. — The 

contract awarded the Northwestern Engineering & Con- 
struction Company, Milwaukee, has been ratified by the 
directors of this company and work will begin in the 
spring on this proposed electric railway to connect Sterling, 
Morrison, Lynedon, Prophetstown, Erie, Hillsdale and 
Moline. A. Van Petten, Sterling, general manager. [E. R. 
J., Nov. 26, '10.] 

Evansville (Ind.) Railways. — Plans are being made by 
this company to build a 15-mile extension of its railway 
from Mount Vernon to New Harmony. The company has 
completed and placed in operation a 6 I /2-mile extension from 
Rockport to Grandview. 

*Evansville, Ind. — J. A. Brcwn, who is building a new 
industrial town on the Kentucky side of the Ohio River, 
opposite Evansville, Ind., to be known as "Mortalies," will 
build a traction line to connect with Evansville, according 
to statements credited to him. Cars will be transferred 
over the river by ferry and work on the construction of the 
line will begin Feb. 1, 1911. 

Kendallville, Ligonier & Goshen Traction Company, Ken- 
dallville, Ind. — J. M. Kinney is said to be interested in a 
plan to build an electric railway to connect Kendallville, 
Brimfield, Wawaka, Ligonier, Millersburg, Benton and 
Goshen. [E. R. J., Oct. 3. '08.] 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Railway, Waterloo, 
la. — This company has completed and placed in operation 
its 8-mile extension from Denver Junction to Waverly. 
The line will be extended from Cedar Falls to Dike in the 
spring. 

*Paducah, Ky. — S. A. Fowler, secretary of the Com- 
mercial Club, Paducah, states that New York promoters 
have purchased the right-of-way for an electric railway 
between Wickliffe and Fulton, and it will likely be extended 
to Paducah. 

♦Cumberland, Md. — It is said that engineers are at work 
on a survey between Meyersdale, Pa., and Frostburg, Md., 
for a proposed electric railway between the Cumberland & 
Westernport Electric Railway, Cumberland, and the Penn- 
sylvania & Maryland lines operating through the Meyers- 
dale field. The intention of the promoters is to connect 
Johnstown, Pa., and Cumberland, Md. 

♦Columbia Falls, Mont. — James A. Talbott, Butte, and 
associates are planning to build an electric railway to extend 
from Columbia Falls to Poison. Work is scheduled to 
begin by March. A company is being formed, and will 
probably file articles of incorporation soon. 

Forty-second, Manhattanville & St. Nicholas Avenue 
Railway, New York, N. Y. — This company has applied to 
the Public Service Commission for approval of a change 
of motive power on its noth Street line. The company 
proposes to operate storage battery cars. 

Syracuse & South Bay Electric Railroad, Syracuse, 
N. Y. — This company is making surveys for an extension 
from Syracuse to Watertown via Brewerton, Central 
Square, Mallory, Hastings, Lacona and Adams, a distance 
of about 73 miles. 

North Carolina Traction Company, Danbury, N. C. — At 
a recent meeting of the incorporators of this company it 
was decided to award contracts for construction work dur- 
ing January for building a proposed 92-mile electric railway 
from Winston-Salem, N. C, to Floyd, Va. Twenty miles 
of this railway are now ready for ties and rails. The First 
National Bank of Lumberton and H. M. McAlister will be 
trustees of the $2,000,000 bond issue authorized by the 
board of directors. The company was formally organized 
Dec. 28, '10, by the election of the following officers: A. M. 
Clark, Southern Pines, president; J. W. Sykes, Raleigh, 
vice-president; E. L. Kraft, Indianapolis, general man- 
ager; H. P. McKnight, general director; T. F. Walker, 
Cincinnati, secretary; J. W. Kraft, Indianapolis, purchas- 
ing agent, and H. M. McAlister, Lumberton, N. C, treas- 
urer. [E. R. J., Sept. 10, '10. 1 

*Fort Ransom, N. D.— Plans are being considered to 
organize a company to build an electric railway to connect 
Fort Ransom and Enderlin. 

*Miami Transit, Light & Power Company, Lebanon, 



56 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. i. 



Ohio. — This company advises that negotiations are now 
pending which promise to result in the completion of this 
proposed railway in the near future. Further information 
will be given later. Charles A. Hough, president. 

Fostoria-Fremont Railway, Lima, Ohio. — This company 
has completed eight miles of track on the line which will 
connect the Western Ohio Railway with the Lake Shore 
Electric Railway at Fremont. The company expects to 
complete the work in January and to inaugurate limited 
service between Cleveland and Dayton by April i. [E. R. J., 
Oct. 8, '10.] 

Muskogee (Okla.) Electric Traction Company. — This com- 
pany expects to begin work this month on its northern 
extension of its railway from Fond du Lac Street and Fourth 
Street in Muskogee to the factory addition. The fair 
ground extension will also be extended as far as the Mid- 
land Valley addition and the car shops. 

Baker Interurban Railway, Baker City, Ore. — Anthony 
Mohr, promoter of this company, states that work will 
begin early in the spring on this proposed ioo-mile electric 
railway to connect Baker City, North Powder and Eagle 
Valley. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Farmers' Electric Railway, Vale, Ore. — Surveys have been 
completed by this company for its proposed 16-mile electric 
railway to connect Vale and Malheur Canyon. It is ex- 
pected to extend this line to Ontario, Ore. G. W. Thomas, 
Ontario, Ore., president. [E. R. J., Dec. 17, '10.] 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — This 

company will soon begin to extend its line from Slatington 
to Lehigh Gap and Palmertcn and connect with the Carbon 
Transit Company at Lehighton. This will provide a direct 
line from Pottsville to Philadelphia via Mauch Chunk. 

Lewisburg, Milton & Watsonville Passenger Railway, 
Milton, Pa. — Plans for building an extension from Watson- 
town to Montgomery and eventually to Muncy and Mon- 
toursville, connecting Sunbury and Williamsport, are being 
considered by this company. It is negotiating with the 
commissioners of Northumberland and Union counties with 
a view of strengthening the Allenwood bridge to be used 
by its electric railway. 

*Philadelphia, Pa. — 1. T. Silverman, Philadelphia, is said 
to be promoting plans for building a proposed electric 
railway from Eddystone between the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railway and the Philadelphia Railroads as far as the 
old rifle range in Tinicum, from which point it will branch 
across the marsh lands to West Philadelphia. 

Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynesboro Electric 
Railway, Waynesboro, Pa. — This company is making con- 
siderable progress in the grading for its extension from 
Pen Mar to Blue Ridge Summit. It is expected to be 
ready for track laying by Feb. 1. 

Montreal (Que.) Street Railway. — This company is ready 
to begin the construction of a belt line underground rail- 
way as soon as the corporation of the city will give them 
the necessary legislation. The general scheme for the 
tunnel is to cut through under Cote des Neiges Hill, start- 
ing in with the entrance near Guy and Sherbrooke streets 
and coming out near Shakespeare Road, making a total 
underground distance of some 5500 ft. Three tunnels have 
been suggested on this route, a double-track one in the 
middle for rapid transit service and a wide one on either 
side, about 30 ft., for vehicular traffic going in alternate 
directions. 

*Franklin, Tenn. — It is reported that plans are being 
made to build a proposed electric railway from Franklin 
to Shelbyville via Fayetteville. 

Tennessee Traction Company, Memphis, Tenn. — It is said 
that this company is planning to begin construction soon 
on its proposed 210-mile electric railway to connect Mem- 
phis, Nashville and Jackson. George E. Busnell, Memphis, 
general manager. [E. R. J., July 30, '10.] 

Tennessee Rapid Transit Company, Nashville, Tenn. — 

This company announces that work will begin at once on 
its proposed 110-mile electric railway to connect Nash- 
ville, Lewisburg, Clarksville and Springfield. It has secured 
financial backing. J. M. Gray, Franklin, is interested. 
IE. R. J., Dec. 17, '10.] 



Mount Adams Railway, White Salmon, Wash. — This 

company will begin work in the spring on its proposed 
40-mile electric railway to connect White Salmon, Bingen, 
Bristol, Pine Flat, Snowden, Timber Valley and Glenwood. 
It has recently elected the following officers: W. W. Swan, 
president; T. Wyers, vice-president; T. F. Shepler, secre- 
tary, and R. Field, treasurer, all of White Salmon. [E. R. J., 
July 30, '10.] 

*Montgomery, W. Va. — M. J. Simms, Montgomery, is 
making arrangements for closing contracts preparatory to 
the construction of a 3 r /2-mile railway to connect Mont- 
gomery and Boomer, via Harewood and Lonacre. An 
entrance will be made into Montgomery over a new bridge 
recently completed and equipped for rail and team traffic. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 

Southern Pacific Railroad, Los Angeles, Cal. — This com- 
pany is considering plans for building new car shops at 
Tucson, Ariz. It is said that work will begin in the spring. 

Alton, Granite & St. Louis Traction Company, Alton, 111. — 
It is reported that this company will soon build a new car 
house at Granite City. The cost is estimated to be about 
$25, coo. O. C. Macy, Alton, superintendent. 

Illinois Traction Company System, Champaign, 111. — This 
company has just opened a new station at Sawyerville. 

Otsego & Herkimer Railroad, Hartwick, N. Y. — This 
company's car house at Oneonta was recently destroyed by 
fire. 

Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company, Ft. 
Wayne, Ind. — C. D. Emmons, general manager of this com- 
pany, announces that satisfactory progress is being made 
in arranging for the construction of a joint station by the 
four traction lines centering in Bluffton. 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo. — This 
company has completed plans for erecting a new office 
building to occupy the northeast corner of Eleventh Street 
and Main Street in Kansas City. 

Galveston-Houston Electric Railway, Houston, Tex. — 
This company announces that plans and specifications for 
its new car houses to be built at Broadway and Fifty-first 
Street in Galveston are ready to be placed in the hands of 
bidders. Construction will begin as soon as the contract 
is awarded. The structure is to be built of concrete and 
steel, and all modern equipment will be installed. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway. — This company has 
awarded to Charles W. Carbaley, Wilcox Building, Los 
Angeles, the contract for the construction of an intake 
for its new power plant at San Diego to consist of two 5-ft. 
conduits leading from the bay at the foot of E Street to the 
power house, which will be located at Arctic Street and E 
Street. 

Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Company, Augusta, 

Ga. — This company has purchased from the General Elec- 
tric Company one 2750-kw turbo generator with station 
equipment; one 500-kw motor generator set with step- 
down transformers and one 300-kw motor generator set 
with step-down transformers. 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo. — This 
company has begun the construction of its two-story fire- 
proof building at Thirteenth Street and Baltimore Avenue 
in Kansas City. The foundations and floors of the struc- 
ture will be of reinforced concrete and the superstructure 
will be of brick. It will house two engines to be moved 
in from the Blue River power house. The cost is estimated 
to be about $45,000. 

Oklahoma Short Line Electric Railway, Shawnee, Okla. — 
It is said that this company will build a power plant east 
of Shawnee. 

Whatcom County Railway & Light Company, Belling- 
ham, Wash. — This company has completed and placed in 
operation its new power station on Railroad Avenue and 
York Street in Bellingham. This station will increase the 
capacity of the company's power supply by about 3300 hp. 

Sheboygan Light, Power & Railway Company, Sheboy- 
gan, Wis. — This company has just installed in its power 
house a 350-hp boiler, equipped with an automatic stoker. 



January 7, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



57 



Manufactures & Supplies 

ROLLING STOCK 

Scranton (Pa.) Railway will purchase 10 double-truck 
cars early in 1911. 

Savannah (Ga.) Electric Company, it is reported, will pur 
chase a number of double-truck, semi-convertible cars. 

Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Company, Augusta, 
Ga., has purchased five quadruple General Electric motor 
equipments. 

Scranton & Binghamton Traction Company, Scranton, 
Pa., it is reported, will purchase immediately six 45-ft. pas- 
senger cars. 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Company, 
Columbus, Ind., will order three passenger cars and two 
freight cars. 

Rochester & Manitou Railroad, Charlotte, N. Y., will pur- 
chase three standard semi-convertible, double-truck pas- 
senger cars. 

Holmesburg, Frankford & Tacony Electric Railway, Ta- 
cony, Pa., will purchase two prepayment, semi-convertible, 
double-truck cars. 

Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Company, Norfolk, Va., 
is in the market for eight pay-as-you-enter cars, to be 
delivered next spring. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway, Omaha, Neb., has pur- 
chased from the Browning Engineering Company, Cleve- 
land, O., one electric locomotive crane. 

Hoboken (N. J.) Manufacturers' Railroad has purchased, 
through W. J. Wilgus, one 80-ton electric locomotive, from 
the General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 

TRADE NOTES 

Railway Track-Work Company, Philadelphia, Pa., re- 
cently organized, has taken over the business of rail grind- 
ing formerly conducted by William D. Gherky. 

National Brake & Electric Company, Milwaukee, Wis., 
has received an order from the Westchester Street Railway, 
White Plains, N. Y., to equip 20 cars with air brakes. 

Ackley Brake Company, New York, N. Y., has received 
an order through R. W. Cameron & Company for 50 Ack- 
ley adjustable brakes for the Adelaide (Australia) Tram- 
ways. 

Thomas F. Fournier has resigned his position with the 
Taunton & Pawtucket Street Railway, Taunton, Mass., to 
accept a position as consulting engineer with the United 
Traction Improvement Company. 

William Stevenson, who for five years has been designing 
engineer for the McGuire-Cummings Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Chicago, 111., has been appointed special represen- 
tative of the Indian Refining Company, Inc., Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Root Spring Scraper Company, Kalamazoo, Mich., has 
received an order from the Boston Elevated Railway for 100 
scrapers for its 50 new cars. This company has also re- 
ceived an order from the Michigan United Railways, Lan- 
sing, Mich., for 2 four-wheel scrapers. 

Murphy Iron Works, Detroit, Mich., will open an office in 
the Empire Building, Atlanta, Ga., in charge of Roland B. 
Hall, Jr., who will handle this business in. connection with 
that of the Harrisburg Foundry & Machine Works, which 
he has represented in the southern territory for some time. 

McKeen Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb., has shipped 
one 55-ft. 200-hp steel gasoline motor car to the Charles 
City (la.) Western Railway, under its own power. This 
company has also shipped to the Arizona Eastern Railroad, 
Globe, Ariz., a 70-ft. steel gasoline motor car under its own 
power. 

Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111., has received an 
order from the Third Avenue Railroad, New York, N. Y., 
to furnish curtains with No. 089 protected groove ring fix- 
tures and Rex rollers for 100 cars. This company has also 
received an order from the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany to furnish curtains with No. 48 ring fixtures and Rex 
rollers for 15 cars. 

N. W. Harris & Company, New York, N. Y., bankers 
and brokers, changed their name on Jan. 1 to Harris, Forbes 



& Company. The firm membership remains the same 
Allen B. Forbes, whose name will appear with that of Mr. 
Harris in the firm's title, has been associated with N. W. 
Harris & Company in an important capacity for 20 years, 
and has been the managing partner of the New York office 
for the last decade. The other partners resident in New 
York are Arthur M. Harris, Lloyd W. Smith, Everett B 
Sweezy and Charles W. Beall. 

H. M. Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111., have acquired 
control of a number of additional public utility properties in 
California, which include the Stockton Gas & Electric Cor- 
poration, the Richmond Gas & Electric Company, the 
American River Electric Company, which includes service 
by long-distance transmission lines to the towns of Stock- 
ton, Placerville, Florin, Elk Grove, Sheldon, Gault, Lodi and 
Plymouth, and the Humboldt Electric Company, which 
includes service to the towns of Areata, Alton, Ferndale, 
Fields Landing, Fortune, Hydesville, Loleta and Rohners- 
ville. 

Ohmer Fare Register Company, Dayton, Ohio, gave its 
annual dinner to local employees of the company at the 
Phillips House, in Dayton, on the evening of Dec. 28, 1910, 
One hundred dollars in prizes were distributed to 17 em- 
ployees for valuable suggestions made for the betterment 
of the various types of Ohmer registers. Speeches were 
made by president of the company, John F. Ohmer; E. 
Frank Brewster, vice-president, and J. H. Stedman, secre- 
tary. Addresses were also made by Superintendent W. J. 
Kuhns and by F. G. Colby, E. H. Bridenbaugh, Harry Nel- 
son, C. V. Funk, the heads of various departments. E. B 
Grimes, assistant general manager of the company, was the 
toastmaster of the evening. The music was furnished by 
the Ohmer Fare Register Company Band, consisting of 20 
pieces. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 
Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, N. Y., has issued 
form No. 4202, illustrating and describing "Sergeant" rock 
drills. 

General Vehicle Company, Long Island City, N. Y., has 

issued a catalog describing and illustrating electric com- 
mercial vehicles. 

Trussed Concrete Steel Company, Detroit, Mich., has is- 
sued a very attractive catalog illustrating and describing the 
united steel sash. 

Colorado Portland Cement Company, Denver, Colo., has 
issued a catalog describing the alkali-proof Portland cement 
which it manufactures. 

Heywood Brothers & Wakefield Company, Wakefield, 
Mass., has issued a very attractive catalog, illustrating and 
describing several different styles of Universal car seats. 

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, N. Y., has re- 
cently issued two catalogs, one describing new and standard 
books on civil engineering, the other describing books on 
iron and steel. 

Whipple Supply Company, New York, N. Y., is issuing a 
very attractive folder describing the Hedley anti-telescoping 
and anti-climbing device. A number of illustrations are also 
contained in this folder, showing the effects of collisions 
between cars equipped with this device. 

Chicago Bearing Metal Company, Chicago, 111., has issued 
the Graphose Age, dated December, 1910. This publication is 
distributed occasionally by the company to call attention to 
its products, among which are brass castings for steam and 
street railways and general machinery. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., has 
published the January, 191 1, number of "Graphite." In this 
issue is a short article by John M. Turner, United States 
commercial agent, on the "Slowness of the United States," 
and another on "Creative Salesmanship," by E. St. Elmo 
Lewis, advertising manager of the Burroughs Adding Ma- 
chine Company. 

Goldschmidt Thermit Company, New York, N. Y., pub- 
lishes in "Reactions," for the last quarter of 1910, the fol- 
lowing articles: "Rail Welding in Many Countries," "Rail 
Welding in Holyoke. Mass.," "Making Semi-Steel by the 
Thermit Process," "Further Applications of Thermit in 
Ship Repairs," "The Cruiser Dixie," "Thermit for Loco- 
motive Repairs," "Welding Two Side Rods at One Opera- 
tion," and "Waterwheel Welded in 1907 Still in Operation." 



58 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



January 7, 191 1.] 



TABLE OF MONTHLY EARNINGS. 



Notice — These statistics will be carefully revised from month to month, upon information received from the companies direct, or from official sources. The table! 
should be used in connection with our Financial Supplement, "American Street Railway Investments," which contains the annual operating reports to the ends of th* 
various financial years. Similar statistics in regard to roads not reporting are solicited by the editors. 'Including taxes. fDeficit. 



Company 



AKRON, O. Northern 
Ohio Tr. & Light 
Co. 



Period 



Ira., Nov. '10 

1 ;• " '09 
11 " " '10 

11 09 



BANGOR, ME. Ban- lm„ Nov '10 
gor Ry. & Elec. Co. 1 " u '09 

11 09 



BELLINGHAM, 
WASH. Whatcom 
Co. Ry. & Lt. Co. 



CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 
Illinois Tr. System 



CHATTANOOGA, 
TENN. Chattanoo= 
ga Ry. & Lt. Co. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 
Aurora, Elgin & 
Chicago R.R1 



CLEVELAND, O. 
Cleveland, Paines= 
ville & Eastern 
R.R. 

Lake Shore Electric 
Ry 



DALLAS, TEX. 
Dallas Electric Cor- 
poration. 



DETROIT, MICH. 
Detroit United Ry. 



EAST ST. LOUIS, 
ILL. East St. Louis 
& Suburban Co. 



EL PASO, TEX. 
El Paso Elec. Co. 



FT. SMITH, ARK. 
Ft. Smith Lt. & 
Trac. Co. 



FT. WAYNE, IND 
Ft. Wayne & Wab- 
ash Valley Trac. 
Co. 

FT. WORTH, TEX. 
Northern Texas 
Electric Co. 



GALVESTON, TEX. 
Galveston-Houston 
Elec. Co. 



GRAND RAPIDS. 
MICH. Common- 
wealth Pwr., Ry. & 
Lt. Co. 

Grand Rapids Ry. 



HOUGHTON, MICH. 
Houghton Co.Trac. 
Co. 



JACKSONVILLE, 
FLA. Jacksonville 
Elec. Co. 



Ira. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



lm. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 

lm. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 

lm. 
1 " 
5 " 
5 " 



lm. 
1 " 
1 1 " 

,1 1; " 

lm. 
1 " 
1 1 " 

1 1 " 

lm. 
1 " 

12 " 
12 " 



lm. 
1 " 
1 1 " 

11 " 

lm. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 

lm. 
1 " 

12 " 
12 " 



Oct. 



Oct. 



'10 

'09 
" '10 
" '09 

Oct. '10 
" '09 
- '10 
" '09 



Nov. 



Nov. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Nov.' 10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 



Oct. 



Gross 

In- 
come 



Operating 
Ex- 



Nov.'lO 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Oct. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Oct. '10 
' " '09 
" '10 
" '09 



lm., Oct. '10 
1 09 

b 10 

6 " " '09 

lm., Oct. '10 
1 09 
10 10 
10 09 

lm , Oct. '10 
1 09 
12" " '10 
12 09 



$189,705 
1 75,743 
2,235,453 
1,994,729 

46,346 
45,427 
282,817 
275,477 

37,695 
35,672 
430,020 
401,1861 



lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

lm. 
1 " 
10 " 

10 " 

lm. 
1 " 

11 " 
11 " 



lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



$110,718 
99,973 
1,233,947 
1,088,502 

18,587 
18,336 
106,125 
103,228 

18,142 
19,608 
239,237 
225,640 



614,476 
509,171 
5,018,865 
4,379,325 

.77,993 

67,570 
728,940 
642,355 

132,508 
., 122,789 
809,583 
740,805 



Gross 
Income 

Less Op- 
erating 

Expenses 



Oct. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Oct. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Nov.'lO 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 



Oct. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Oct. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 



*338,360 
*265,145 
*2, 966, 046 
*2, 520 562 

37 5911 

38 372 
371,110 
372,844 

74,422 
69,526 
418,471 
372,108 



27,037 * 1 5, 1 1 2 

25,900 *1 5,950 

328,235] *170,555 

297,5731 *1 61,380 



91,802 
90,705 
1,110,541 
1,020,022 

165,372 
147,838 
1,443,966 
1,291,164 



7 54,924 
687,093 
8,718,014 
7,483,524 

209,592 
191,775 
1,966,354 
1,672,853 

5 5,172 
58,347 
631,241 
588 012 



38,022 
32.302 
210,137 
181,100 

131,360 
122,805 
1,266,085 
1,161,156 

154,007 
1,350 697 
1,409,311 
1,236,545 



113,476 
102,014 
1,289.537 
1,189,064 

425,742 
389,368 
4,081,714 
4,560,631 

88,376 
80,327 
1,036,304 
938,868 



26,192 
26,543 
314,642 
315,393 

48,367 
41,567 
566,403 
468,002 



*50,792 
*48,984 
*i7'),.s'M 
♦538,429 

89,152 
80,397 
943,991 
809,900 



478,304 
440,750 
5,486,787 
4,614,783 

105,767 
93,206 
1,032,518 
911,212 

32,919 
35,712 
362,528 
368,245 



20,565 
17,550 
121,317 
101,978 

67,366 
70,386 
706,280 
678,925 

71,123 

64,595 
753,87 1 
684,563 



65.937 
64,652 
777,563 
703.830 

224,373 
202,296 
2,104,066 
1,829,016 

46,365 
43,201 
508,292 
447,670 



12,819 

13.070 
166,160 
170,131 

27,088 
22,136 
302,028 
265,784 



$78,987 
75,770 
1,001,506 
906,227 

27,759 
27,091 
156,692 
152,249 

19,554 
16,064 
190,782 
1 75,546 



276,11 5 
244,026 
2,052,819 
1,858,763 

40,402 
29,198 
357,830 
269,511 

58,086 
53,263 
391,112 
368 696 



11,925 
9,951 
157,681 
136,193 

41,010 
41,721 

530,048 
481,592 

76,219 
67,441 
499,975 
481,204 



276,620 
246,343 
3,231,227 
2,868,741 

103,826 
98,569 
933,836 
761,641 

22,253 
22.653 
268,713 
219, 707 



17,457 
14,752 
88,820 
79,122 

63,994 
52,420 
559,806 
482,231 

82,884 
71,102 
655,440 
551,982 



47,539 
37,362 
511.975 
494,234 

201,369 
187,072 
1,977,648 
1,731,615 

42,011 
37,126 
528,012 
491.198 



Deduc- 
tions 
From 

In- 
come 



Net 
In- 
come 



13,373 
13,473 
148,481 
145,262 

21,279j 
19,430 
264,3751 
202,219 



$43,367 
43,400 
476,894 
480,856 

13,222 
12,273 
68,574 
65,429 

9,229 
8,469 
104,976 
100 468 



$3 5,620 
32,370 
524,612 
425,371 

13,831 
14,082 
88.118 
86,820 

10,325 
7,595 
85,807 
75,078 



23 


700 


16,702 


22 


218 


6,980 


234 


601 


123,229 


215 


281 


54,230 


34 


603 


23,483 


29 


586 


23 677 


167 


044 


224,0*9 


146 


663 


222,034 


7 


947 


3,997 


7 


528 


2,423 


88 


638 


69,043 


82 


956 


53,237 


34 


669 


6.341 


35 


393 


6,328 


382 


347 


148,301 


379 


939 


101,653 


23 


748 


52,471 


27 


471 


39,970 


316 


410 


183.56 5 


338 


780 


142,484 


174 


312 


102,308 


157 


919 


88,424 


1,863 


862 


1.367.365 


1,723 


39911,145,342 



8,224 
8.421 
101,090 
95,691 



45,829 
42 285 
451,383 
423,729 

20,290 
16,190 
228.011 
200,973 



25.565 
22,486 
284,599 
259,492 

, 122,033 
118,735 
1.231,698 
1,183,301 

19,475 
18,590 
218,406 
208,676 



Company 



Period 



14,029 
14.215 
167,623 
124,076 



6,637 
6,215 
77,821 
71,645 

9,346 
9,452 
112,295 
112,187 



18.165 
10,135 
108,423 
58,501 

62,594 
54,913 
427,429 
351,009 



21.974 
14,877 
227,376 
234,743 

79,366 
68,377 
745,950 
548,314 

22,536 
18,536 
309,606 
282,522 



6,736 
7,258 
70,660 
73,617 

11,933 
9,978 
152,080 
90,032 



KANSAS CITY.MO. 
Kansas City Ry. & 
Lt. Co. 



LEWISTON, ME. 
Lewiston, Augusta 
& Waterville^St. 
Ry. 

MILWAUKEE.WIS. 
Milwaukee Elec. 
Ry. & Lt. Co. 



Milwaukee Lt„ Ht. 
& Trac. Co. 



MINNEAPOLIS, 
MINN. Twin City 
Rapid Transit Co. 



MONTREAL, OUE. 
Montreal St. Ry. 



NASHVILLE.TENN. 
Nashville Ry. & Lt. 
Co. 



OTTUMWA, IA. 
Ottumwa Ry. & Lt. 
Co. 



PADUCAH, KY. 
Paducah Trac.& Lt. 
Co. 



PENSACOLA. FLA. 
Pensacola Elec. Co 



PHILADELPHIA. 
PA. American Rys. 
Co. 



PLYMOUTH. MASS. 
Brockton & Ply- 
mouth St. Ry. 



PORTLAND, ORE. 
Portland Ry., Lt. & 
Pwr. Co. 



ROCKFORD, ILL. 
Union Ry., Gas & 
Elec. Co. 



ST. JOSEPH. MO. 
St. Joseoh Rv., Lt. 
Ht. & Pwr. Co. 



SAVANNAH, "GA. 
SavannalTElec.Co. 



SEATTLE. WASH. 
Seattle Elec. Co. 



SYDNEY, C.'B. 
Cape Breton Elec 
Co., Ltd. 



TACOMA, WASH. 
Puget Sound Elec, 

Ry. 



TAMPA, FLA. 
Tampa Elec. Co. 



lm. 
1 " 

6 " 
6 " 

lm, 
1 " 
1 1 " 
11 " 

lm, 
1 " 
1 1 " 
11 " 



lm. 

1 " 
1 1 " 
1 1 " 

lm. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 

lm. 

1 " 

2 " 
2 " 



Nov.'lO 
» '09 
" '10 
" '09 



Gross 

In- 
come 



644,416 
607,167 
3,829,206 
3,551,648 



Nov.'lO 37,580 

" '09 35,985 

" '10 255,291 

" '09 256,671 



Nov.'lO 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 



Nov.'lO 

" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Oct. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Nov.'lO 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 



413,201 
383,156 
4,329,236 
3,919,653 



125,088 
118,001 
1,487,170 
1,353,010 

645,358 
596,963 
6,265,727 
5,773,383 

366,098 
334 871 
752,786 
688 878 



lm. 


Nov.'lO 


1 " 


" '09 


11 " 


" '10 


11 " 


" '09 


lm. 


Oct. '10 


1 " 


" '09 


6 " 


" '10 


6 " 


" '09 


lm. 


Oct. '10 


1 " 


" '09 


12 " 


" '10 


12 " 


" '09 



lm., Oct. '10 
1 09 
12 10 
12 09 



lm. 
1 " 

5 " 
5 " 



Nov. 



lm., Oct. '10 
1 09 
12 10 
12 09 



lm. 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 

lm. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 

lm, 
1 " 
10 " 
10 " 



lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 

lm. 

1 " 
12 
12 " 

lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



lm. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



Nov.'lO 
« '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Oct. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
" '09 

Oct. '10 
" '09 
" '10 
« . 09 



Oct. 



Oct. 



Oct. 



Oct. '10 



lm., Oct. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



23,650 
21,027 
264,701 
242,539 

307,376 
296,087 
1,743,688 
1,626,519 

9,797 
10 253 
120,557 
130,450 



498,953 
41 1,001 
5,108,927 
4,385,356 

284,293 
266,263 
2,421,889 
2,282,987 

87,613 
82,362 
854,363 
805,170 



53,795 
50,618 
623,355 
611,387 

469,033 
544,077 
5.558,439 
5,734,623 

30,496 
27,253 
320,975 
281,104 



161,760 
170 199 
1,895,045 
1,850,012 

43,254 
50,759 
611,750 
586,253 



Gross 
Operating Income 
Ex- Less Op- 
penses erating 
Expenses 



381,402 
352,219 
2,283,496 
2,018,634 

25,143 
23,208 
141,911 
133,320 

283,391 
252,839 
3,024,328 
2,572,758 



50,101 
45,039 
593,915 
503,191 

308,743 
277,175 
2,996,849 
2,709,742 

227,442 
200.138 
433,192 
374,873 



158,739 


85 847 


72 


892 


149,426 


83,181 


66 


245 


1,662,093 


959,077 


703 


016 


1,565,102 


919,503 


645 


599 


22,257 


11,934 


10 


323 


20,003 


12,543 


9 


460 


123,113 


66,650 


56 


463 


111,207 


59,683 


51 


524 


20.949 


11,747 


9 


202 


18,924 


11,764 


7 


16( 


245,521 


144,283 


101 


238 


225,608 


132,238 


93 


370 



13,578 
12,379 
155,488 
139,127 



263,015 
254,948 
1,545,710 
1,533,014 

12,437 
12,777 
113,380 
123,351 

129,810 
130,317 
1,304,908 
1,346,895 



74,987 
72,962 
893,255 
849,819 

336,616 
319,788 
3,268,877 
3,063,645 

138,656 
134,734 
319,594 
314,006 



10,072 
8,648 
109,214 
103,412 



7,337 
7,592 
84,930 
92,311 



222,581 
174,270 
2,214,968 
2,014,219 

139,652 
136,286 
1,336,821 
1,166,937 

44,446 
43,167 
458,896 
417,697 



35,518 
• 32,973 
407,071 
394,081 

239,639 
326,201 
3,249,493 
3,330,894 

13,447 
14,047 
170,322 
167,332 



101,079 
110,590 
1,248,589 
1,227,270 

23,998 
26,792 
339,846 
349,110 



Deduc- 
tions 
From 

In- 
come 



188,643 
171,429 
1,132,175 
1,037,060 

13,703 
15,093 
68,679 
74,405 

47,244 
48,561 
516,217 
520,318 



55,383 
53,044 
608,250 
566,030 

140,321 
140,251 
1.401,974 
1,388,761 

32,013 
30,785 
64,011 
61,864 



33,390 
33,023 
369,036 
361,330 



7,169 
6,625 
83,921 
81,726 



5,106 
4,474 
59,452 
52,077 



2,461 
2,661 
35,626 
38,139 

276,372 
236,731 
2,893,959 
2,371,137 

144,641 
129,977 
1,085,068 
1,116,050 

43,167 
39,195 
395,467 
387,473 



18,277 
17,646 
216,285 
217,306 

229 393 
217,877 
2,308,946 
2,403,729 

17,049 
13,206 
150,654 
113,772 



60,681 
59,609 
646,456 
622,741 

19,256 
23,968 
271,904 
237,143 



Net 
In- 
come 



74,355 
83,571 
413,514 
495,983 

tl,276 
t2,316 
44,701 
48,946 

82.566 
81,757 
788,692 
826,581 



19,604 
19,918 
285,005 
283,789 

196,295 
179,537 
1,866,904 
1,674,879 

106,643 
103,949 
255.583 
252,141 



39,502 
33,222 
333,980 
284.269 



2,032 
535 
17,317 
11,644 



4,967 
4,174 
49,762 
51,335 



1,578 
1,756 
20,579 
22,375 



151,217 
125,019 
1,550,411 
1,363,227 

66,845 
52,739 
660,301 
643,218 

23,297 
21,521 
227,056 
213,602 



18,220 
17,621 
215,251 
209,181 

109,914 
102,169 
1,301,744 
1,225,881 

6,160 
6,199 
73,933 
74,195 



50,018 
49,777 
606,323 
458,792 

6,130 
4,624 
61,584 
56,182 



883 
905 
15,048 
15,764 



125,155 
111,712 
1,343,548 
1,007,910 

77,796 
77,238 
424,767 
472,732 

19,870 
17,674 
168,411 
162,951 



SI 
25 
16.033 
1,125 

119,480 
115,708 
1,007,201 
1,177,848 

10,889 
7.007 

76,720 
39,577 



10,663 

9,832 
40,133 
63,949 

13,126 
19,344 
210,320 
180,961 



Electric Railway Journal 

A CONSOLIDATION OF 

Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



Vol. XXXVII. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 1911 No. 2 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

McGraw Publishing Company 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 

James H. McGraw, President. 
Hugh M. Wilson, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President. 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 

Henpy W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. 
Associate Editors: 
Rodney Hitt, Frederic Nicholas, Walter Jackson. 
News Editors: 
G. J. MacMurray, Frank J. Armeit. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office ' 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office. ... Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 
For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
to time in New Yoik City or elsewhere: United States, Cuba and Mexico, 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4.50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per 
year. Single copies, 10 cents. Foreign subscriptions may be sent to our 
European office. 

Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well as new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 

NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS. 

Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 191 1, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9000 copies 
are printed. 

NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 191 1. 



CONTENTS. 

The Syracuse Conference 59 

Other Coming Conventions 59 

Using Pits for Storage 60 

The Maintenance of Car Circuit Breakers 60 

Need for Training Trainmen 60 

The Metropolitan Plan of Reorganization 61 

The Electrical Equipment of the Detroit River Tunnel 62 

Proposed Standards Discussed by Central Electric Railway Committee 70 

Circular on Associate Membership 72 

Report of New York Public Service Commission, First District 73 

Annual Report of New Jersey Commission 74 

Third Conference on Interurban Operating Methods in Indiana 75 

Messages of the Governors 75 

Track Construction in Atlanta, Ga 78 

The Men to Employ for Interurban Service and Their Training. ... 79 

Joint Rate Tickets in New York 80 

1200-volt Equipment for the Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Rail- 
road 81 

Rail Specifications of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company 82 

Integral Oil Cups in Brooklyn 83 

A 3000-kw Rotary Converter 83 

Ideal Trolley Wheel 84 

Electric Signals for the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company 84 

Insulated Tap Cover and Stud 84 

Single Truck Prepayment Cars for New Orleans 84 

Electric Railway Legal Decisions 85 

News of Electric Railways 88 

Financial and Corporate 91 

Traffic and Transportation 94 

Personal Mention 96 

Construction News 97 

Manufactures and Supplies 100 



The Syracuse Conference 

The conference of interurban officers in New York State 
which is to be held Jan. 19, in Syracuse, at the suggestion of 
the Public Service Commission, Second District, constitutes 
quite a departure from any meeting which has previously been 
held in the State. It is not a hearing in the sense in which 
that term has been used previously by the commission. It is 
more in the nature of a joint convention of the commission 
and of the operating officials of the State to study the ques- 
tion of safety of interurban railway operation. The program 
includes papers on interurban railway dispatching, block sig- 
nals and cognate subjects by three well-known railway men and 
an expert signal engineer, and the commission urges a full 
and free discussion by all present upon the points brought out 
in these papers. In calling the conference the commission has 
evinced a desire to learn whether the operating officials of the 
State consider that any changes are necessary in their present 
operating methods, and, if so, what they are. After the con- 
ference and in the light of the evidence there obtained the 
commission may be prepared to make recommendations of 
its own, but at present the burden of criticising existing 
methods and of making suggestions for improvement has been 
delegated to those operators who have been invited to prepare 
the papers and to discuss them. The railway companies in no 
sense are being placed in a defensive position, and frank and 
free expressions- of opinion should result. The benefits which 
the companies of the State will derive from the conference 
are in direct proportion to the amount of fair criticism evoked, 
and to its open-minded reception on the part of those against 
whose methods it is directed. 

Other Coming Conventions 

The next two weeks will be very important so far as railway 
conventions are concerned. Several others besides that at Syra- 
cuse are scheduled for Jan. 19. One of these is the annual 
convention of the Central Electric Railway Association, which is 
to be held at Indianapolis and will be of especial importance 
this year because a number of important reports are to be 
presented, as well as papers on three interesting subjects. The 
convention of the Wisconsin Electrical Association, which in- 
cludes in its membership a number of electric railway com- 
panies, will be held in Milwaukee Jan. 18 and 19, and the 
organization meeting of the Interstate Railway Association will 
be held in Chicago on the latter date. During the following 
week there comes the mid-year meeting of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Assocation, which is to be held in New York 
on Jan. 27. This meeting is to be preceded by meetings on 
Jan. 25 and 26 of various committees of the association and 
its affiliated organizations. These committees will report to 
the several organizations of which they are parts and any im- 
portant subjects which require special attention can be sub- 
mitted to the main association. 



00 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



Using Pits for Storage 

One of the objections raised against open pits in car houses 
is the temptation offered to workmen to leave or store oily 
waste and miscellaneous junk in the free spaces under the 
floors and between the tracks. The force of this objection is 
weakened by the fact that walled pits are subject to exactly 
the same abuse, and even in greater degree. In one recently 
visited shop where closed pits are used one-half of them were 
out of commission because they were filled to the brims with 
discarded gears and pinions, worn brake shoes, smashed fen- 
ders and the like. Yet the master mechanic at this location 
complained bitterly that lack of pit room hampered his truck 
repairs ! A thorough house-cleaning from time to time in a shop 
like this would do wonders in enlarging the facilities and de- 
creasing the danger from fire. It cannot be gainsaid that 
open-pit construction offers a great convenience in allowing 
brake shoes and other truck fittings to be stored under the 
devil strips, where they are readily accessible for application. 
Otherwise it would be necessary for the workmen requiring 
material to make many wearisome and time-wasting trips to 
the storeroom or at best to some inconveniently located portion 
of the car house. There can be no reasonable objection to tak- 
ing advantage of this increase in storage capacity provided the 
sub-floor areas are not used for inflammable or discarded 
material. At any rate this practice is preferable to leaving 
these same articles to clutter up the car-house floor. 

The Maintenance of Car Circuit Breakers 

No device used on modern rolling stock is of more impor- 
tance in relation to the maintenance of schedule time than the 
circuit-breaker equipment, with the single exception of the 
motors themselves. Under the pressure of heavy traffic the 
time required to replace a fuse is too great to permit the ex- 
clusive use of that device as the electrical safety valve of the 
system. A thorough inspection of the adjustment and finish of 
the fittings of the circuit-breaker before it is placed on the car 
well repays the time required. In some cases the omission of 
periodical examinations of the apparatus leads to the sticking of 
the breaker armature through the rusting of the pins or to 
improper operation of the tripping device. The wear of brass 
stops set into the armature to prevent binding against the 
magnet coils on account of residual magnetism may lead to 
a "freeze" unless the stops are renewed at the proper time. 
The cleanliness of the arc chute is often neglected, with result- 
ing danger of a heavy short-circuit on account of the arc deflec- 
tors having been badly burned and carbonized. An important 
point in the operation and maintenance of circuit breakers is trie 
insurance of plenty of interchangeable parts at the repair shop, 
and the instruction of inspectors and car house employees to 
avoid attempts to make poorly fitting parts go into place by 
filing or bending. The usefulness of the equipment is easily 
destroyed by attempting to obtain forced fits of movable 
parts. In following up the inspection of car circuit breakers it 
is an excellent plan to go over them with an ammeter for the 
purpose of checking the adjustment. Whenever a car is fre- 
quently reported for fuse blowing it is a good idea to make a 
thorough examination of the condition and setting of the cir- 
cuit breaker before concluding that the motor or control equip- 
ment is at fault. The breakers are so accessible and readily 
examined for defects that time will often be saved by look- 
ing first into their condition. 



NEED FOR TRAINING TRAINMEN 

The hearings which have been conducted by the authorities 
of several of the Central States during the past few weeks on 
the subject of the safety of interurban service have been 
directed principally to the discussion of three subjects : the 
desirability of the use of block signals, the training of trans- 
portation employees, and the adoption of certain rules for the 
government of the men. The conference at Indianapolis last 
week was given up largely to the latter two subjects. 

At certain of these hearings a great deal of stress has been 
laid by the authorities upon the shortness of the time taken by 
some companies for breaking in a new man as compared with 
that taken in steam railroad work before a man is appointed 
to the position of engineer or conductor. No one will deny 
that the instruction of a new employee during the breaking-in 
period should be thorough, and also that a great deal of care 
should be exercised in selecting new employees. Nevertheless, 
the larger number of serious accidents on interurban electric 
railways have been caused by men who had been in the service 
more than one year's time. It might be said that this situa- 
tion arises because the number of new men is small compared 
with the number of older men. But many managers have also 
found that a new man is apt to give a great deal more serious 
attention to the road than the man who has been running over 
the same track for three or four years. It is human nature 
for one who has exercised caution day after day and met with 
no occurrences requiring such caution to relax his vigilance 
sooner or later. This tendency emphasizes the need for the 
operators of a road repeatedly to take steps to instil a feel- 
ing of the need for vigilance into the minds of the train crews. 
On steam roads with block signals this is sometimes done by 
"surprise" checking, effected by purposely setting signals in 
positions contrary to those that might be expected. On inter- 
urban roads without signals, and, in fact, on any road, the 
most valuable aid to safety and perfect train operation is 
a series of examinations on rules. Too little attention is some- 
times given to this subject on small properties. The superin- 
tendents of smaller roads feel that they know their men so 
well as to be able to judge whether or not a trainman is fully 
conversant with the rules. This may be true in certain cases, 
but as a general proposition there is no way by which the 
men's knowledge of the rules and of what they should do in 
emergencies can be so well gaged as by oral and written ex- 
aminations at frequent intervals. 

Interurban trainmen have also been criticised quite severely 
at times for not looking at their timetables and watches more 
frequently. This criticism brings to mind the arguments, pro 
and con, on operating trains out of terminals on the even hour. 
When a man runs a train day after day, always leaving 
terminals on the even hour and arriving at meeting points at 
a certain fraction of the hour, it is claimed that he can easily, 
and very often does, get into the habit of "memory running." 
Then, when a train is off time and a minute or more has to be 
added to the schedule time because of the lateness of the train, 
the practice of "memory running" is apt to be dangerous. Such 
mental calculations require the attention of the brain and may 
bring about forgetfulness with regard to train orders, or 
miscalculations may be made and accepted as correct with 
complete confidence. For these reasons the practice of operat- 
ing trains at irregular intervals is held by some to introduce a 
factor of safety because it requires every man to be on the 



January 14, 191 1 . ] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



61 



alert at all times, and it is a well-known fact that practically 
all the serious accidents in recent years have come about from 
the lack of alertness rather than from wrong orders or wilful 
disobedience of orders. 

In this connection the discussion of the qualifications of 
trainmen in interurban service written by an interurban rail- 
way manager and published elsewhere in this issue is pertinent. 
This article describes the duties of the employees in giving 
good service and also the duties of the company. The men 
should have certain natural qualifications, both mental and 
physical, without which they cannot do their work properly. 
The railway company should establish a thorough course of in- 
struction and should see that discipline and an interest in their 
work are maintained by the men. 

THE METROPOLITAN PLAN OF REORGANIZATION 

Under the proposed plan for reorganization of the Metro- 
politan Street Railway of New York, which is now before the 
Public Service Commission of the First District, a total of 
$96,305,500 securities would be issued upon a property whose 
cost is placed by the joint committee of bondholders at more 
than $120,000,000. The plan of financing is a radical departure 
from the involved scheme upon which the old system was de- 
veloped. It is simple and understandable, whereas the old 
plan was a criticisable complication of railway and holding 
company control which obscured the real operations of the 
property. 

As the commission which is to pass upon these securities had 
indicated so strongly its belief that the law permits it to com- 
pel substantial equality between value and capitalization in a 
reorganization, the margin upon which the committee bases 
its petition is of particular interest. The published plan did not 
analyze the elements which compose the cost of $120,000,000 
stated. The committee states, however, that it has been ad- 
vised by expert engineers and accountants that this sum "has 
been expended in construction, reconstruction, extension, im- 
provement, betterment and equipment" of the system. It is 
understood that the valuation that developed this investment was 
made on behalf of the company, while in the Third Avenue case, 
previously decided by the commission, the valuation was made 
primarily by the commission. In each case the figures placed 
upon the present elements of value were determined after the 
preparation of inventories of the physical property. Of 
course, the leading questions involved are not so much those of 
the inventory of present physical property as those of the rea- 
sonable investment in the non-existing physical property which 
disappeared with the progress of the system from one form of 
motive power to another and of the fair allowances and rea- 
sonable outlay for intangible elements which absorb capital 
and leave little or nothing to show for it. These matters will 
be brought out during the hearings to be held by the com- 
mission. 

The most prominent feature of the plan for the readjustment 
of securities is the elimination of the equities, if any, of the 
New York City Railway Company and the Metropolitan Securi- 
ties Company. The former company had at last reports 
$1,761,000 notes and $13,000,000 outstanding stock. This stock 
was owned by the Securities company, which in turn had out- 
standing $30,000,000 of capital stock on which $75 per share 



was paid in. Of the stock of the Securities company $29,392,- 
000 was owned by the Interborough-Metropolitan Company. 
The reorganization plan disposes of over $40,000,000 of capitali- 
zation of the Metropolitan Securities Company and New York 
City Railway, partly duplicated, and of nearly $40,000,000 
additional securities, or a total of $80,000,000. Provision is 
made in the plan whereby, in the readjustment, certain special 
items shall be met. These include $4,000,000 improvement 
notes made by the Metropolitan Street Railway to the Metro- 
politan Securities Company (which may participate on pay- 
ment of an assessment) and a possible claim of an additional 
$4,000,000 notes ; $1,875,000 allowances to tort claimants ; $10,- 
000,000 cash requirements to meet the outstanding $6,500,000 
receivers' certificates and receivership expenses, reorganization 
expenses, etc.; and accrued and defaulted interest as of Oct. 1, 
1910, $4,383,250.78. An abstract of the plan of reorganization 
giving the principal details presented, was published in the issue 
of the Electric Railway Journal of Jan. 7, 191 1, page 48. 

As the plan now drafted provides for the present issue of 
$64,851,500 new securities, the net amount of securities held by 
the public which will remain undisturbed is $31,454,000. Of the 
total proposed new securities, plus the undisturbed securities, 
$72,647,500 will be of bonds and $23,658,000 will be stock. 
That is to say, the proportion of bonds to stock would be 
about three to one. However, nearly $40,000,000 of the new 
bonds would be income securities, bearing interest up to 5 per 
cent, only when earned, so that the fixed charges would not be 
mandatory in so large a proportion as this ratio indicates. 

For the year ended June 30, 1910, the receivers of the Metro- 
politan Street Railway reported 159.48 miles of track and total 
street railway operating revenue of $13,217,117, of which nearly 
$13,000,000 was derived from passenger traffic. In that year the 
operating ratio was 70 per cent. There was devoted to main- 
tenance, including $72,000 equipment depreciation reserve, 24 
per cent of the total street railway operating revenue. To the 
other operating expense accounts the following percentages of 
gross were applied: Power, 6 per cent; injuries and damages, 
9.9 per cent; operation of cars, 26.1 per cent; traffic and other 
general expenses, 4 per cent. The allowances for maintenance 
are probably greater than those that would be made directly 
after a period of receivership and upbuilding of the physical 
property. The report of the receivers showed the following de- 
ductions from gross income : Operating rents, $202,449 ; mis- 
cellaneous contractual deductions, $5,009 ; interest, $590,000, 
and lease of other roads, $1,810,661; total, $2,608,119. The 
items of interest and lease of other roads show the general 
bond and dividend payments on securities of underlying com- 
panies which have been met during the receiverships. Some of 
the payments made by the Metropolitan receivers under lease 
agreements have been withheld by underlying companies in 
order that their treasuries might be provided with cash sur- 
pluses. 

With the readjustment suggested under the reorganization 
it has been estimated by Guy E. Tripp, chairman of the joint 
committee of bondholders, that the initial earnings will be equal 
under the plan to between 2^ per cent and 3 per cent on the 
proposed new adjustment mortgage income bonds. 

The financial rehabilitation of the property is an end that is 
greatly to be desired, and it is to be hoped that the reorganiza- 
tion will be completed without undue delay. 



62 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



THE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT OF THE DETROIT RIVER 
TUNNEL— I. 



The tunnel whicli has been constructed under the Detroit 
River to connect the tracks of the Michigan Central Railroad in 
the United States with those in Canada has now been in con- 
tinuous operation for some months for the use of both pas- 
senger and freight trains. The electrical equipment of this 



capacity of each boat was 18 freight cars, so that three and 
often four ferry boats were required for many of the trains. 
This involved many delays. Again, in winter a very consider- 
able amount of time was lost owing to the presence of heavy 
ice in the river. Under the new conditions a train of any prac- 
tical length and weight can be hauled through the tunnel in less 
than 6 minutes. 

The scheme of improvements at Detroit comprises the con- 
struction of two new depots for the Michigan Central Railway, 




Sump No. 3 ! 

Profile on C.L. East Bound Track. 
Hor. 1 In. = 2000 Ft. 

SCi.U-:- y er l = 200 ft. 



Sump Xo. 4 



Fig. 1 — Detroit Tunnel — Plan of Tunnel and Approaches, with Profile of Eastbound Track 



M.C. Duput Feede 

Elevator "B' T Feeder 
Sparc Feeder 
Spare Feeder 

Futu 




Negative Railway Feeders 
from Track Kails at Shaft 



Positive Railway Feeders 

to Third Rail and 
Circuit Breaker Bouses 



W&LHJ 




a ip □ *> a dp— a., on s«s. 
. . 1 — . u-_ 1 r r t 



Booster Booster 
Gen. Motor 



Battery, 312 Cells 



-These Lines for Exclusive 
Use of Tunnel Company 
Via 12th St. 



Motor Gen. Set. 



To G50 V. 
D.C. Bus 




Incoming Lines from 
Edison Company. 



Electric fly. Journal 



Fig. 2 — Detroit Tunnel — Substation Wiring Diagram, Showing Principal Connections 



tunnel forms a part of a very comprehensive scheme for im- 
proving the railroad facilities in and around Detroit, Mich. 
The most striking advantage secured is the elimination of the 
ferries that were formerly depended upon to transfer all pas- 
senger and freight trains between Windsor and Detroit. 

Under the old conditions each ferry boat took about 30 min- 
utes to load, unload and make the crossing. The average 



one at Windsor and the other at Detroit, both conveniently 
located. The extensive yards on both sides of the river have 
been reconstructed and electrified, the third-rail layout being 
of a most extensive nature. These improvements provide for 
the direct passage of passenger trains between Canada and the 
United States, with none of the switching which was formerly 
necessary. 



January 14, 191 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



63 



The entire scheme involved the building of a double-track 
tunnel, the two new depots referred to, a substation, two in- 
spection sheds for the electric locomotives, five signal towers 
(also used as circuit breaker houses for the third-rail feeders), 
the reconstruction of the yards on both sides of the river and 
the electrification of the whole. 

It is probable that this electrification will not affect the 



the above into consideration, it is of great interest to note the 
estimated capacity of the tumid. 

The present schedule is for Michigan Central trains only. 
The average freight car movement per day is about 1100 cars 
and there are 16 passenger trains. If the foreign roads should 
desire to use the tunnel and have all their business that is now 
floated across the river taken through the tunnel it will approxi- 




Fig. 3 — Detroit Tunnel — View of the Converter Station 





Fig. 4 — Detroit Tunnel — Interior of Converter Station, Showing the Motor-Generator Sets 



Michigan Central Railway alone, as it seems likely that the 
other roads entering the United States from Canada and vice 
versa at this point, including the Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk, 
Wabash and Pere Marquette, will ultimately make use of the 
tunnel to expedite the handling of the traffic at this point and 
to eliminate the serious delays incident to ferrying. Taking 



mately double the present schedule in number of trains and 
tonnage. The total estimated capacity of both tunnels taken to- 
gether amounts to the enormous figure of 247,200 tons per 24 
hours. The tunnel portion is shown in Fig. 1, which gives the 
principal lengths and grades as well as the localities of the 
approaches, portals, sumps, etc. The magnitude of the general 



64 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



layout can best be appreciated by a study of Fig. 2, in which 
only the more important electric circuits are given. 

The broader features of the electrical scheme considered 
above are of a very simple nature, there being only the one sub- 
station. This substation is supplied with three-phase, 60-cycle 

JL 




Fig. 5 — Detroit Tunnel — Cross-Section of Substation Along 
Line E-E Shown on Plan 

energy at 4400 volts from the Detroit Edison Company. Two 
feeders are installed between the Delray power house and the 
substation for the exclusive use of the tunnel company. In 
addition a third feeder from the Delray power house supplies 




Fig. 6 — Detroit Tunnel— Cross-Section of Substation Along 
Line F-F Shown on Plan 

the Washington Street substation of the Edison Company 
through oil switches in the tunnel substation, so that in case of 
trouble on the two lines for the exclusive use of the tunnel 
E F 

X 



installed all of the electrical apparatus in the substation, yards 
and tunnels, with the exception of the storage battery and the 
apparatus for regulating the batery. 

SUBSTATION 

The substation is a very substantial building of concrete and 
steel faced with red brick. Fig. 3 gives a good idea of its exter- 
nal appearance. It is located close to the Detroit shaft and is 
only 125 ft. from the center line of the tunnel. It is built on 
made ground and for this reason is supported on wooden piles. 
The interior view (Fig. 4), the three sectional elevations (Figs. 
5, 6 and 8), the plan of the first floor (Fig. 7) and the longi- 
tudinal section (Fig. 9) show very clearly the general arrange- 
ment of the building. 

The more important items of apparatus installed for traction 
purposes only are: Two horizontal 1000-kw, 514-r.p.m. syn- 
chronous-motor motor-generator sets; one 50-kw motor-gen- 
erator set, and a storage battery of 312 cells Gould type "U" 1543 
and type "U" 1559 L L tanks, with a present capacity of 630 
amp for eight hours. 

The railway switchboard consists of the following: 

1 swinging bracket for voltmeters and ammeter. 
1 control Lattery panel. 

1 substation light and power panel. 

2 blank panels for future railway feeders. 

4 d.c. railway feeder panels with a capacity 1000 amp at 650 volts each. 

3 battery panels for switching main battery and booster leads together 
with necessary switching of battery regulating devices. 

2 d.c. railway generator panels each with a capacity of 1000 kw at 650 

volts. 

2 combination exciter and 3-phase synchronous-motor panels with a 
capacity of 1000 kw at 440 volts and 15 kw at 125 volts. 

1 starting compensator and 2 circuit feeder panels for auxiliary buses 
with a capacity of 400 kw at 4400 volts for each tie switch circuit. 

2 blank panels for future synchronous motors. 

1 rwinging bracket for synchronizing instruments. 




W wT fiff tfff 

Electric Ry. Journal 

Fig. 8 — Detroit Tunnel — Cross-Section of Substation Along 
Line G-G Shown on Plan 

Fig. 10 is an illustration of the railway switchboard and the 
lighting and auxiliary board can be seen to the right of the same 
illustration, while Figs. 11 and 12 show the back of the board. 

G- — 1 




Fig. 7— Detroit Tunnel— Plan of First Floor of Substation 



company either or both of the other lines can be switched so 
as to give the tunnel company a direct feeder from Delray 
and a back feed from the Washington Street substation. These 
feeders are run in separate ducts. 
The General Electric Company designed, manufactured and 



The constant-current transformers used for the arc lighting of 
the yards are shown in the latter view. 

The motor-generator sets each consist of a General Electric 
alternating-current, three-phase, 14-pole, 1000-kw, 4400-pole syn- 
chronous motor, direct-connected to a 1000-kw, 8-pole, 650-volt 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



65 



direct-current generator. The pair of machines forming a two- 
bearing set, are mounted on a common base and run at a speed 
of 514 r.p.m. The shaft is extended at the motor end to accom- 



three-phase generator. The two machines are on a common 
base and form a three-bearing set. This unit is installed to 
provide a small amount of 4400-volt alternating current by 




Fig. 9 — Dettoit Tunnel — Longitudinal Section Along the Line H-H on the Plan of Substation 



modate a direct-connected exciter. Tests show that the syn- 
chronous motors of these sets will come up to synchronism in 
about 45 seconds on the 35 per cent tap of the compensator. 
The guarantees provide that these ma- 
chines shall operate continuously with 
a temperature rise not exceeding 35 
deg. -C. at unity power-factor and that 
they shall carry an overload of 50 per 
cent for two hours with a temperature 
rise not exceeding 55 deg. C. The 
efficiencies are as follows : 



driving the set from the main storage battery in case of total 
shut-down of the Edison lines. In this manner one-half of the 
tunnel lighting, a small amount of pumping, signal lights and 



Half. 
Load. 

Guaranteed 91 

Test 9.' 



Three- 
quarter 
Load. 
93 
94-1 



Full 
Load. 

94 

95-3 



The direct-current machines are 
shunt-wound units designed to operate 
in parallel with the storage battery. 
They have commutating poles and also 
auxiliary shunt fields which are sepa- 
rately excited from the storage battery 
booster and play an important part in 
the scheme for regulating the load. 
The auxiliary winding is of such 
strength that when the generator is 
operating under normal load at 650 
volts the voltage can be raised to 700 
or reduced to 575, so that it can be 

used for either charging or discharging the battery. The regu- 
lating devices will be considered in fuller detail in the latter 
part of the present article. These motor-generator sets are seen 




Fig. 10 — Detroit Tunnel — Main Switchboard 

signal track transformers can be operated, while the railway 
load would be carried on the main battery. 

The main items of interest in the auxiliary apparatus are : 




Fig. 11 — Detroit Tunnel — Rear of the Main Switchboard in 
Substation 

in the general view of the interior of the station (Fig. 4). 

The 50-kw motor-generator set consists of a 75-hp, 650-voIt 
shunt-wound d.c. motor direct connected to a 50-kw, 4400-volt, 




Fig. 12 — Detroit Tunnel — Constant-Current Transformers 
Back of Main Switchboard 

Three 75-light constant-current transformers for yard lighting, 
one substation lighting transformer and the switchboard for 
controlling the auxiliaries in the substation yards and tunnel. 



66 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



Each of the four three-phase incoming lines is of 200,000 circ. 
mil capacity, and delivers the enei%*w' -to- the substation at 4400 
volts, 60 cycles, each lead passing through an H-3 oil switch 
to the 4400-volt main substation bus, which is sectionalized so 
that either half can be made dead when necessary for inspection 
or repairs. 

It should be noted that the starting bus is fed from the main 
bus through an H-3 oil switch and a compensator, thus giving 
a lower voltage for starting. The leads from the main bus to. 
the starting bus pass through both H-3 and K-2 oil switches, 



v„ t I Waternioof Kelt 
N °- ' <N.J/ 





trie Ry. J<m 



Fig. 13 — Detroit Tunnel — Under-running Third Rail 

while the leads to the machines are taken from a point between 
these two switches. Hence, in starting whin the K-2 switch is 
closed a lower voltage is impressed r i'Wi!^^!(ii^Sphines, and when 
speed is attained the K-2 switch is opened and the H-3 switch 
closed, giving full voltage at the machine. These switches are 
inter-connected to eliminate improper operation. 

From the d.c. end of the machines the energy is fed directly 
through circuit breakers to the 650-volt d.c. bus, passing through 
recording wattmeters en route. The negative feeders from the 
track rails to the negative bus and the different third-rail feeders 
pass through circuit breakers and switches to the respective 
feeding points. The most essential details of the booster and 
battery connections will be dealt with in greater detail in the 
second article. 

There are four auxiliary buses, two for the sump pump equip- 
ment, one for lighting and the fourth auxiliary bus for mis- 
cellaneous purposes. The two sump pump buses are duplicates, 
the second being installed to insure continuous operation under 

-D 



station and in all other cases high-tension feeders are taken 
from the substation to the sump chambers. 

The lighting bus is of a simple nature, each lighting feeder 
simply passing through a K-2 oil switch to its respective field of 
duty. In the case of the yard lighting the 75-light constant 
current transformers are located in the substation, while the 
feeders for the incandescent lighting of the tunnel, etc., arc 
taken to transformers located at convenient points. A 50-kw 
transformer located in the substation reduces the potential to 
220 volts for the substation lighting and power. The 50-kw 
emergency motor generator set already described 
feeds into this lighting bus. 

The auxiliary bus for miscellaneous purposes 
provides for the lighting of the Michigan Central 
Depot, grain elevators in the railway yards, the 
necessary light and power for both the Detroit 
and Windsor yards, as well as providing for fu- 
ture requirements. 

The substation is equipped with an overhead 
travelling crane built by the Xorthern Engineer- 
ing Works. 

THIRD RAIL 

The entire third-rail layout has a very neat ap- 
pearance and is complete in every detail. The 
length of the third rail installed in the tunnel 
approaches and yards when reduced to a single 
track basis exceeds 19 miles. The third rail em- 
ployed is of the bullhead form and weighs 70 lb. a yard. It was 
supplied by the Lackawanna Steel Company and its chemical 
composition is as follows : 

Carbon o.io 

Manganese 0.40 

Silicon 0.05 or less 

Phosphorus Not to exceed 0.10 and ai 

much less as possible. 

Sulphur Not to exceed 0.08 and ai 

much less as possible. 

It is rolled in lengths of 30 ft. and 33 feet. It is of the under- 
running type, and in this and in other details it is similar to 
the third rail of the New York Central Terminal electrification. 
The wood protection is of Georgia and Carolina long-leaf 
yellow pine, made in lengths of 10 ft. and 12 ft.. The form 
and dimensions for both straight work and special work, such 
as inclines, etc., will be seen in Figs. 13 and 14. The brackets 
for supporting the third rail are of malleable iron. 

The third-rail insulators are of the vitrified and glazed por- 
celain. The specifications call for an insulation resistance of 




Lltxtru: li'j. Journal 



Section A-B 



Section C-D |~ j—- :*v»- 

Section E-F 

Fig. 14 — Detroit Tunnel — Plan and Section of- Third-Rail Incline 



all cii cumstances. These two pumping buses and the lighting 
bus are at a potential of 4400 volts and are provided with con- 
necting switches. They are fed from the main substation bus 
through H-3 oil switches. The starting bus for the pump 
motors is fed through a K-2 oil switch and compensator and the 
arrangements are so similar to those already described for the 
main machine buses that further description is unnecessary, 
the only exception being that in this case both of the oil 
switches in each lead between the bus and the starting bus are 
of the K-2 type. It should be noted that in the case of Sump 
No. 2 and Sump No. 3 the transformers are located in the sub- 



10 megohms from hook-bolt slot to rail slot after immersion in 
water for 72 hours, and an insulation resistance of not less 
than 0.20 megohms when subjected to a precipitation of i/% in. 
of water per minute. A compression test of 85,000 lb. and a 
tensile strength of 1400 lb. are also called for, in addition to 
an impact test. The latter consists of dropping a %-lb. steel 
ball from a height of 30 in. The insulator standing 100 such 
blows is rated as 100, and others according to the number of 
blows withstood. Test insulators are taken from each delivery, 
and none are accepted that show fracture after less than 40 
blows. The insulators are of Ohio Brass manufacture. 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



67 



The third-rail jumpers are inclosed in lengths of iron pipes 
buried in the ground with the ends brought above the surface 
by a curvature which will permit of drawing the cables with 
ease. This pipe is held in position against wooden anchor posts 
by means of U-bolts. A cast-iron flange screwed to the end of 
the pipe furnishes a steady and level support for the lower 
half of the semi-porcelain cover. The end of the cable is 
insulated and held in position and moisture is excluded by a 
split bushing made of hard maple and by filling the annular 
space between the cable and porcelain with an insulating com- 
pound. Finally this compound is retained and the cable held in 
a central position by a metal flange screwed to the copper 
terminals soldered to the end of the cable. The whole is pro- 
tected from mechanical damage and weather by the upper half 
of the semi-porcelain cap. All these details will be seen by 
reference to Fig. 15, part of which also shows the cable termi- 
nal details between the jumpers and third rail 

The clearances of the third rail are as follows : On tangents 
and curves of over 800 ft. radius the distance between the 
center line of the third rail to the inner edge of the nearest 
track rail is 2 ft. 4% in., while on curves of 800-ft. radius and 
less it is 2 ft. 6% in., while the distance between the under 
surface of the third rail and the upper surface of the track 
rails is 2Y4 in. 

|^ — 3^+>4-to-qau?e Line. 
* — u C-u%-to-&au-ge Li) 



June 19, 1909, page 1125. The specifications call for units 
capable of handling an 1800-ton trailing load from one yard to 
the other and negotiating a 2 per cent grade when two locomo- 
tives are operated in multitple unit, and of performing this serv- 
ice continuously with a 15-minute lay-over at each end. It is of 
interest to note that the locomotives are performing this service 
in a most satisfactory manner. The actual grades on which 
they are operating are 2 per cent on the Detroit side, extending 



Insulating 
Compound 




[ \ Vi- '0\ 


[ 


1 










Top of Track Kail 


5. ■. '■"'.') t = 
jp 5 V j - 


c 








Lead 






Description. 


1 


Cable Bulling. 




Cable Cap. 


3 


Base. 


r 


Supporting Collar. 




Cover. 


a 


Q Bolt, with Nut and Strap 




EUetrie Ily. Journal 



350,000 CM. Triple Braid 
Weatherproof Cable 




-4- 1 

EUetrie Ry. Journal 



Fig. 15 — Detroit Tunnel — Terminal Insulation and Other Details of Third-Rail Cables 



LOCOMOTIVES 

At present there are six electric locomotives in service. They 
were designed and manufactured by the General Electric Com- 
pany, and the Schenectady Works of the American Locomotive 
Company built the mechanical equipment. These locomotives 
have attracted general attention owing to the fact that they 



20th St. 
Interlocking Tower 



Inspection Shed 
CuBtc-m House Track No. 7 x 
W. s. Tunnel Freight No. 



W. B, Tunnel Freight N 

W . B. Tunnel Freight No. 4 

B. Tunnel Freight No 

E. B. Tunnel Freight No. 

E . B. Tunnel Freight No. 1 



15th St. 
Interlocking Tower 



for a distance of 4000 ft.; rj^ per cent on the Windsor side 
for a distance of 7500 ft., and an approximately level extension 
into the yards. Fig. 17 shows the appearance of these loco- 
motives, and Fig. 19 shows the principal dimensions. 

The GE-209 motors are standard box frame commutating pole 
units rated at approximately 300 bp each. Single reduction 

Interlocking Tower 

. . „ Interlocking Tower »- 1 

Interlocking Tower ^ ., v.C. Freight .Vj. r 

No. 1 .= 1 W, B. Freight No. ;. ' 

W. B. Freight No s// 
W. B. Freight No. 1 > ' * 




Electric llij. Journal 



Detroit Tunnel — Layout of Third-Rail Feed and Jumper Connections 



are the most powerful direct-current machines ever constructed, 
so far as tractive effort is concerned. They were designed for 
hauling both freight and passenger trains through the tunnel, 
and also for switching service in the yards. They are of an 
articulated design of the 0-4-4-0 type, weigh 200,000 lb., and 
are equipped with four GE-209 motors. Full particulars of 
them were published in the Electric Railwav Journal for 



gearing is used, the gear ratio being 4.37 and the driving 
wheels 48 in. in diameter. This type of motor is illustrated in 
Fig. 20. When working at a maximum capacity the motors 
are capable of slipping the driving wheels and at the slipping 
point of the wheels the locomotive develops an instantaneous 
tractive effort of from 50,000 to 60,000 lb. When developing 
a tractive effort of 50,000 lb. the locomotive develops 1450 hp, 



68 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



and its speed is 11 m.p.h. The maximum speed of the 
locomotive when running light on level track is about 35 m.p.h. 

A point of interest in these locomotives is that they are pro- 
vided with two gears and pinions per motor, one at each end 




Fig. I7 — Detroit Tunnel — Standard Locomotive 

of the shaft. This construction was adopted owing to the 
unusually heavy overloads that the motors will be called upon 
to carry. This form of construction maintains the armature 



cab and the motor contractors in the auxiliary cab. The master 
controllers are of the General Electric Company's new design, 
especially developed for handling four GE-209 commutating pole 
motors. Each controller has 24 points, 9 for use when the 
motors are all in series, 8 when the motors are two in series 
(the pairs in parallel) and 7 when all four motors are in 
parallel. The ninth, seventeenth and twenty-fourth points are 
running points. A diagram of the motor connections is given 
in Fig. 21. 

This large number of steps and the fine subdivision of the 
rheostat enable the torque on the first running point to be 
reduced to a low value, which is a very desirable factor in 
handling long, heavy freight trains, where it is necessary first 
to take up the slack in the drawbars. It also gives a smooth 
acceleration over the bridging points on the control ; further, it 
reduces the increase of torque between each successive step to 
such a low value as to enable the locomotive to work up to a 
high tractive effort while accelerating' a train under adverse 
conditions without exceeding the slipping point of the wheels 
in the transition from point to point. 

A centrifugal governor brake makes it impossible to throw 
the controller from the "off position" to the full "on position" 
in less than a predetermined time. 

The braking equipment is mechanically independent on each 




Fig. 18 — Detroit Tunnel — Assembly of Locomotive Trucks and Motors 



shafts and axles absolutely parallel with one another and to 
a very great extent eliminates the wear and breakage of pinions. 

The motors are operated under forced ventilation, air being 
delivered to the motor frame at the end remote from the corn- 



truck, as there is one pair of 12-in. brake cylinders on each 
truck and the provision of separate valves and cutout cocks 
permits either truck being cut out without affecting the other. 
The air compressor, which is of the CP-26 type, is located in 




Fig. 19 — Detroit Tunnel — Location of Apparatus on Locomotive 

the center of the main cab. It is a two-stage, four-cylinder 
compressor geared direct to a 600 volt d.c. series motor, and 
has two low and two high pressure cylinders arranged in such 
a manner as to divide the work of compression into four 
equally distributed impulses per revolution. The capacity is 
100 cu. ft. piston displacement per minute when pumping 
against a back pressure of 135 lb. per sq. in. 



mutator. The air passes between the field coils and armature, 
and then escapes through suitable discharge openings over the 
commutator. The blower employed has a capacity of 2000 cu. ft. 
of air per minute, at a pressure of 2.y 2 in. of water. It is driven 
by a direct-current, series-wound motor. 

The control is of the well-known Sprague-General-Electric 
multiple unit type with the two master controllers in the main 



Jan uary 14, 191 1 . ] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



69 



The general design of the superstructure of the locomotive 
will be seen by reference to the illustrations. The main cab 
houses the master controller, auxiliary controlling apparatus, 
blower and air compressor, etc., while the auxiliary cab 
contains the motor, control, contactors, rheostats, air tanks, 
etc. The design is such that an excellent view of the track is 
obtained from the engineer's seat. The main cab covers a floor 
area of 15 ft. 6 in. x 10 ft., while each of the auxiliary cabs 




Maximum height, trolley retracted 14 ft. 8 in. 

Maximum width 10 it 2% in 

Width of cab 10 ft. 1 5/6 in. 

Total weight 199,000 lb. 

At the present time only four locomotives are in service at 
a time, the other two being in reserve. The locomotives start 
the train from rest in the yards and on the down grade in the 
tunnel the train attains full speed and is running free when the 
level subaqueous section is reached. The controller is here put 
to the full-on position and the load is 
automatically taken on the up grade at 
the other end of the tunnel. 

NOTE. 

The second article on the electri- 
fication of the Detroit River tunnel 
will contain descriptions of different 
auxiliary features, such as the pumping 
equipment, the lighting system, tunnel 
construction details and the method of 
regulating the load by means of booster 
sets, storage batteries, permutator, etc 



NEW YORK RATE HEARING 



Electric Ri Jt Journal 



20 — Detroit Tunnel — GE-209-A Railway Motor 



occupies a space of 9 ft. x 6 ft. The running gear is 
illustrated in Fig. 18. It will be seen that it consists of what 
may be termed two trucks of the locomotive type coupled 
together by a massive hinge. This coupling is so designed as 
to enable the rear truck to resist any tilting tendency of the 
forward truck. In this manner the articulated running gear 
has lateral flexibility and at the same time possesses vertical 
rigidity. 

In addition to the third-rail shoes these locomotives are 
equipped with an overhead current collector which is raised or 

Contactors Closet! ou Each Seep 



The hearings in regard to commuta- 
tion rates on the railroads operating out 
of New York which are being held by 
the Public Service Commission of the Second District of New 
York were continued before that body on Jan. 4, 191 1. Two 
cases which concerned rates on the Hudson Division of the 
New York Central & Hudson River Railroad and two which 
concerned rates on the Harlem Division of that company were 
combined in order to expedite the investigation and permit an 
early decision. 

Only those who were directly interested in the case were in 
attendance. The testimony presented was practically a repeti- 
tion of evidence introduced at previous hearings. The most 
important evidence offered at the session on Jan. 4, 191 1, was 
presented by Howard Ingersoll, assistant general manager of 
the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad. He stated 
that the cost per car mile in the commutation zone of the Har- 
lem and Hudson divisions was 18.586 cents in the last fiscal 
year. Earnings per mile were 22.6 cents. Electrification on 
both divisions north of Mott Haven Junction had cost the com- 
pany $9,050,000. This amount did not include elimination of 







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F— Forward 



Electric Ilij. Journal 




Lhctrie Hy, Journal 



Fig. 21 — Detroit Tunnel — Diagram of Controller Connections 



lowered at will by a foot-operated valve in front of the motor- 
man. 

The following table gives the principal details concerning 
these locomotives : 

Number of motors 

Gear ratio , , * 

Number of drivine whstls g 

Diameter of driving wheels '. '. '. '. '.48 in. 

Total wheel base \ ft 6 in 

Rigid wheel base n ft 6 in 

Length, inside knuckles ,„t,' c ; ' 

Length of main cab f ' 6 n' 

Height of cab ' I2 ft' 6 n 

Maximum height, trolley up ..i S ft 6 in! 



grade crossings nor of other work not directly associated with 
the change of motive power. The total cost of electrification 
to Croton on the Hudson and to North White Plains on the 
Harlem division would be $23,550,000. This would be actual out- 
lay of cash for labor and material. The train revenue in the 
suburban service was 118 per cent of the operating expense 
The increases in wages on the electric division last April rep- 
resented an annual outlay of $110,000. 

At the conclusion of the examination of Mr. Ingersoll the 
hearing was adjourned. 



7o 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



PROPOSED STANDARDS DISCUSSED BY CENTRAL 
ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMMITTEE 



The standardization committee of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association held two sessions at Indianapolis on Jan. 6, at 
which the following members of the committee were present : 
H. H. Buckman, chairman ; R. M. Hemming, W. H. Evans, 
L. W. Jacques and W. P. Graydon. The sessions were at- 
tended also by representatives of manufacturing concerns. 

STANDARD AIR BRAKES 

Mr. Buckman announced the desire of the committee and the 
association for the adoption of one type (single or automatic) 
of air brake. Mr. Graydon favored the use of automatic air- 
brake equipments for single units as well as train operation. 
It was easier to teach a man how to make proper stops with 
straight air brakes, but automatic brakes gave several addi- 
tional benefits and might be operated just as smoothly on single 
cars when the motorman became accustomed to handling them. 
Mr. Jacques said that automatic air brakes had been used on 
some of the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley cars for three or 
four years. At first, and when these equipments were operated 
singly, there was some trouble from jerky stops, but now lit- 
tle criticism could be made, except when the cars were handled 
by new men. These automatic brakes would interoperale with 
those on steam roads. S. D. Hutchins, YVestinghouse Traction 
Brake Company, stated, on request, that the standard sizes for 
brake pipes on steam railroad passenger cars were 1 in. and on 
freight cars were 1% in. One member of the committee said 
that a steam road had refused to accept one of his freight cars 
because it had i-in. air hose. 

On invitation of the chairman Mr. Hutchins outlined some of 
the features controlling the choice of automatic air brakes for 
electric cars. Probably the most important reason leading to 
their adoption, other than that of safety, was the desire and 
need for interchange of equipment with other interurban rail- 
ways or steam railroads. The word "automatic" designated 
the brake as self-acting, and thus meant increased safety of 
operation, even though the cars were handled by new men. It 
was impossible with automatic air to render the brakes inopera- 
tive by the loss of the supply pressure. The triple valve now 
used in electric car service was a refinement of that used on 
steam roads to permit the comfortable handling of single-car 
service. When Mr. Hutchins first took up work in the electric 
field he installed on some electric cars automatic air brakes 
which had proved satisfactory for steam railroad service. 
Service showed, however, that these brakes lacked the flexi- 
bility so necessary for interurban conditions, hence they had to 
be replaced by straight air-brake equipment, pending the de- 
velopment of the later type of triple valves. Mr. Hutchins 
said that about 70 per cent of the interurban roads in Ohio 
had equipped or were equipping cars with automatic air brakes. 

A. L. Neereamer pointed out the trend of public sentiment 
toward greater safety in railway operation. He read the fol- 
lowing sections from House Bill No. 145, passed on May 10, 
1910, by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio : 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio : 

"Section 1. That from and after Jan. 1. 1913, it shall be un- 
lawful in the State of Ohio for any corporation, company, per- 
son or persons owning or controlling the same, to operate, use 
or run, or permit to be run. used or operated for carrying pas- 
sengers or freight on an urban or interurban railroad or street 
car line any car propelled by electricity not equipped, in addi- 
tion to the hand brake in use on such car, with an air or elec- 
tric power brake or apparatus capable of applying to all the 
brake shoes or wheels of such car a maximum permissible 
braking pressure and of automatically reducing such braking 
pressure as the speed of the car decreases. Fifty per cent of 
such cars to be equipped prior to Jan. 1, 1911, and 75 per cent 
prior to Jan. 1, 1912. It shall be the duty of the Railroad Com- 
mission of Ohio to enforce this act. 

"Section 2. Any corporation, company, person or persons 
operating, using or running any car, or permitting any car to 



be operated, used or run, in violation of any of the provisions 
of this act shall be liable to a penalty of $100 for each such 
violation, to be recovered in a suit or suits which it shall be 
the duty of the prosecuting attorney of any county where such 
violations shall have been committed to prosecute, such suit 
or suits to be brought by such prosecuting attorney upon 
verified information being lodged with him of such violation 
having occurred." 

H S. Ransom, General Electric Company, stated that only 
one or two electric roads in New York State regularly oper- 
ated single cars with automatic air brakes. There it was the 
practice to use straight air equipments with the emergency fea- 
tures for trains up to three cars. This practice had been 
brought about, no doubt, because the automatic equipments 
were more complicated and cost somewhat more to maintain. 
Certain features, also, like release, were slow. With the 
straight air a motorman could handle a train more easily and 
the emergency feature gave assurance of safety. Such brakes, 
however, were not interchangeable with those on steam trains. 

Mr. Hutchins pointed out that the steam railroads have 
found it advisable to install straight air brakes on all heavy 
locomotives so that they may be handled easily when switching 
and so that the driver brakes may be released to prevent 
skidding. 

Mr. Buckman spoke of air-brake troubles caused by freezing. 
Last winter such troubles had at times caused interference 
with the operation of about 20 cars. The probability of freez- 
ing troubles seemed to have been removed by the installation 
of a 36-ft. coil of i-in. pipe placed between the two reservoirs. 
Mr. Jacques said that his automatic brakes had the feed valves 
installed inside the cars. He recalled but one failure of auto- 
matic brakes on his road and that, while not serious, was 
caused by the knocking off of an auxiliary valve while the 
car was in operation. 

Mr. Hemming summed up the discussion on straight and 
automatic air-brake equipment and expressed his views on the 
need for adopting braking equipments which would provide 
for full interchange between electric and steam roads. He 
thought that automatic air brakes should be recommended for 
adoption. The committee then discussed the proper form of 
recommendation that it should make to the association. The 
following wording, proposed by Mr. Evans, met with the ap- 
proval of the committee: 

"The committee recommends the adoption of the automatic 
system of air-brake equipment for electric interurban railway 
service. In all essential features of detail this system should 
conform so far as possible to the standards and operating 
practices of the steam railroad equipments." 

The discussion leading up to this recommendation showed 
that the consensus of opinion was that all interurban cars con- 
forming to M. C. B. standards should have 1%-in. train pipes 
and hose on freight cars and i-in. on passanger and baggage 
cars ; also that the passenger and baggage cars should be 
equipped with conductors' emergency valves with operating 
cords extending the full length of each car. 

conductor's emergency valve 

Mr. Buckman described the conductors' emergency valves 
which were used on all cars on the Louisville & Northern. 
The valves were installed in an out-of-the-way place and were 
operated by a cord extending from end to end of each car. 
This cord was installed close to the deck rail so that it might 
not be pulled accidentally. Only once in three years had he 
known of a car having been stopped by a passenger with the 
conductor's emergency valve and, in contrast, the valve and 
cord had saved a considerable number of minor accidents. 
The valve was used by the conductors in some instances when 
they were in the middle of a car and observed that some excited 
or incompetent passenger was about to jump from the rear 
platform. The use of the emergency valve also had saved 
the splitting of several switches because the conductor riding 
on the rear step could quickly set the brakes by pulling the 
cord and thus prc\e::t a car from splitting a switch. 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



71 



Mr. Hutchins did not think that the possibility of passengers 
mistaking the conductor's emergency cord for the bell cord 
should overweigh the many advantages which the conductor's 
valve offered. Mr. Buckman thought that the committee 
should recommend the more general use of these valves, and 
he favored the type which locked itself open and required the 
attention of the crew before it could be closed. 

SAFETY CUT-OUT COCK 

Some members favored the addition of a cut-out cock back 
of the flexible hose in the train line, this cock to be provided 
with means for operating from the side of the car. It would 
be an addition to the angle cock. Mr. Evans argued against 
cut-out cocks from the standpoint of decreased safety. Mr. 
Hutchins told of the former practice on one steam road of 
placing cut-out cocks for the front hose back of the cylinder 
saddle. If a locomotive did not happen to get into double- 
header service for six months the unions between the cut-out 
cock and the hose might become loose and cause trouble when 
two locomotives were coupled. This experience resulted in an 
order for the installation of cut-out cocks at the front end. 
Mr. Hutchins spoke of the reasons calling for the design of the 
present form of angle cock which hardly could be closed when 
accidentally struck by flying stones, as had been the experience 
with the older forms of valves having handles in the vertical 
position. 

Mr. Jacques said that the addition of cut-out cocks back of 
the flexible hose might be advisable because with them it still 
would be possible to use the brakes on a motor car even though 
the hose had burst. 

PLANS FOR COMMITTEE WORK ON AIR BRAKES 

Mr. Evans thought that the committee should lay down the 
principal requirements of an air-brake system rather than spend 
time on details that might be governed largely by local condi- 
ditions. The committee also should endeavor to induce the 
manufacturing companies to standardize individual parts in so 
far as possible, and should take up the standardization of 
location and supports, with due regard to the experience of the 
steam roads. Mr. Evans also suggested that the chairman 
communicate with all the air-brake manufacturers outlining to 
them what the committee was desirous of accomplishing and 
suggesting their co-operation. After a general discussion on 
the need for closer attention to the engineering principles of 
air brakes by those who install and operate them, Mr. Evans 
moved that the committee take up with all air-brake manufac- 
turers the question of submitting recommendations for details 
of electric railway air-brake equipment later to be recom- 
mended for adoption by the association. Preferably, the in- 
formation to be obtained from the manufacturers would in- 
clude discussions and prints on the subject of leverages, brake 
arrangements, location of piping, sizes of cylinders, etc. 

DESTINATION SIGNS 

Mr. Hemming said he had been prompted to introduce the 
subject of destination signs on account of the dissimilar prac- 
tices throughout the country. Furthermore, many of the signs 
used could not be read clearly at night and they frequently 
caused confusion. Mr. Evans described the illuminated desti- 
nation and train-number signs used by the Indiana Union Trac- 
tion Company. These signs were also illustrated and described 
in the Electric Railway Journal for April 30, 1910, page 788. 
The committee as a whole favored illuminated signs. Mr. 
Evans stated that the Indiana Union Traction Company 
largely had got rid of interference with reading signs by in- 
stalling the headlight in the roof of the car, rather than on the 
dash. In the elevated position better track illumination was 
provided and the eyes of pedestrians and automobile drivers 
were not blinded by the arc. 

conductor's control pipe 

A general discussion was held over the best methods avail- 
able for signaling the motorman when more than one car was 
operated in a train. The 'customary bell signals were objected 
to because frequently they could not be heard unless the vesti- 
bule windows were left open. Similarly an air signal would 
require the addition of another connection from car to car. 



Mr. Ransom mentioned an electro-pneumatic signal manufac- 
tured by the General Electric Company. Mr. Evans stated that 
the Indiana Union Traction Company was planning to try that 
signal. It would avoid the addition of another set of con- 
nectors from car to car by using a two-wire connector with 
one conductor for the electro-pneumatic signal and the other 
conductor for the light circuit to the trailer. On motion, the 
subject of conductor's control pipe and other car-to-car signal 
systems was tabled. 

ANTI-CLIMBING DEVICES 

Mr. Buckman spoke of the need for devices to prevent one 
car passing over another in collisions. Whatever device might 
be installed for this purpose should be connected to a strong 
platform or underframe structure. At the invitation of the 
committee A. L. Whipple, of the Whipple Supply Company, 
New York, presented a paper nn the subject of prevention of 
over-riding cars. This device was described and illustrated on 
page 425 in the Electric Railway Journal for March 14, 
1908, and its value in a collision was illustrated in an article on 
page 1523 of the Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 5, 1908. 
An abstract of Mr. Whipple's paper follows : 

"It can be safely stated from experience that the only maxi- 
mum safety device to employ in accidental collisions is one de- 
signed to interlock the car sills, thus at once employing the 
most formidable and strongest portion of the car structure to 
resist colliding forces. Since most electric car equipments 
have no adequate vertical structures to assist in preventing 
telescoping, an external device can be applied to interlock the 
car sills and prevent car platforms from climbing in collision. 
This device is commercially known as the Hedley "Anti- 
climber." Tt consists of sections of rolled steel having cor- 
rugations which form grooves or recesses. When applied to 
the ends of car platforms these anti-climbers interlock to pre- 
vent one car structure from climbing over the other. Thus they 
eliminate telescoping. The rolled-steel sections are now made 
in two sizes, namely, 2 in. x 5^ in., weighing i6]A lb. per foot, 
and 1 in. x 7 in., weighing approximately 105/2 lb. per foot. The 
device is also made as a steel casting in the form of an anti- 
climbing draw head for emergency service. The latter design 
gives the car platform the interlocking feature, but it is not so 
effective as the anti-climber. 

"While an anti-climbing device is of unquestionable value in 
train service the benefit obtained from its use on singly oper- 
ated cars should also appeal to all railroad men because it re- 
duces accidents and damage claims. Of course, it is imprac- 
ticable to build an urban or interurban car of sufficient strength 
to withstand the force of collisions because the construction re- 
quirements of car platforms often prevent the continuation of 
the car sills to the platform buffer timber. In such cases a 
drop type or underhung design must be adopted — a construc- 
tion which is very frail from the collision-resisting standpoint. 

"If the car sills could be continued to a platform buffer tim- 
ber of equal height and supplied with an interlocking feature, 
both damage to cars and injury to passengers would be great- 
ly decreased. However, many of the car platform buffer timber 
structures now employed are not strong enough to resist even 
the slightest colliding shocks. In the case of the drop plat- 
form additional stiffening should be introduced by increasing 
the number of bolts or by auxiliary structures, such as angle- 
iron connections or sections designed of cast iron. In either 
instance, the next most desirable construction to employ is to 
introduce some platform interlocking device. 

"There are several ways in which the 'anti-climber' can be 
installed to effect the desired protection with cars of different 
lengths. Thus, as shown in the illustration on page 72, the 
car with the lower platform has the anti-climber bolted to the 
front of the buffer, while the car with the higher platform has 
it attached to the lower end of a properly braced plate. 

"When building new equipment the standard 2-in. x 51^-in. 
anti-climber rolled-steel section can be used in place of the 
usual angle-iron or channel buffer. In that case it should ex- 
tend from side to side of the platform and be securely con- 
nected to the platform members. The standard section, i in. x 



72 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



7 in., can be employed on new equipment in place of the steel 
plate commonly used on the face of wooden buffers. In equip- 
ment now in service a short length of either of these rolled- 
steel sections can be bolted to the face of the standard buffer 
installed." 

In answering questions regarding the Hedley anti-climber 
Mr. Whipple said that this device was now used on more than 
5000 cars. Some companies installed the anti-climber in 28-in. 
lengths on old cars, and usually in lengths of 4 ft. on new 
cars. The interurban equipments required a heavier section 
than city equipments. The material of which the anti-climbers 
were manufactured was open-hearth steel rolled by the Lacka- 
wanna Steel Company and furnished in mill lengths or cut 
and shaped to size. Mr. Whipple also said that his company 
shortly would place on the market an anti-climber suitable for 
steam railroad cars with spring-buffer platforms. The ridges 
or corrugations now exposed on the present anti-climbers 
would be covered with rubbing plates. 

Discussions followed on the need for the installation of 
strong supports for buffer beams and anti-climbing devices. 
Mr. Evans spoke a word of caution, however, against de- 



CIRCULAR ON ASSOCIATE MEMBERSHIP IN THE MAIN 
AND AFFILIATED ASSOCIATIONS 



The secretary of the American Electric Railway Association 
has just issued a circular to all associate members explaining 
the new plan of associate membership. Under the old plan 
associate members were permitted to attend the open meetings 
of the American Association and the meetings of the Engi- 
neering Association and the Transportation & Traffic Associa- 
tion, and received bound volumes of the proceedings of each of 
the latter associations. Recently those associates who have es- 
pecially allied themselves with the Engineering Association 
have also been provided with copies of the advance convention 
papers and committee reports of that association. 

Under the new plan an associate member may ally himself 
either directly with the American or with one of three affiliated 
organizations (Engineering, Claim Agents' or Transportation 
& Traffic Association). Only those eligible to attend the 
executive sessions of the American Association conventions, as 
determined by its executive committee, may be allied directly 
with the American Association ; and claim agents or persons 





Anti-Climbers as Applied to Interlock with One Another cn Open and Closed Cars Having Platforms of Different 

Heights and Designs 



signing the car platforms so that in event of collision there 
might be liability of so transferring the stresses as to cause 
breakage of the sills in the center of the car. The following 
motion, as submitted by Mr. Evans, was approved by the com- 
mittee : 

"The standardization committee respectfully urges that all 
electric railway companies in the Central Electric Railway ter- 
ritory adopt the policy of arranging all electric railway cars 
with bumpers of the standard heights as adopted by the Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Association as rapidly as possible. We 
would further recommend the application on the face of the 
bumper of a corrugated channel section for the purpose of 
preventing as far as possible the bumpers from passing over." 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



Johannes H. Cuntz, formerly professor at Stevens Institute, 
Hoboken, N. J., has recently taken out a patent for an electric 
cable in which electrostatic capacity on an alternating-current 
system is counteracted by means of inductance. The invention 
is particularly applicable to long-distance telephone and sub- 
marine telegraph circuits. Professor Cuntz secures this result 
by winding the conductor in the form of a long helix around 
a supporting core which in most cases would be made of thin 
iron wires. The length and therefore the resistance of the con- 
ductor is somewhat increased by thus winding it, but this dis- 
advantage is far outweighed by the greatly increased inductance. 



connected with the claim departments of operating companies 
are the only ones eligible to associate membership in the Claim 
Agents' Association. There is no restriction on associate 
membership in either the Engineering or the Transportation 
association. 

A member allying with the American Association will re- 
ceive a cloth-bound copy of the proceedings of that associa- 
tion, will be permitted to attend all its convention meetings 
whether in open or executive session, and will receive copies of 
all convention papers and committee reports distributed by that 
association in advance of the annual meeting, as well as such 
other communications of a general nature as may be distributed 
from time to" time throughout the year. Those allying with the 
other associations named will receive from the respective asso- 
ciation benefits similar to those outlined for members of the 
American Association. The Accountants' Association has no 
associate membership. 

The association has also sent to each associate member a 
blank on which he can indicate the alliance which he wishes to 
make. The blank also contains a brief classification of the 
subjects discussed by each association and the class of men 
to which these subjects would presumably be of most interest. 
Those desiring to ally themselves with more than one associa- 
tion may do so on payment of additional dues, provided no 
question of eligibility arises, in accordance with the conditions 
outlined in the second paragraph. 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



73 



REPORT OF NEW YORK PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, 
FIRST DISTRICT 



A preliminary chapter of the report to the Legislature by the 
New York Public Service Commission of the First District, 
covering the year ended Dec. 31, 19 10, has been made public. 
About one-half of the chapter is devoted to a statement review- 
ing the progress in rapid transit matters. An abstract of the 
report follows : 

"The commission has held 134 meetings for the formal con- 
sideration of matters. The commission has continued the prac- 
tice of holding informal meetings for the preliminary considera- 
tion of matters requiring formal action by the commission, as 
well as to pass on many matters of detail. There have been 185 
such informal meetings. 

"Other than those relating to rapid transit, the commission 
has during the year considered 271 1 matters. Of these 194 were 
formal cases and 2517 informal cases. Of the formal cases 53 
remained undetermined at the end of the year. In the formal 
cases there were during the year 527 hearings, generally held 
before one commissioner, as provided by law. 

"The commission has increased the handling of complaints as 
informal cases. Such cases relate chiefly to minor questions of 
service, the conduct of employees and minor defects in equip- 
ment and track. Questions involving such matters as that of 
the service on an entire division or route continue to lie handled 
as formal cases. During the year 1910 informal cases relat- 
ing to railroads and street railroads have been handled, of 
which 148 were not determined at the end of the year. 

"In the matter of arbitration under Contract No. 1, where 
claims amounting to more than $6,000,000 were presented by the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company and counterclaims 
amounting to more than $2,000,000 were presented by the com- 
mission, it was agreed that the company should receive $1,684,- 
109. Under the terms of the protocol under which the confer- 
ences were held it was understood that whatever may be paid 
to the Interborough company will be expended by it for addi- 
tional facilities. 

"In all 386 street railroad companies, of which 36 are now 
operating, have been organized for the purpose of carrying on 
public service within the city. The total gross capitalization of 
street railways subject to the jurisdiction of the commission is 
$733,635,000 and for all companies it is $1,125,858,000. Owing to 
intercompany holdings in the street railway properties, certain 
securities are virtually duplicated, but these figures purport to 
give only the amount of securities issued and not formally re- 
tired. The following table shows the results of operations 
of street and electric railways : 

OPERATIONS OF STREET AND ELECTRIC RAILWAYS IN NEW 



Year ending June 30 

Operating companies 

Miles of track 

Passenger car miles 

Passengers (paid fares) 

Daily average 

Transfers 

Transportation revenue 

Total st. ry. operating revenue 

Total st. ry. operating exp. . . . 

Net revenue 

Taxes 

Operating income 

Non-operating income 

Gross income applicable to 
corporate and leased prop- 
erties 

Operating ratio 

Per car mile: 

Operating revenue . . 
Operating expenses . 

Net revenue 

'Provisional figures, s 



YORK CITY. 






1 908 


1909 


191 0* 


-9 


33 


34 


1,543 


1,561 


1,564 


271,924,024 


270,394,665 


280,153,150 


1 ,358,000,407 


1 ,402,41 7,642 


1,529,421,244 


3.710,384 


3,842,240 


4,190,195 


.359,827,602 


314,340,221 


327,410,218 


$67,570,182 


$69,979,963 


$76,360,952 


$69,026,613 


$72,282,014 


$79,420,911 


$42,348,236 


$42,778,270 


$43,451,147 


$26,678,377 


$29,503,744 


$35,969,764 


$4,340,228 


$4,992,677 


$5 254,037 


$22,479,524 


$25,216,280 


$30,715,727 


$1,573,225 


$1,246,220 


$2,036,694 


$24,052,749 


$26,462,580 


$32,752,421 


6i.35 


59.18 


5471 


25.31 cts. 


26.67 cts. 


27.88 cts. 


15.52 cts. 


15.78 cts. 


15.25 cts. 


9.79 cts. 


10.89 cts. 


12.63 c ts. 


t to correction. 







"The total amount of securities for which approval was asked 
from July 1, 1907, to Dec. 31, 1910, was $361,138,940, of which 
$208,829,300 were disapproved, $82458,400 approved, $390,000 
withdrawn and $69,461,240 remained pending at the close of the 
last year. 

"Although there are over 400 grade crossings in New York- 
City, t'p to 1910 only $9,000 of State appropriation had been 



used in the city on elimination of grade crossings. In 1910 the 
Legislature appropriated $250,000 and for 191 1 this commission 
has requested $600,000. This amount is not for administrative 
expenses, but to help pay the cost of a substantial start in 
elimination in New York City of the grade crossings of steam 
railroads, at which in three years 60 were killed and 108 in- 
jured. 

• '"The commission has continued to require the companies to 
keep their equipment in good sanitary and operating condition. 
The proper condition of equipment has a close relation to the 
number of accidents of certain classes. At the end of the year 
all of the cars operated on the surface lines in the City of New 
York were equipped with fenders and wheel guards, of types ap- 
proved by the commission. Investigations by the inspectors of 
the commission show that these improved safety devices have 
aided in the substantial reduction of fatal accidents. The fol- 
lowing table shows a comparison of accidents during three 
years : 

1908 1909 "19m 

Total number of accidents on street, "L" and 

subway 56,481 52,808 59, 515 

Number of persons killed 444 329 §379 

Number of persons and vehicles struck by 

cars 11,405 11,447 14,484 

'Estimated in part for December, 191 0. 

§This figure includes 12 killed in New York Central explosion at sub- 
station. 

Note. — The figures on the Metropolitan Street Railway show nearly 400 
per month increase for the last four months due to including vehicles 
struck in which no injuries were claimed. Other companies have reported 
in this manner for the past two years, but not the Metropolitan Street 
Railway. 

"The question of service remains a serious one, for it is not 
possible to secure adequate service, particularly during the 
rush periods, with the present facilities. The following table 
shows the magnitude of the problem confronting the public 
authorities in the furnishing of proper facilities for the travel 
that presents itself in New York City : 

GROWTH OF STREET RAILWAY TRAVEL IN NEW YORK CITY 
SINCE 1898. 

Rides per 

Year. Population. Fare Passengers. Capita. 

1898 3,251,244 741,329,885 228.0 

1899 3,344.223 773,35i,232 231.2 

1900 3.437.202 846,353,058 246.2 

1901 3,549,843 881,344,801 248.2 

1902 3,662,483 938,989,964 256.3 

1903 3,775.123 1,000,767,483 265.0 

1904 3,887,763 1,065,984,910 274.1 

1905 4,000,403 1,130,982,696 282.7 

1906 4ii53.699 1,251,841,175 301.3 

1907 4,306,995 1,315,381,388 305-4 

1908 4,460,291 1,358,000,407 304.4 

1909 4,613.587 1,402,417,642 3°3-9 

1910 4,766,883 1,530,000,000 320.9 

"There has been a constant increase in the number of rides 
per capita ever since the introduction of street railway txaiis- 
portation in New York City. Statistics prepared by Frank R. 
Ford (see Street Railway Journal, Oct. 5, 1901) show that 
in the territory now occupied by the Boroughs of Manhattan, 
Brooklyn, Bronx and Queens there were 45 rides per capita per 
year in i860, 104 in 1870 and 155 in 1880. These statistics are 
based on number of passengers, including transfers, while the 
statistics given in the comparative table are based on fare pas- 
sengers only. The number of transfers was, however, small in 
early years and the statistics indicate clearly the enormous 
development of street railway travel and its increasing im- 
portance to each individual. If children under five years of 
age are excluded from our population figures, as they are not 
included in the travel statistics since fares are not charged for 
them, the number of rides per capita is now approximately equal 
to one ride each day in the year for each person. It should be 
noted that the above statistics do not include travel upon the 
ferries over the North and East Rivers and to Richmond, nor 
the large suburban traffic of the Long Island, New York 
Central and New Haven railroads. 

"Owing to the consolidation of companies and changes in 
population and conditions, a considerable amount of car tracks 
has for many years been unused by the operating street rail- 
roads. In the Borough of Manhattan there are about 25 miles 
of such unused track. 

"The commission has been actively engaged in collecting 



74 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



evidence for presentation in these suits and in others proposed, 
and to that end has caused a thorough inspection to be made 
of the whole abandoned trackage in the city and has taken some 
800 photographs, showing in graphic form the exact situation 
upon the streets involved. 

"The abandoned track situation is well in hand and the speedy 
removal of all abandoned tracks is confidently expected. This 
is particularly important, for the unused tracks present un- 
necessary obstructions and causes of damage to vehicular 

traffic." 

. + 

ANNUAL REPORT OF NEW JERSEY COMMISSION 

The first annual report of the State Board of Public Utlity 
Commissioners of New Jersey relates to the business trans- 
acted under the law of 1910 and to recommendations for 
chf.nges in the law. An abstract of the parts of the report 
which are of interest to the electric railway companies follows: 
he experience of the board has been that most of the 
things accomplished are done through negotiations with the 
companies and in compliance with recommendations rather 
than by the issuance of orders. The recommendations of this 
board have been generally adopted by the companies in inter- 
est, and in no case where the board has issued an order has it 
been necessary for it to institute proceedings for the collec- 
tion of a penalty for wilful default of compliance. 

"A law giving the board power to order the abolishment of 
dangerous grade crossings and providing for an equitable di- 
vision of the cost between the companies, the State and the 
municipality should be enacted. 

"The provision of the law requiring the approval by the 
board of grants to public utilities has been criticised as an un- 
warranted interference with the principle of 'home rule,' in 
that it may prevent a municipality making such terms as it 
chooses with a public utility corporation in return for a privi- 
lege granted. Such criticisms are not well founded. Valuable 
franchises have been granted by local governing bodies without 
proper protection of the public interest and the result of this 
has given force to the demand for State regulation. With 
perhaps a few exceptions, these franchises have been granted 
by municipal officials in good faith with the belief that the 
terms of the grant were reasonable, and that the exercise of 
the privilege, as granted, would be in the public interest. The 
occasion is, however, exceptional when members of township 
committees, common councils or other governing bodies, par- 
ticularly of the less populous municipalities, are called upon to 
consider franchise grants to public utility corporations. When 
these occasions arise the local governing body seldom employs 
expert advisers competent to pass upon technical problems 
which should be considered. If the franchise is to be submitted 
to a State board for its approval, greater care is naturally ex- 
ercised by those seeking it to have the terms of the grant of 
such a nature that they will pass the scrutiny, without adverse 
criticism, of an impartial tribunal. The legitimate interests of 
both the public and the corporations are better protected by the 
policy of requiring local grants of privileges to public utility 
corporations to be approved by a commission having at its com- 
mand the services of expert advisers, with special knowledge 
of the subject of franchise grants to such corporations. 

"With the aim of having established uniform systems of ac- 
counting, conferences have been called with representatives of 
street railway, gas, electric light, telephone and water com- 
panies. Numerous suggestions have been made to the board 
and this matter is now under consideration. The limited 
amount of the board's appropriation has restricted it in the 
employment of accountants, whose advice would be of mate- 
rial assistance, and the problem of uniform accounting has not 
been solved as expeditiously as is desirable. It is hoped that the 
progress the board is making with the means at its command 
will enable it to settle this matter at an early date. 

"In the administration of the additional powers conferred by 
the law of 1910, serious questions have been raised which put 
the jurisdiction of the board, and the extent thereof, in doubt. 



These doubts should be promptly set at rest by further legis- 
lation. 

"The statute of 1910 does not in terms confer on the board 
power to require notice Of an accident. If such power exists 
it must be derived by implication. This consideration may lead 
to a denial by the courts of implied power in the board to re- 
quire the companies to which the act of 1910 extends to give 
such notice, and so leaves the power of the board in this re- 
spect in grave doubt. 

"It has been suggested that the provision relating to the issue 
of securities limits the function of the board to ascertaining 
the facts essential to determining the legality of the proposed 
issue; that it may consider whether the proposed issue is 
authorized as to amount, character and terms and other facts 
bearing upon the legality or illegality thereof, but that if in 
these particulars it finds no lack of authority for, or illegality 
in, the proposed issue, it must grant its certificate of approval 
and cannot impose limitations nor determine the purposes for 
or terms or conditions upon which the securities are to be 
issued. The suggestion raises a grave question as to the power 
of the board under this section. 

"In 1909 a provision was inserted in the law imposing a 
penalty not exceeding $100 per day' to be recovered in an 
action of debt at the suit of the board upon failure to comply 
with an order of the board. This provision has been criticised 
upon two grounds: (1) that the words 'not exceeding' ren- 
dered the action of debt unavailable, and (2) that it precluded 
the possibility of enforcement of the orders of the board by 
mandamus. Because of these criticisms it may be well to ex- 
scind from the provision the words 'not exceeding' and to sup- 
plement the statute by a further enactment clearly declaring 
that it was not the legislative purpose to preclude the en- 
forcement of the orders of the board by resort to the ap- 
propriate processes of the courts. 

"It would be advisable to give the board the right to adopt 
and fix by general orders standards of service supplied by elec- 
tric lighting, street railway, water, telephone and other public 
utility corporations. 

"The questions which enter into the operation of public 
utilities frequently give rise to problems that cannot be solved 
without the exercise of a high degree of technical training, 
combined with knowledge gained from practical experience. 
It is the theory of regulation by the State that such technical 
training and practical experience can, under the control of a 
commission, be employed directly in the service of the public. 

"It is intended that the work of the commission shall be per- 
formed so as to bring fair treatment to the public without in- 
justice to the corporations. To do this intelligently and to de- 
termine what may be considered fair with respect to rates, the 
standards of service which may be reasonably insisted upon, or 
the conditions that may be properly imposed in municipal 
grants, and to decide the many other problems which must con- 
front the commission, necessarily requires the employment of 
engineers and other expert assistants, who should be fully equal 
in technical training and practical experience to those em- 
ployed by the utility corporations. Such engineers and experts 
command good salaries in the employ of the corporations, and 
the State must pay salaries large enough to make employment 
in the service of the State attractive. For this reason the 
board strongly urges that, in the consideration of any changes 
in the law, and particularly such changes as will tend to place 
additional duties involving a consideration of technical prob- 
lems upon the board, a sufficient appropriation be allowed to 
provide for the employment of such assistance as will be re- 
quired to make the law effective." 



Progress is being made with the Lancashire & Yorkshire 
Railway's electric "belt" scheme from Liverpool to Southport, 
via Ormskirk, work having been started recently on the section 
between Maghull and Town Green. It is hoped to complete 
this route by February, 191 1. The extension to Maghull, 
opened at the beginning of 1910, has resulted in extensive build- 
ing operations in that rural district. 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



75 



THIRD CONFERENCE ON INTERURBAN OPERATING 
METHODS IN INDIANA 

On Jan. 5 the Railroad Commission of Indiana held a con- 
ference at Indianapolis with the committees of interurban man- 
agers which were appointed on Dec. 23 to study and report 
upon three subjects connected with interurban electric railway 
operation. The committees were as follows : 

Committee on conditions of employment and service : C. L. 
Henry, president Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company; 
W. G. Irwin, vice-president Indianapolis, Columbus & South- 
ern Traction Company; H. A. Nicholl, general manager In- 
diana Union Traction Company ; C. E. Morgan, general man- 
ager Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western Traction Com- 
pany. 

Committee on block signals ; Arthur W. Brady, president 
Indiana Union Traction Company ; C. N. Wilcoxon, general 
manager Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway; R. I. 
Todd, general manager Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company; C. D. Emmons, general manager Fort 
Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company. 

Committee on delivery of train orders : A. Shane, general 
manager Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Com- 
pany; George S. Henry, traffic manager Indianapolis & Cincin- 
nati Traction Company; G. K. Jeffries, superintendent Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company. 

The sessions, like those of Dec. 23, were not open to the 
public. 

At the meeting on Jan. 5 the commission considered the re- 
ports of the committees separately. The report of the commit- 
tee on conditions of employment and service was taken up first 
and is said to have been devoted largely to a discussion of the 
suggestions of the commission that all interurban motormen 
should have had one year's steam or electric service before 
being appointed and that motormen should be prohibited from 
handling baggage and express matter. It is understood that 
no conclusions were reached on these two subjects between the 
committee and the commission. 

The committee on signals asked for more time. Tt stated 
that so far it had not been able to obtain sufficient information 
on which to base definite statements, and that it desired to 
make a complete investigation of the different kinds of block 
signals in use on electric roads outside of the State. The 
commission granted a postponement of this committee's report 
until Jan. 24. 

The committee on methods of delivering orders presented a 
rule which it had prepared prescribing the manner of obtaining 
orders. This rule was approved by the commission. Tt is as 
follows : 

To obtain orders the motorman or conductor, whichever is more con- 
venient, will call the dispatcher and give his serial order blank number, 
which will be requested by the dispatcher, who will then give such orders 
as are necessary. The one taking the order will write the sam- plainly, 
without abbreviating, with carbon .copv on the blank provided for the 
purpose. When he has finished writing the order he will repeat it to 
the dispatcher. If correct the dispatcher will O. K. the same. The one 
taking the order will then give his name to the dispatcher and at the 
same time sign the order. The one who has not taken the order will 
repeat the order without abbreviation to the dispatcher and give his 
name and at the same time sign the order. If correct, the dispatcher 
will then give the initials of the superintendent or other designated 
authority and the train order number, which must be repeated back to 
the dispatcher by the one then at the 'phone. If correct, the dispatcher 
will say "Complete at" (giving the time), which completes the order and 
places it in full force and effect. If for any reason the dispatcher 
does not complete the order, it is of no effect and must be treated 
as if it had not been given. After the order is completed the motor- 
man and conductor each will take a copy of the same. 

Where it is not practicable for both members of the crew to leave the 
car at the same time, at important places designated by bulletins, or in 
emergencies at other places, after authority has been given by the train 
dispatcher on duty at the time, one member of the crew may receive 
and complete the order, the second member being required to read the 
order aloud to the one who has taken and repeated it, before the train 
is started, the dispatcher making a full record of the facts and reasons 
on his record book for every order completed by his instructions in tins 
manner. 



Subsequent to the conference, it was stated, the committee 
on length of employment reached an agreement with the com- 
mission. The basis of this agreement was that the companies 
would accept one year's qualification for motormen provided 
they should be permitted to employ men having less than one 
year's experience in cases of urgent necessity. Where this was 
done the reason or necassity of each case would be filed with 
the commission. The commission, it is stated, has notified the 
committee that this provision is reasonable and will be 
agreed to. 



MESSAGES OF THE GOVERNORS 



The Legislatures of nearly all of the States are scheduled to 
meet in 191 1, and a number of legislative sessions have already 
been entered upon. The following abstracts have been made of 
the messages of the Governors which have already been pre- 
sented so far as they relate to public utility enterprises and other 
matters of interest to the railroad and allied industries : 

GOVERNOR EUGENE N. FOSS OF MASSACHUSETTS 

I see nothing inimical in the mere size of a corporation, pro- 
vided, of course, it is suitably regulated. On the other hand, a 
holding company is in theory wholly at variance with the com- 
mon law and with the statutes of the State. It is therefore in- 
defensible. I would also call attention to the voluntary associa- 
tions which issue shares evidencing a participating ownership, 
but which, under existing laws, are subject to none of the regu- 
lations as to publicity and taxation that apply to both business 
and public-service corporations. I do not recommend the ap- 
pointment of a special commission to consider this subject, but 
I believe that the tax commissioner may well be directed to in- 
vestigate the further regulation by the Commonwealth of such 
voluntary associations, and to report thereon to the next General 
Court, with specific recommendations. 

I also think there should be a change of method on the part 
of the public service corporations in seeking legislation from 
the General Court. The corporation before coming to the 
Legislature should put its case before the people themselves, 
through the press and by public meetings, if necessary, and in 
this way enlighten the people fully and frankly as to just what 
it wants and what it proposes to give in return. My own ex- 
perience in corporate management is that when the people 
thoroughly understand a proposition they act with intelligence 
and fairness. These methods will command the confidence and 
enlist the capital of the people for these enterprises. This pro- 
cedure on the part of the corporations will forever end the 
lobby and its attendant train, and it will inevitably give the 
corporation all that it is entitled to. 

I am not in favor of commissions as a means of transacting 
public business, unless they are appointed subject to recall, for 
I believe their tendency is not in accord with popular or repre- 
sentative government. Therefore, I shall doubtless recommend 
the elimination of some and the consolidation of other commis- 
sions. I advise the abolition of the following commissions 
which relate to quasi-public corporations, namely, the Rail- 
road Commission, the Gas and Electric Light Commission, the 
Boston Transit Commission, and the Highway Commission, 
which includes the supervision of the telephone and telegraph 
companies. And in their place I recommend the creation of a 
Public Utilities Board, which should consolidate the functions 
of these commissions, with the stipulation that the tax-collect- 
ing function of the Highway Commission shall revert to the 
State Treasurer's department. This board should be composed 
of five members, whose terms should be for 10 years, subject 
to the recall of any member at any State election. The chair- 
man should be a lawyer. This board should have the right to 
employ and hear counsel ; its decisions should be in writing, 
with the vote of each member recorded, and it should have the 
power of initiative. 

Our first duty, as I see it, is to create a greater Boston by the 
confederation of all the towns and cities within a radius of at 
leas! in miles, and possibly more. I maintain that our suburban 



76 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



citizens, whose business interests bring them to Boston daily, 
who enjoy the protection of her police and the use of her high- 
ways, and who are included within her 5-cent fare limit, have 
no right to stamp the dust from their feet at 5 o'clock and as- 
sume that they have no further responsibility for the good 
government of the very city in which they earn their liveli- 
hood and where their commercial and financial interests are 
centered. For example, the rapid transit system that Boston 
maintains is far more in the interest of these suburban com- 
munities than in the interest of the City of Boston. I contend 
that it is the duty of these suburban towns and cities which are 
already part of the metropolitan district to unite with the city 
itself in the creation of a great metropolis. This union should 
be not merely a commercial but also a political one. 

GOVERNOR JOHN A. DIX OF NEW YORK 

During the last fiscal year the new public-service commis- 
sions cost the State $897,372.66. For the ensuing year the 
public-service commissions ask the State to appropriate $1,984,- 
537-50. These sums are in addition to the very large sums 
charged by the Public Service Commission of the First Dis- 
trict to the City of New York. I refer to these facts to show 
the abnormal rate of increase in the expenditures for these 
purposes, and to point out the absolute necessity of the most 
drastic retrenchment. If this is not done a direct tax must be 
imposed upon the people for the reason that although our 
predecessors exhausted every reasonable source of indirect taxa- 
tion, nevertheless the expenditures during each of the last three 
years exceeded the revenues, thereby very greatly depleting the 
treasury. We believe that such retrenchment can be made 
without impairing the efficiency of the State service. Unneces- 
sary boards and commissions should be abolished, useless em- 
ployees removed and every demand for appropriation carefully 
scrutinized to the end that the expenditures of the State be 
brought within our income, and that the total amount of appro- 
priations be limited to the estimated amount of revenues from 
which they are to be paid. I am giving careful and special at- 
tention to these public service commissions and hope in the 
near future to address to you some recommendations on this 
subject. 

GOVERNOR ARAM J. POTHIER OF RHODE ISLAND 

The public utilities are owned and operated in this State by 
private corporations, except that most water-works systems are 
under city or town control. These corporations are doing busi- 
ness under the protection of the State by legislative permission. 
They have rights both under the law and under the Constitu- 
tion, which must be respected as fully as the rights of any in- 
dividual. But they also are charged with responsibilities to the 
public and to the government under whose protection and laws 
they exist which must be fulfilled. I believe there should be 
created in this State a board of Commissioners of public utilities 
to act as referee in the adjustment of all differences between 
such corporations and the public as to the character, quality and 
quantity of the service rendered and the rate or fee exacted 
in return therefor. Its recommendations for the improvement 
or extension of the service rendered should carry the power of 
enforcement, subject only to reversal by the courts. It should 
have the right to investigate every cause of complaint, either 
by the corporations or by the people, to examine and inspect 
equipment, determine the method used in fixing rates of com- 
pensation, and whether the patron or consumer is receiving that 
to which he is entitled and for which he is paying. T recom- 
mend that this General Assembly enter upon a thorough and 
serious consideration of this matter, looking to the enactment of 
a law creating a State board of public utilities with proper 
powers of supervision over the activities of all railroad, steam- 
boat and other transportation companies, pipe line, gas, elec- 
tric light and power companies, telephone and telegraph com- 
panies, water distributing companies, and other public service 
corporations operated by private interests. I recommend also 
that the section of the law under which the sum required an- 
nually for the salary and office expenses of the railroad commis- 
sioner and his deputy is contributed to the State by the railroad 
companies operating here be repealed forthwith, and that an 



annual appropriation out of the public funds sufficient for this 
purpose be authorized. 

1 recommend that the committee on labor legislation confer 
with the Rhode Island board of commissioners for the promo- 
tion of uniformity of legislation, for the purpose of considering 
the advisability of proposing a workmen's compensation law 
for this State. 

GOVERNOR SIMEON E. BALDWIN OF CONNECTICUT 

In 1907 a special commission was appointed by the General 
Assembly to consider the laws with respect to public service 
corporations and to recommend any legislation regarding them 
which it might think expedient. This commission agreed unan- 
imously in reporting to the General Assembly in 1909 in favor 
of certain legislation creating a public utilities commission, in 
which the present Board of Railroad Commissioners should be 
merged. A draft of a bill for such legislation accompanied this 
report. I recommend the enactment of a bill in general con- 
formity to the scheme thus reported. A few, however, of the 
provisions of the bill so reported seem to me objectionable. T 
will mention at this time but three. 

t. Section 1 is open to the interpretation that it would apply 
to municipal corporations owning water-works for the supply 
of the municipality. If so construed, it would be an unneces- 
sary invasion of the privilege of local self-government. 

2. Section 98 might be construed to require the commission to 
make investigations as to certain matters which would involve 
a cost that could hardly be warranted by the results. 

3. Section 7 makes the annual salary of each commissioner 
$7,500. 

In my judgment this is too large a sum. It is greater than 
that paid to any State official, except the justices of the Supreme 
Court of Errors and the judges of the Superior Court. When 
they retire from office their former clientage will have dis- 
appeared. The members of the public utilities commission, on 
the other hand, under the bill as reported, serve for terms com- 
paratively short, and need no special form or course of training 
to qualify them for their position. 

I should regard it as likely that the time of the commissioners 
would by no means be fully occupied by their official duties, and 
that to some extent each would pursue what had been his for- 
mer occupation in life. An annual salary of $5,000 would seem 
quite sufficient. I understand that a bill will be presented for 
your consideration which varies from that recommended by the 
special commission in 1909 in enlarging the number of the 
members of the public utilities commission from three to five. 
In my opinion three are enough to secure the proper perform- 
ance of the work intrusted to it. The bill reported by the 
special commission gives an appeal to the Superior Court, 
such as is now afforded from orders of the railroad commis- 
sioners. I think this is a proper safeguard against possible in- 
justice. It might, however, be sufficient were it given only 
when the decision appealed from was not a unanimous one. 

It is generally agreed that our present employers' liability 
statute is too favorable to the employer. If so, it ought to be 
amended, whatever other legislation may be had in different 
directions. 

GOVERNOR CHASE S. OSBORN OF MICHIGAN 

Employers of labor, as a general thing, carry casualty liability 
insurance. The fees they pay are made to cover the expense of 
the agent of the company who solicits the policy, to pay the 
overhead expenses of the insurance company, to pay the divi- 
dends of the insurance company, to make a surplus fund for 
the insurance company, to pay the attorneys for both the in- 
surance companies and the injured person and finally to pay 
the injured person if he gets any pay. It all makes for injustice, 
friction, bad feeling and encouragement of ambulance chasers 
and illegitimate litigation. The right laws for the proper sys- 
tem could insure more to the injured person and at a less cost 
to the employer. The saving in court expenses alone would be 
great. In the circuit court of large cities fully a quarter of the 
time is taken up by the trial of personal injury and kindred 
cases. The present laws are an abomination and must sooner 
or later be improved. I hope that this Legislature will start 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



77 



the good work. New York recently passed a workingmen's 
compensation act, framed by a special commission appointed 
by the Legislature to advise it. The rights of both employer 
and employee should be respected. You, gentlemen, will know 
best how to handle this matter and I am confident you will 
address yourselves to it. 

A consistent and persistent policy of grade separation of 
steam railroads, electric railways and street crossings, if inau- 
gurated under wise laws, would result in a great saving of life 
and property. Such a policy, reasonably pursued, would not in- 
flict impossible hardships upon either the railroad companies 
or the public. In my opinion, legislation in this direction should 
take more definite and compulsory form. 

Great good could be accomplished by a reasonable law de- 
fining the nature and strength of railroad carriages. As fast 
as flimsy rolling stock now in use is worn out and condemned 
it should be replaced by steel carriages complying with a safety 
standard fixed by the State. 

GOVERNOR T. R. MARSHALL OF INDIANA 

I recommend that you revise the corporation laws of Indiana 
so that no corporation can issue a dollar's worth of stock with- 
out a dollar in money or a dollar's worth of property going 
into the corporation to the satisfaction and approval of the 
State Board of Tax Commissioners. And I recommend that all 
transportation lines be prevented from issuing bonds without 
the consent of the State Railroad Commission first being ob- 
tained by showing that the funds raised from the issue are to 
be actually used for corporate purposes, and that the sale of 
such bonds for less than 95 cents on the dollar be forbidden. I 
recommend that no bonds be issued by any other public utility 
without like consent being obtained from the State Board of 
Tax Commissioners so that public utilities may not only be con- 
trolled, but ratably and reasonably taxed by this board, which 
should have exclusive powers of taxation over all public utilities. 

The right of eminent domain should be given interurban rail- 
ways, however, without purchasing the real estate, for the re- 
moval of obstructions at curves which prevent approaching cars 
from sighting each other, and such railroads should be com- 
pelled to erercise that right. 

Should loss of life occur because of the failure of a corpora- 
tion to comply with an order of any constituted authority in 
Indiana to repair and safeguard its equipment, prior to deter- 
mination by the courts that the order is reasonable, and should 
a board of directors declare a dividend during the time that 
the order is being considered by the courts, each director vot- 
ing for the dividend should, if the order is subsequently held by 
the courts to be reasonable, be punished as for involuntary 
manslaughter, and the State should not be compelled to prove 
intent. The violation of an order or rule of any corporation 
in Indiana whereby death occurs should likewise render an 
offending employee liable for punishment as for involuntary 
manslaughter and the State again should not be required to 
prove intent. 

GOVERNOR CHARLES S. DENEEN OF ILLINOIS 

In my judgment authority should be given to the Railroad 
and Warehouse Commission, or to a commission created for this 
specific purpose, to gather and publish all facts regarding the 
cost of construction, maintenance and operation of public utility 
corporations, with power to require service adequate for the 
public needs and to fix rates which will be fair to the public, 
will assure to investors a reasonable return upon their invest- 
ment and will offer inducements for the investment of private 
capital in public-service corporations to stimulate their growth 
as the public needs may require. If comprehensive legislation 
of the character suggested were provided the subject of cor- 
porate control would be removed to a greater extent than at 
present from the field of politics in which it has often exercised 
a disturbing influence. 

I call your attention to the fact that the National Civic Feder- 
ation, which has given the subject of employers' liability and 
workmen's compensation thorough investigation and discussion, 
has framed a bill upon these subjects which is now in print and 



available for use in your deliberations. The bill has been rec- 
ommended for submission to all State legislatures. 

GOVERNOR A. O. EBERH ART OF MINNESOTA 

In regard to taxation of railroads whenever it is ascertained 
that railroad property, under the present tax rate, is not carry- 
ing its just and full share of the State tax burden, the tax 
should be increased to a basis of equality with other property 
With the approval of the auditor and treasurer, I therefore 
recommend semi-annual payment of railroad taxes as a means 
of avoiding revenue deficits and the resulting loans and interest 
charges. 

The building of suburban electric lines opens up another field 
of regulation. These electric railways will soon become a'ctive 
factors in the transportation business, and their operation 
should, therefore, be subject to the Railroad and Warehouse 
Commission, similarly with the railroads. 

The last Legislature authorized the appointment of a commis- 
sion to report to this Legislature a workmen's compensation 
act. This commission has labored diligently and will unques- 
tionably make a thorough and comprehensive report. In accord- 
ance therewith. I recommend the enactment of such a law, be- 
lieving it to be for the best interests of both employees and 
employers, as well as the State at large. 

GOVERNOR R. S. VESSEY OF SOUTH DAKOTA 

Your attention is called to the report of the Railroad Com- 
mission, from which it is apparent that many complaints from 
time to time have been adjudicated, and it is evident that the 
commission, in its wisdom, has accomplished much good. 1 
would recommend that the commission be given more power and 
believe that through this medium we shall be more quickly re- 
lieved from the evils of unjust discrimination which now 
abound within the State. 

GOVERNOR ROBERT P. BASS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE 

The platforms of both parties call for the abolition of the 
present Railroad Commission. The functions of the commission 
as now constituted are limited in scope. There is a lack of 
precision in the statutes by which the powers of the board are 
granted and an absence of proper means to enforce its findings. 
I recommend that you create a public service commission to 
take the place of the present Railroad Commission. Tt should 
have authority fully to regulate rates, service and capitalization 
of all public service companies. For this most important and 
difficult service the highest grade of men should be granted. 
Appointments should also be made for terms of substantial 
length, to the end that the commissioners may be removed as 
far as possible from political influences. 

A well-adjusted and equitable workmen's compensation law 
would, on the one hand, relieve the employer of the expense of 
fighting all his accident cases and, on the other hand, insure to 
the employee prompt and reasonable payment without litigation, 
without delay and without expense. The drafting and enact- 
ment of such a law, although difficult, is to my mind of para- 
mount importance to a large percentage of the people of our 
State. The change which it would bring about would be in line 
with the progress and the betterment of conditions for which we 
are all striving. 

GOVERNOR PLAISTED OF MAINE 

Many of the contests between new companies desiring to do 
business and old companies occupying in whole or in part the 
field which attracts the newcomer might be settled outside of 
the Legislature if we had in Maine a public utilities commission, 
and I suggest that you consider the advisability of establish- 
ing one. The present Railroad Commission could be abolished 
and its powers conferred upon the new board in addition to such 
other powers as would be granted it. 

4 ■ 

The United Electric Tramway Company, of Montevideo, 
which was formed and registered as a British company in 1904, 
now operates 82 miles of lines in Montevideo, with 195 motor 
passenger cars and 68 trailers. The system adopted is the over- 
head single trolley, and by the terms of the franchise at least 
two-thirds of the employees must be citizens of the country. 



7 8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[ Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



TRACK CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS IN ATLANTA, GA. 



The Georgia Railway & Electric Company operates about 177 
miles of track in and about the City of Atlanta. This property 
is a consolidation of several railways, each of which had 
different types of track construction. In recent years, how- 
ever, most of the mileage has been changed over for some one 
of the four types of standard track construction described in 
the following paragraphs. 

CONSTRUCTION ON PRIVATE RIGHT OF WAY 

For construction on private right of way the standard is 
the A. S. C. E. 70-lb. rail in 33-ft. lengths. The joints are 
the 26-in. Continuous type drilled 2 in., 4 in. and 5 in. with %-in. 




., „ , ? 

13 - x 8 x 7 Ties per 62 Rail 
0.25S Yds. of Concrete per Ft. of Tr 
0.29 Bbls. of Portland Cement) 
0.117 Cu.Yds. of Sand > per 



u.2:t 



Yds. ..f F.to 



F(. of Track 1-2' 



Atlanta Track Construction for Asphalt Pavement 

Harvey grip bolts. The 12-in. No. 0000 bonds are carried under 
each joint plate. The rails are laid on 8-ft. white oak ties in 
10 in. to 12 in. of broken stone balast. The standard width 
of fills is 16 ft. and of cuts 28 ft. at the bottom. The passing 
tracks and turnouts are made with split switches and spring 
frogs. All curves over 6 deg. have rail braces every fourth 
tie and are spiraled. All culverts and waterways are of con- 
crete and all bridges are of steel. 

CONSTRUCTION ON HIGHWAYS WITH CHERT, MACADAM OR SIMILAR 

PAVING 

The standard construction for highways where the paving is 
of chert (rock flint), macadam or similar material calls for a 
T-rail weighing 80 lb. per yard. This rail is 7 in. deep, 
in. wide at the head, 6 in. wide at the base and has a web 
7/16 in. thick. The rails are 60 ft. long and are laid on 
creosoted ties 6 in. x 8 in. x y}A ft., spaced 2 ft. center to 
center and tamped up on 6 in. of broken stone. To maintain 
the gage and laterally brace this high rail a 2-in. x J^-in. tie 
rod is installed every 7^2 ft. The center of the tie rod is 354 
in. from the base of the rail. The rod is secured on each 
side of the web by a jamb nut. The joint plates are 27 in. 
long and H in. thick and put on with eight r-in. bolts. These 
joints are bonded with two No. 0000 bonds and a No. 0000 
cross bond every sixth joint, counting on one side. In 1907 
this class of construction cost per mile as follows : 

Rails, $5,304.60; ties, $1,848; spikes, $150; bonds, $135; tie 
rods, $245; stone, $800; joint plates, $230; labor, $3,168; a total 
of $11,880.60. It will be seen from the foregoing that the cost 
of construction was $2.25 per running foot. The labor item 
does not include any grading except 19 in. of trenching or 
sub-grading on highways the surface of which had already 
been graded. 

Although the rail for this class of construction is specifically 
designed for chert and macadam streets, it has been found so 
nearly ideal that the company endeavors to use it wherever it 
is possible and expedient to do so. It cannot be used in streets 
with deep granite blocks or asphalt, but it is used in streets 
paved with vitrified brick. To secure a passageway for the 
wheel flanges in vitrified brick construction, the company uses 
a special brick. This brick has one upper corner beveled off 
with a reverse curve so that the brick will fit in the head of the 
rail. The beveled construction forms a flangeway, while the 
top of the brick comes flush with the top of the rail. These 
bricks are made in halves and wholes so as to break the joints 
in the paving, and as they are placed under the head of the 



rail it is impossible for them to work up. The bricks are laid 
on concrete with a sand cushion in accordance with the usual 
construction for this class of work. 

CONSTRUCTION IN STREETS PAVED WITH GRANITE BLOCKS 

The construction in streets paved with granite blocks dif- 
fers from that for chert and macadam paving only in the type 
of rail. By using a rail 9 in. deep there is secured a sand 
cushion of 2 in. to 3 in. between the ties and the blocks. The 
rail, which is of the semi-grooved type, weighs 89 lb. per yard. 
The joint plates are 32 in. long and are put on with 12 in. 
diameter bolts. 

The cost of this type of construction per mile is as follows : 
Rails, $5,894; ties, $1,848; spikes, $150; tie rods, $245 ; joint 
plates, $352; bonds, $140.80; stone, $800; labor, $3,696; total, 
$13,125.80. This makes the cost $2.48 per linear foot. 

STANDARD CONSTRUCTION IN ASPHALT PAVING 

The standard construction in asphalt paving includes the use 
of 9-in. Trilby rail weighing 109 lb. per yard. The concrete 
base used under the 3 in. of asphalt is 6 in. deep, making a 
total depth of 9 in. from the finished surface of the street to 
the bottom of the concrete, which is just the depth of the rail. 
The bed is graded for this depth and then treated with a 10-ton 
roller. A trench 24 in. wide x 10 in. deep is then dug im- 
mediately under the position of the rails and running the entire 
length of the rails. At intervals of 5 ft. cross trenches 22 in 
wide x 10 in. deep are dug for the ties. These trenches are 
4 in. under the tie when it is in position. An additional exca- 
vation of 2 in. is made under the joint ties. These cross 
trenches are 7 ft. 8 in. long, or 8 in. longer than the tie. 

When the trench is completed a 6-in. x 8-in. x 7-ft. creosoted 
tie is placed under each cross trench and two ties in the joint 
trench which occurs every 60 ft. The rails are 60 ft. long and 
are laid on the ties with opposite joints. The rails are bonded 
with two No. 0000 bonds 8 in. long and then the joint plates 
are put on. These joints are of the Continuous type 32 in. 
long and are held by 12 i]/&-m. bolts. The tie rods, 2 in. x ^ in., 
are installed every 5 ft. half way between each tie. The track 
is then jacked up and blocked to the proper line and graded by 
means of oak wedges. Portland cement concrete proportioned 
1 :2 J /2 :5 is then placed in and rammed so that its finished sur- 




Atlanta City Railway Construction with 7-in. T-Rail and 
Vitrified Paving Block 

face is 3 in. below the top of the rail. This gives a continu- 
ous stringer of concrete under the rail 10 in. deep x 24 in. wide 
and under the ties 4 in. deep x 22 in. wide, all tied into one 
mass which comes 6 in. over the top of the ties. It will be seen 
from this that the construction is of such monolithic character 
that the ties are used more as a matter of convenience in sur- 
facing the line than for anything else. This rigid and durable 
construction costs about $3.88 per linear foot of single track or 
$7.76 per foot of street. These figures do not include the cost 
of replacing the asphalt, which in one instance amounted to 
$1.53 per linear foot of street. 

MISCELLANEOUS TRACK FEATURES 

All curves installed in Atlanta, some of which have a center 
radius of 35 ft., are spiraled on each end. All frogs and cross- 



[anuary 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



79 



iiigs are made with hardened steel centers. The standard rail 
for curves weighs 117 lb. per yard and the guard is rolled solid 
with the rail. 

One of the most interesting features of the company's track 
work is the extensive use of creosoted ties. The first ties 
creosoted by the company were laid down in 1895. Original 
ties which have been taken up on account of changes to heavier 
track construction have been found to be apparently as sound 
as the day they were put in. The great saving is not so much 
in the cost of the ties themselves but in not having to tear up 
the streets for tie renewals. In Atlanta the best oak tie would 
not give more than seven years' life, while 21 years' life can be 
expected from creosoted ties. A comparison of cost would 
work out something like the following : Initial cost of treated 
ties, 80 cents ; untreated ties at 40 cents each, renewed every 
seven years, $1.20, plus 50 cents per foot of track for labor to 
tear out the paving and renew the ties every seven years. This, 
with ties placed 2 ft. centers, would make each tie cost, at $1 
for labor, $2 for the two renewals in 21 years. The added cost 
of the ties themselves makes a total of $3.20 per tie for un- 
treated oak for 21 years against 80 cents for the creosoted ties. 
Of course, the initial capital invested in the creosoted tie is 
twice that for the oak tie, but even if this is taken into account, 
with interest at 6 per cent compounded for seven years, the 
creosoted ties would not cost more than $1 for 21 years' use. 
A great deal of the Atlanta tracks is cast-welded, but in the 
last eight years the company has done very little work along 
this line. 

Acknowledgments are due to W. H. Glenn, secretary and 
manager of railways, of the Georgia Railway & Electric Com- 
pany, for the material upon which this article is based. 



THE MEN TO EMPLOY FOR INTERURBAN SERVICE AND 
THEIR TRAINING 



BY A MANAGER 

I find it a difficult task to comply with your request to 
write you on the subject of what men to employ and how to 
train them. Personally, I do not believe it to be a matter 
where any hard and fast rules would apply. If it were pos- 
sible always to secure competent, reliable, experienced and 
tried men of good record, it would not be necessary to discuss 
the question. Such men are always preferable, especially if 
they have been employed in interurban service, but such men 
are seldom out of employment. If men are taken from any 
other system, a very careful investigation must be made, for 
other systems may not exercise the care that should be taken 
in employing men for this work. They must be especially 
fitted for it, if they are to make desirable men. If they had been 
compelled to leave the service of another company, there must 
be some objection to them; they must have some faults that 
would render them wholly unfit. Men will seldom leave the 
service of a company after having been in its employ for any 
considerable length of time, since the standing they have is a 
valuable asset ; so I conclude that an experienced man seeking 
employment is out of a position for cause, and when such is 
the case the facts are hard to obtain. There are exceptions, 
but I hold that this will be the case as a rule and the excep- 
tions will not be material; and since it is impossible to secure 
the experienced man, I shall consider only the employment of 
the inexperienced man. 

This work should be done in a thorough, systematic manner 
by one person on each system, and he should be a good judge 
of human nature. He should be experienced in train opera- 
tion and conversant with all the duties that the employee 
selected will have to perform. 

The applicant should have a clean record, whatever his voca- 
tion may have been. He must be honest, since he will pos- 
sibly have to handle the company's money, honest in his inten- 
tions in executing every duty; truthful — that all his state- 
ments may be relied upon: temperate — that he may he de- 



pended upon to have a clear head at all times and to operate 
h.s train properly and understand all the instructions given 
him ; intelligent — that he may be able to exercise his best 
judgment under all circumstances and in case of doubt to take 
the safe side. If he does not have a full appreciation of the 
duties that rest upon him he can hardly be expected to dis- 
charge them fully, and, failing to realize the importance of 
literal compliance with all of his instructions, he will not only 
be lax as to details, but negligent in some cases in important 
matters. He must be in good physical condition ; if he is not 
he will fail at inopportune times and be unreliable, causing 
many changes on short notice, which will often place his 
superiors in an embarrassing position and possibly cause him 
to be suddenly incapacitated. He must be gentlemanly in his 
deportment, for, coming continually in contact as he does with 
the public and those representing the company, it is important 
that he be courteous and civil always. It is needless for me 
to add that his eyesight must be good, but I want to em- 
phasize the importance of having acute hearing, since all in- 
structions, particularly in relation to train movement, are given 
over the telephone. It is necessary that he understand correctly 
and, since at times the telephones do not work in the most 
satisfactory manner, it is important that his hearing be good. 

Having secured such a man, we must assume that he has no 
knowledge of the work before him, and, as men are creatures 
of habit, care must be exercised that he is not spoiled in his 
training. In order to avoid this he should be placed with the 
most reliable men in the employ of the company. 

Having served his apprenticeship satisfactorily, the employee 
should be required to pass a creditable examination on the 
rules and be instructed in regard to the time card. He must 
be impressed with the fact that he must consult the time card 
in regard to meeting points and that he is not expected to com- 
mit it to memory, but must refer to it often enough to be 
assured that he is running on the correct time and particularly 
not ahead of time. He must be instructed properly in regard 
to his acts in case of accident and his duty toward the public 
In addition to any printed rj.'es or instructions, lessons on 
these subjects should be given, as they will make a stronger 
impression if given by the proper person and in the right man- 
ner. If the applicant is to be a motorman, he should serve a 
time in the shop under a competent instructor; if a conductor, 
in addition to such instruction as he receives while substituting, 
he should be instructed in regard to accident reports by the 
claim agent and as to tickets and other reports by the auditor 
or an assistant, and if reports indicate that the man does not 
quite understand his work lessons should be given from time 
to time until the results are satisfactory. 

We will assume that the employee is now fully equipped for 
the position he is to fill, except as to experience, and we have 
reached a period that is of still greater importance, since he is 
now subject to discipline. To exercise discipline properly one 
must be very careful, using his best judgment, remembering 
that the man is yet a novice and that there are various degrees 
and kinds of offenses, and that there are errors voluntary and 
involuntary ; also wilful disobedience and various degrees of 
punishment ; and, while we are considering these matters with 
a view to securing safety, the commercial side must not be 
overlooked. Nor must we forget that heretofore the employee, 
having been a student, has always been directed and possibly 
never asserted himself. His characteristics will now begin 
to appear, and, as they present themselves from time to time, 
you will be better enabled to judge the man. He should now 
be observed closely for the next three to six months, for by 
such observation serious faults may be discovered that should 
be corrected, if possible, and it may be that up to this time 
one has been mistaken in the man. 

Human nature is peculiar and shows itself in many ways; 
sometimes it is indifference caused by lack of energy, possibly 
a vicious vein that has been latent. After a sufficient period 
and a thorough schooling, careful watching, competent coach- 
ing and sufficient time given and experience had, faults may 
be corrected, and yet you have but a human being subject to 



8o 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



all the faults and shortcomings that men are heir to, and mis- 
takes will be made and wrongs done. All this time we must 
watch for voluntary breaches of discipline, and after you are 
satisfied that there is no danger of that, there will yet be the 
ability of the man and the interest he takes in the work. 

Thus far we have considered the employee. Now let us 
take up the side of the employer and consider his duties. Rules 
for the government of the men may be exacting, but they must 
be consistent and practical. Nothing should be required that 
is not essential to good service and safe operation, and every- 
thing should be provided that is necessary for a literal com- 
pliance. The man should be accompanied frequently in his 
work by an official who is thoroughly conversant with all the 
duties pertaining to the position, fully alive to the importance 
of the work of training inexperienced men and with sufficient 
force of character to impress the student. Special attention 
should be given to the care of details, for by neglect of them 
a good man may be spoiled. No official should see an em- 
ployee — whether new or old in the service, more especially a 
new man — slight a duty without calling his attention to it and 
having him correct it at the time, if practical; if not, just as 
soon after as possible. 

It must not be taken for granted that an employee knows 
his duties and will discharge them to the letter; an official should 
know that the man understands and see that he performs the 
duties properly. This is a hard place to fill. One must be 
not only capable, firm and energetic, but have the faculty of 
instructing, and enforcing obedience, and yet not be abusive, 
never losing his temper. He must be ever mindful of the 
fact that he has the supervision of men whose acts may cost 
the loss of life or damage to property, all of which his com- 
pany is answerable for. He must never become lax, but ever 
alert and on guard. He must be thoroughly in earnest and 
believe himself that every rule is right, or he will not be 
successful in securing obedience by his subordinates. He must 
be a disciplinarian at heart, firmly believing in discipline and 
willing to subject himself to it. He must be loyal, feeling that 
he owes a duty to the public and to the man subordinate to him 
and to bis company. Requiring obedience of men, he must 
himself be obedient. If he would have men truthful and 
honest, he must not be unmindful of truth and honesty him- 
self. If he is gentlemanly in his deportment to the public 
and his subordinates, he can consistently require it of his men. 
The characteristics of a superior officer are reflected in the acts 
of his subordinates. 

After all of these safeguards have been thrown around the 
men, there will be mistakes and violation of rules, acts of in- 
suborvli nation, and accidents in consequence. It is then that 
one's best judgment must be brought to bear that justice may 
be done to all and injustice to none, bearing in mind that the 
purpose of discipline is to improve the service. An error com- 
mitted here may impair rather than better it. One should con- 
sider carefully the man, his record and general deportment up 
t this time, and all the incidents that may have contributed 
to or have been the immediate cause of the error. Causes 
remote must be considered, though they may include officials 
and even implicate the company, for in all cases facts must 
be obtained, that faults and errors may be corrected and a 
repetition may be avoided. In considering a case do not 
act hastily. Analyze carefully every feature, for a decision 
in all such cases is important, and when you determine that a 
man is responsible, that he has undoubtedly committed an error 
or violated a rule or disregarded an order, consider well before 
you act. Perhaps the man came to you but a few months 
before, untutored and inexperienced, not yet fully impressed 
with the importance of his work and the responsibility that 
rests upon him; perhaps never in his life before subjected to 
discipline. If you find it is a case of wilful disobedience, that 
the man's record is poor and that he has displayed a spirit of 
insubordination, was careless and indifferent as to the welfare 
of the public or the company or proved himself incapable, un- 
truthful, uncivil or dishonest, dismiss him. Having done so, 



you must then proceed to employ another and pursue the same 
course, giving the new man the same coaching, bearing all the 
expenses incident, taking all the chances of a mistake and the 
result, and possibly with no better success than before. And, 
after all, let us not forget that men will be just what we let 
them. If they violate rules and no exceptions are taken; if they 
neglect details and are not corrected; if they disobey instruc- 
tions and are not reprimanded ; if all errors and shortcomings 
are suffered to pass without notice, and officials are cognizant 
thereof and have failed in their duty, they are indirectly re- 
sponsible should an accident result, although the man is the 
immediate cause for the disregard of his instructions. 



JOINT RATE TICKETS IN NEW YORK BETWEEN 
METROPOLITAN AND TWO OTHER LINES 



Special forms of transfers are used by the Metropolitan 
Street Railway and the Central Park, North & East River 
Railroad in connection with the joint rate for which transfers 
are issued by these companies. An illustration of one of the 
forms used by a line of the Metropolitan system is published 
herewith. An illustration is also shown of the only form of 
ticket used by the Fifty-ninth Street cross-town line, the line 
of the Central Park company which participates in the through 
route and joint rate arrangement. 

Joint rate tickets are issued by the various north and south 
lines of the Metropolitan system which cross Fifty-ninth Street. 



Joint Rate Transfer Ticket Issued by the Metropolitan 
Street Railway 

As shown in the illustration, the coupons are numbered i, 2 
and 3 and are detachable. Upon issue of a joint rate ticket for 
10 cents the conductor retains coupon No. 3 and returns it 
with his receipts. If the ticket is used only for passage on 
the Fifty-ninth Street line the passenger surrenders coupons 
Nos. 1 and 2 and receives 2 cents from the conductor. If the 
passenger uses the Fifty-ninth Street crosstown line in order 
to transfer from one Metropolitan north or south line to an- 
other Metropolitan north or south line he retains coupons 
Nos. 1 and 2 through the trip on the Fifty-ninth Street line 
and surrenders them for passage on the second Metropolitan 
line. 

The full text of the conditions set forth on coupon No. 2 
of the Fourth & Madison Avenue line, southbound, is in ac- 
cordance with the paragraphs on the next page : 



06000 

lexington 
Ave. line 
— Ko.lfi 












Lexlnpton Ave. Line — NORTH 

^_^Join£_^te_Ticket^OtrppN 2 

^isiiSSf 1 600 

*i S'Jtt] st A Ma&on lie. Sorti, on Heflseg Are. can : 8! 59tfl si & eth Ave 
Bwft en fill) Atl tvt ; It 591b Stt Coiuoiwj Are. Hortb Dfl Co^tiwt Are. or AfflJtir- 
Cm A.t m 

A0RJM H J0Lmt.D0UP..iS ROflKSOH, ittc«lMrtllElr^oJHa>Shutfl^«vCinK»T 


i 


S 


17 


25 


JAN, 


M . 
1 


M 

2 




2 


10 


18 


26 


FES 


3 


11 


19 


27 


HAH 

APR. 

MAr 

JUNE 


3 


4 


4 


12 


20 


28 


5 


6 


5 


13 


21 


29 


7 


8 


6 


14 


22 


30 


9 


10 


7 


15 


23 


31 


Ml 1 | 2 1 3 4 | 5 




8 


16 


24 




II 


12-N 


06000 

Lexington 
Ave. Line 
-North 


Lpxlnntnn A 


OOOOElEljaH 

^/<> I Inp-rVflRTH 


8 


16 


24 




JUNE 


II 


12-N 


Joint Rate Ticket— COUPON 1 

If conpoo 2 is attached berets, Lhia coupon Is 
raid for a continuous trip on the 59th Street A C f\ f\ A 
Crosatown Line of the Central Park. North & W U VJ W V 
East River Railroad Company, if presented at 59th Street and Ujctog. 
too Avenue, before time cancelled. 

Tela coupon is void if coupon 2 U detached. 

In consideration of tbo reduced rate at which joint rate ticket* are 
sold the privilege is limited to n eingto ride for this coupon. 

ADRIAN H.JOLINE, \ R „ dv _. 
DOUGLAS ROBINSON. J KeMJVOT 
Metropolitan Street Railway Company 


7 
6 


15 
14 


23 
22 


31 
30 


MAT 


9 


10 


5 


13 


21 


29 


APR 


7 


8 


4 


11 


20 


28 


FEB 


6 


6 


3 


11 


19 


27 


3 


4 


2 


10 


18 


26 


1 

A. 


2 

M. 


1 


9 


17 


25 


IAN 








06000 

Lexington 
-Ave. line 
-Kotti 


Lexington Ave. Line — NORTH 


1 


9 


17 


25 


IAN 


A. M. 




Joint Rate Ticket— COUPON 3 

THIS COUPON IS NOT VALID FOR FARE. IT MUST BE RE- 
TAINED BY THE CONDUCTOR AND BB f \ C fl A O 
TURNED IN BY EM, TOGETHER WITH W O W « U 
HIS RECEIPTS. 

ADRIAN H. JOLINE, \ . 
DOUGLAS ROBINSON, J receivers 


1 


2 


2 


10 


18 


26 


FEB 
MAR 

ARB. 


3 


11 


19 


•11 


3 


4 


4 


12 


20 


28 


5 


6 


5 


13 


21 


29 


7 


8 


e 


14 


22 


30 


MAT 

IUNE 


9 


10 




Metropolitan Street Railway Company 


7 


15 


23 


31 




f ] ei jpj 1 1 ^ -^trjjfl 


3 


16 


24 




II 


12-N 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



81 



"This coupon will be redeemed for two (2) cents by a con- 
ductor of the Fifty-ninth Street crosstown line of the Central 
Park, North & East River Railroad Company, if coupon 1 is 
attached hereto and both coupons are presented at point of 
intersection specified on coupon 1 before time canceled. It 
will not be redeemed if coupon 1 is detached. 

"If detached from coupon 1 this coupon will be valid for a 
continuous trip on a southbound car of any one of the follow- 
ing Metropolitan lines if presented at point indicated before time 



1200-VOLT EQUIPMENT FOR THE FORT DODGE, 
DES MOINES & SOUTHERN RAILROAD 



59th St. 
trosstowi 
lint 



78000 



59lh St. 
Crosslimn 
Line 



78000 



59^H STREET CROSSTOWN LINE 

Joint Rate Ticket — COUPON 1 

HSSIhSI iUiLim*.,! 9n(-i! B jr!,,ii'», 1 .*'[.i-v *l''..i<h 31 SM* !,'„ »■„■'" 'tUtiiZttn 
»I SSltlSI. **IS on S^h Air c.-. Sculh ei.U . XI W\ 5: \ In. i., on llh i.f m 
IiiWltwtT (StartS Onll'. *1 5StS SI. Jit) J"l 111. M fn »ip CJ". ill E91h SI f, Co „«. 

bii^iufwt IrMdw? & Colwuou; Me,. 6fajfl»Ji & JLauhrfjo lie or (Ih L Amsl a rfl*oi«. nn 

»;:.*7rtv,™txv.;. - :S" "- ~"~ M 7 8 U 


1 


9 


17 


25 




A. 
1 


M. 

2 


2 


IB 


13 


."1 


FEB. 
*Pfl. 


3 


11 


19 


27 


3 
5 


4 
6 


1 


12 


20 


28 


5 


13 


21 


29 


7 


8 


6 


14 


22 


39 


war 

JUNE 


9 


10 


«JT,sr2S3Jftr£2^r^™?~V!Si'^ Ib-o ib-a i an. 

OEO. W. LINCB. «mn..CP.».tLll. «'. ■ . < ... 


7 


15 


23 


31 


l^WlililEJIdSJUilEllEliniEQEK 


8 


ir, 


24 




II 


I2JI 




a 


13 


24 




JU-.F 

w»y 


II 


12N 


59th STREET CROSSTOWN LINE 


7 


15 


23 


31 


9 


10 


Joint Rate Ticket— COUPON 2 

This coupon is not valid for fare. It must be 
retained by the 
Conductor and be turned in by 
him together with his receipts. 7 8 Q 

GEO. VV. 1 IMC H 

Oencrul Manager C. P. . N. & E. R. R. R. Co, 


6 


14 


22 


30 


5 


13 


21 


23 


MoK 


7 


8 


4 


12 


20 


28 


b 


6 


3 


11 


19 


27 


FEB 


3 


4 


2 


10 


13 


26 


1 

A. 


2 

M 


1 


9 


17 


25 


JAK. 







Joint Rate Transfer Ticket Issued on the Fifty-ninth Street 
Crosstown Line 

canceled : At Fifty-ninth Street and Lexington Avenue south 
on Lexington Avenue cars; at Fifty-ninth Street and Sixth 
Avenue south on Sixth Avenue cars; at Fifty-ninth Street 
and Seventh Avenue south on Seventh Avenue or Broadway 
cars ; at Fifty-ninth Street and Eighth Avenue south on Eighth 
Avenue cars ; at Fifty-ninth Street and Columbus Avenue south 
on Columbus Avenue or Amsterdam Avenue cars. 

"If passenger desires to use this coupon on Ninth Avenue 
line he will so advise conductor of southbound Broadway- 
Columbus, Broadway-Amsterdam or Sixth and Amsterdam 
Avenue car at time of presenting coupon at Fifty-ninth Street 



A short note was published on page 1192 of the Electric 
Railway Journal for Dec. 17 saying that the engineers of the 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad were making 
studies of the possibility of the electrification of the road with 
1200-volt equipment. The announcement was made this 
week that this order had been placed with the General 
Electric Company. The line is now equipped with 600 volts for 
the operation of passenger trains of the company and for part 
of the freight service. The longer freight trains are hauled 
with steam locomotives. Under the new plan all the business 
will be done electrically. 

The contract includes the changing of over 70 miles of track 
from 600 to 1200 volts and the installation of a new substation, 
which will be equipped with one 300-kw, 1200-volt rotary. 
There will also be a change in the existing substations, which 
will be consolidated into two. Each of these substat'ons will 
be equipped with two 400-kw, 600-volt rotaries. In these sub- 
stations two rotaries will be operated in series. The new rolling 
stock equipment will consist of six 1200-volt, four-motor 
equipments with the GE-205 motors ; one two-motor equipment 
with GE-217 motors for a work car; two new 1200-volt, 40- 
ton locomotives with four GE-206 motors, and two similar 
motor equipments to be installed on the present 600-volt loco- 
motives of the company. Homer Loring, of Boston, is the re- 
ceiver for the company. 



REDUCTION OF CAR FAILURES IN RICHMOND 



In an article entitled "Shop Records in Richmond, Va.," pub- 
lished on pages 988 and 989 of the Electric Railway Journal 
of Nov. 12, 1910, a description was presented of some of the 
various forms used by the Virginia Railway & Power Company. 
In addition to the blanks shown in that article it may be in- 
teresting to present the accompanying cut, which is a reproduc- 
tion of part of the monthly car failure statement for December, 
1908 and 1909. At the end of the former year the company 



DATE 




| Armature Bauds II 






p 




n 

<5 







1 






« 
3 


n 












a 
a 


| Brake Ringing J|| 






& 


e 










a 






5 














as 






3 


ft 






aj 

OH 


EH 


m 


3 x 

H B 


1 










1 


1 














1 












1 














1 












1 


























i 










■> 












1 




























1 
































1 


















4 


1 




1 




3 














1 














1 






















; 








1 
















1 


























4 




1 


1 




1 


1 






































1 
















































































































































29 


1 








1 


















































1 




























1 


6 











30 






















1 
















1 


1 


















1 


I 


1 












1 
















6 




111 


1 


6 


31 


■'■ 










1 




1 
























1 










1 






















j 


















IV 




11 




1 


TOTAL 


Us) 


(2) 

3 


U) 


(/J 


(11) 
it 


ll'J) 


(/■) 


(») 


(2) 
; 




[« 

3 


Uo) 


(2) 


*> 




(2) 


(3) 


(2) 


ft' J) 


// 


(V) 


U) 


(o) 
1 


m 


(;) 
1 


(■'.') 
1 


('.) 


U) 


VJ) 

i 


(."1 

11 


(1) 

1 


«;) 

Jr. 


(:■) 
1 


III 
1 


('••) 


(11) 
10 


(.:;) 

3 


c.) 


(ii) 
1 


in 




("1 


i") 



(J) 




/ 




(HID 
196 


(li) 


lo 



(5055) 

Nuiiilier of gar Days O pe rated U22.~> 



Number of Cor Failures [jjj^ 



Failures \ ;UX 



Monthly Mileage <*% 8 ™» 



'COVOTfIT 

Failures lier Car Mile .00034 



or one failure In 



Nutk; Brwkctcl Figures nr. for December 1908 



Klfruea : _ 



Poremaii Car Ho 



Comparative Car Failure Record, Virginia Railway & Power Company 



and Columbus Avenue. Conductor will then punch in space 
indicated and return to passenger. Coupon so punched will be 
received in payment of fare on southbound Ninth Avenue cars 
at Fifty-third Street and Ninth Avenue. 

"In consideration of the reduced rate at which joint rate 
tickets are sold, the privilege is limited to a single ride for this 
coupon, except as provided in preceding paragraph. 

"Adrian H. Joline, Douglas Robinson, receivers, 

"Metropolitan Street Railway Company." 



had been inspecting its cars on a mileage basis for not more 
than nine months, but by the following December the benefits 
from continued mileage inspection had proved so successful 
that the reliability of service was increased from 1636 to 2887 
car-miles per failure. It will be observed from the headings of 
the accompanying report that they cover a great many minor 
items. It is the practice to list as a "car failure" any trouble 
which requires attention in the shop, regardless of whether or 
not it is serious enough to cause the pulling in of the car. 



82 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



INTERBOROUGH RAILS FOR TANGENTS AND CURVES 



The Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, has 
recently modified its specifications for open-hearth steel rails 
for service on tangents, by raising the minimum carbon con- 
tent from 0.70 per cent to 0.75 per cent and the maximum car- 
bon content from 0.85 per cent to 0.90 per cent. It also has been 
determined to use a manganese steel rail for curves. The fol- 
lowing paragraphs cover the principal points of both specifi- 
cations drawn up by George H. Pegram, chief engineer Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL RAILS FOR CURVES 

1. The steel for the rails shall have the following chemical 
composition, to be determined by chemical tests of each melt : 

Carbon Not less than 1.00 per cent 

Manganese 11 to 14 per cent 

Phosphorus Not over 0.10 per cent 

2. Sufficient metal shall lie sheared from the tops of ingots 
to insure sound steel in the finished rails. 

3. The number of the melt and the place and year of manu- 
facture shall be marked in plain raised letters on the side of 
the web of each rail. 

4. The rails shall be of the ioo-lb. Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company's section, shown on drawing No. 9702 (not 
reproduced) . 

The section of rails rolled shall correspond as closely as 
possible with the standard drawings furnished by the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company, and any excess of weight, 
due to variation from the standard section, shall not exceed 
1 per cent. 

5. An allowance in height of 1/64 in. under and 1/32 in. 
over, and in width 1/16 in., is permitted and perfect fit of the 
splice bars shall be maintained. 

6. The circular holes, 1 1/16 in. diameter, shall be punched 
through the web of the rails at each end for the splice bar con- 
nections, and, in addition thereto, one-half of the total number 
of rails shall have circular holes 1 1/16 in. in diameter punched 
through the web beginning 1 ft. 6 in. from the end of the rail 
and spaced 3 ft. apart for use in bolting the check rail on the 
inner side of curves. 

In addition thereto, four circular holes. 9/32 in. in diameter 
and i T S in. apart and 13*4 m - from the end of the rail to 
the first hole, shall be drilled through the web at each end of 
all rails. The punching and drilling above explained is shown 
on drawing No. 9702 (not reproduced). 

7. The rails shall be sawed off square to their longitudinal 
axes, and the lengths of the rails at 60 deg. Fahr. shall be kept 
within r/4 in. of the standard lengths of 33 ft. Ten per cent 
of the entire order will be accepted in shorter lengths varying 
by even feet down to 24 ft. 

8. The rails are to be straightened cold, to be smooth on the 
head, sawed square at the ends, and shall have the burrs occa- 
sioned by cutting and punching removed before shipment, and 
the rail shall be free from all injurious defects. The ends of 
short-length rails to be painted green before shipment. 

9. An inspector will be detailed by the company to examine 
the material and workmanship. The contractor will supply 
him with facilities free of charge for testing the material and 
examining the workmanship as per these specifications. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL RAILS 

I. The steel used for the rails shall be made by the open- 
hearth process, and have the following chemical composition, to 
he determined by chemical tests of each melt : 

Carbon, 0.7s to 0.90 per cent; average not less than 0.80 per 
cent. 

Manganese, 0.60 to 0.90 per cent. 
Silicon, not over 0.20 per cent. 
Phosphorus, not over 0.04 per cent. 

Paragraphs 2 and 3 are similar to those for curved rails. 

4. From each melt of steel a test specimen taken from the 
top end of top rail rolled from ingot shall be tested under a 
drop weight of 2000 lb. falling 16 ft. upon the center of tes - 



piece resting on supports 3 ft. apart. The permanent set 
after the blow shall be noted, and together with the chemical 
test shall form the record of each melt to be kept by the 

inspector. 

5. If the test piece breaks under the first blow of the drop 
test, the melt shall be rejected unless two additional specimens 
of metal from the top of the ingot are tested and both with- 
stand the test, in which case the melt may be accepted. 

6. After the test specimen has been given one blow under 
the drop test, it shall be nicked and broken, and if the fracture 
indicates piping, the top rail from each ingot of the melt rep- 
resented by the test shall be rejected, unless two additional 
specimens from the tops of the ingots withstand the test, in 
which case the top rails shall be accepted. 

7. If d uring the process of straightening a rail shall crack, it 
shall be taken as a sign that the steel is too hard, and the 
whole melt shall be rejected unless repeated tests of crop ends 
of the heat establish the fact that the cracking was accidental. 

8. The sections of the rails rolled shall correspond as closely 
as practicable with the standard drawings furnished by the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company, and any excess of 
weight due to variations from the standard section shall not 
exceed 1 per cent. 

9. An allowance in height of 1/64 in. under and 1/32 in. 
over, and in width 1/16 in. shall be permitted, and perfect fit 
of the splice bars shall be maintained. 

10. Six circular holes of 1 1/16 in. diameter shall be drilled 
through the web of the 90-lb. section, as shown on drawing No. 
4797 (not reproduced). 

11. The rails of 90-lb. section shall be sawed off square to 
their longitudinal axes, and the lengths of the rails at 60 deg 
Fahr. shall be kept within 3/8 in. of the standard lengths, which 
shall be 30 ft., 27 ft. and 24 ft., and not more than 10 per cent 
of the rails of the two shorter lengths shall be received. 

12. The end of all short-length rails shall be painted green. 

13. Four circular holes of 1 1/16 in. diameter shall be drilled 
through the web of the 90-lb. section, as shown on drawing Mo. 
8761 (not reproduced). 

14. The rails of ioo-lb. section shall be sawed off square to 
their longitudinal axes, and the lengths of the rails at 60 deg. 
Fahr. shall be kept within 3/8 in of the standard lengths, 
which shall be 33 ft., 32 ft.., 31 ft., 30 ft., 29 ft, 28 ft, 27 ft. 
26 ft., 25 ft. and 24 ft., and not more than 10 per cent of the 
rails of the nine shorter lengths will be received. 

15. The rough edges produced by the saw at the rail ends 
shall be well trimmed off and filed. 

16. The rails shall be perfectly straightened, and the skin or 
surface smooth and free from flaws or cracks. 

17. Inspection clause as in curved rail specification. 



MEETING OF THE INTERURBAN RULES COMMITTEE 



The first meeting of the interurban rules committee of the 
Transportation & Traffic Association will be held in New 
York, Wednesday, Jan. 25, at the headquarters of the American 
Flectric Railway Association, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street. 

The committee is now complete and consists of the follow- 
ing gentlemen : 

J. W. Brown, superintendent of transportation Aurora, Elgin 
& Chicago Railroad, Wheaton, 111., chairman. 

F. A. Boutelle, superintendent Tacoma Railway. Tacoma, 
Wash. 

W. R. W. Griffin, general manager Steubenville & East Liver- 
pool Traction & Light Company, East Liverpool, Ohio. 

C. F. Handshy, general superintendent Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, Springfield, 111. 

A. S. Shane, general manager Indianapolis, Columbus & 
Southern Traction Company, Indianapolis, Ind. 

W. H. Collins, general manager Fonda, Johnstown & Glovers- 
ville Railroad, Gloversville, N. Y. 

F. M. Durbin, assistant operating manager J. G. White & 
Company, New York. 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



83 



INTEGRAL OIL CUPS IN BROOKLYN 



The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company still uses a large 
number of motors which originally were made for grease lubri- 
cation. The attempt to use oil cups in these motors has not 
been entirely successful, as the grease cavities in the frames 




Fig. 1 — Oil Cup for Axle Cap, Commutator End, Westing- 
house No. 81 Motor 

were too irregular to allow a tight fit. Hence many cups were 
lost by being thrown out of the frame when the trucks passed 
over special work or rough spots in the line. Another difficulty 



3 




8 Section B-E 

SCC TIONS THROUGH 
ARMATURE BEARING HOUSING 

p LiiLon ?■ Commutator Ends 



A 




SECTIONS THROUGH 

AXLE CAP 

" "" ".7 «■ Commutator End'- 

Fig. 2— Babbitted Oil Cups for No. 81 Motor 

with the cups was the fact that they had a needle valve to con- 
trol the feed. Frequently these valves would stick and thereby 
cause the loss of armatures. To overcome these troubles the 
mechanical department of this company has adopted an oil re- 
ceptacle which is a part of the motor frame. It is made in 
two forms as shown in the accompanying drawings. Fig. I 



shows the construction when the oiling method embodied in 
a new axle cap casting, while Fig. 2 shows how armature bear- 
ing and axle castings can be turned into oiling cups by babbitt- 
ing. In both patterns the oil is fed through a wick-filled 
spindle. The covers of all boxes are also similar, being made 
of malleable iron with a leather gasket to insure the exclu- 
sion of dust when the jam nut is tightened. The receptacles 
are filled with oil after raising a i-in. fiat spring in the cover. 
These oil boxes will replace the independent oil cups in use 
on the G. E. 57, G. E. 64, Westinghouse 68 and Westinghouse 
8t motors operated under the surface passenger cars 
••^<*. 1 — 

A 3000-KW ROTARY CONVERTER 



Late in 1909 the lnterborough Rapid Transit Company, New 
York, found that the load on its system was rapidly outgrowing 
the capacity of its substation equipment. Excessive overhea I 
charges made it imperative that the maximum possible output 
per square foot of floor space be obtained from the substations 
already erected. It was finally decided to secure bids, on the 
basis of maximum output per unit of floor area, on two rotary 
converters to replace two 1500-kw machines in substation No. 
14. the load having increased beyond their capacity for eco- 
nomic operation. The 1500-kw machines were subsequently 
transferred to other substations which were in need of addi- 
tional capacity. 

The contract for two 3000-kw rotary converters was awarded 
to the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. With 
the same available floor space the normal capacity of the old 
substations was doubled. It is interesting to note that the 
horizontal construction was chosen in preference to the ver- 




3000-kw Rotary Converter in New York 

tical. The result of competitive design clearly showed that 
no material saving could be effected by the vertical arrange- 
ment ; in fact, on the basis of kilowatts per square foot of floor 
space occupied, the capacity of the horizontal units selected ex- 
ceeded by more than 20 per cent the capacity of machines of 
the vertical type. 

The new rotaries, which have by far the largest capacity of 
any built up to the present time, are designed for six-phase op- 
eration on a 25-cycle a.c, 600-volt d.c. system, and are rated 
3000 kw each at i87j-i r.p.m. The first was installed in Novem- 
ber, 1909, and the second one month later. Both have been in 
continuous service ever since. The weight of each of these 
rotary converters is 150.000 lb. 



8 4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



"IDEAL" TROLLEY WHEEL 



TAP COVER AND STUD 



A new type of the "Ideal" trolley wheel has recently been put 
on the market by the Lumen Bearing Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 
It is made in the 4^2-in. size for city service and the 6-in. 

for high-speed interurban service. The con- 
struction of the wheel, as will be noticed by 
the cut, tends to keep it perfectly balanced. 
The side flanges are of stamped soft steel 
and the contact ring and hub are in one piece. 
In this way, it is claimed, the electrical re- 
sistance and the weight of the wheel are 
kept low, while the life of the wheel is in- 
creased. 

The wheel is fitted with a graphite bush- 
ing in which the slots for the graphite are 
wedge shaped. This gives a more secure 
seat for the graphite and reduces the chances 
of sand or grit getting into the bearing. 
The R. D. Nuttall Company, Pittsburgh, is the exclusive agent 
of the Lumen Bearing Company for the sale of this wheel. 




The insulated tap cover shown in the accompanying cut is 
manufactured by Dossert & Company, New York, for use in 
place of the taped joint commonly em- 
ployed. It can be put on or taken off in 
less than a minute, and may be used on 
cables ranging in size from No. 6 to 300,- 
000 circ. mil. It is said to be especially 
adapted to switchboard work, as it makes 
a better insulated joint than tape. It is 
smoother and offers less opportunity for 
collection of dust and dirt. The upper cut, 
showing the stud connector, Style F, is 
used to connect a wire or a cable to a stud 




Stud 



"Ideal" Wheel 




SELECTOR SIGNALS FOR THE INDIANAPOLIS & 
CINCINNATI TRACTION COMPANY 



Tap Cover 

or threaded rod. It consists of a nipple, one end of which is 
equipped with a regular tapered nut and compression sleeve 
to take a certain size wire, while the other end is tapped and 
threaded to receive the stud. 



The Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company, C. L. 
Henry, president, has arranged with the United States Electric 
Company and the Hall Signal Company to make a trial instal- 
lation of selector signals on the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company's single-phase road. The lines of this company 
extend from Indianapolis east through Rushville to Conners- 
ville and southeast through Shelbyville to Greensburg. The 
new installation will include four agents' call bells and two 
semaphores, all arranged for direct control by the dispatcher 
through the medium of Gill selectors connected to the present 
telephone circuit. The dispatcher for both divisions of this 
road is located at the junction of the two lines just east of 
Indianapolis. Semaphore installations will be made at Greens- 
burg and Connersville, the eastern extremities of the two 
branches. The ringing sets will be in- 
stalled in the depots at these two termini 
and at Shelbyville and Rushville. 

The railroad company has two tele- 
phone circuits, one for train operation 
and one for business use. The selector 
sets will be connected to the business 
circuit. As stated, selectors in the four 
most important offices on this road will 
be arranged to operate bells for calling 
the agent to the telephones. Two other 
selectors will serve to operate the electric 
slots of semaphores, furnished by the 
Hall Signal Company. These will be 
placed at sidings and serve to block trains 
when the dispatcher wishes to have the 

crews call him on the telephone. The purpose of the present 
limited installation is to determine the applicability of the 
apparatus to conditions surrounding high-voltage single-phase 
train operation. 



The official tramway traffic returns of 64 of the principal 
undertakings of the United Kingdom for the week ending Dec. 
17. 1910, amounted to £200,220, or £16,510 more than for the 
corresponding week of 1909, while the track mileage was 2505, 
or 191 more than for the corresponding week. The receipts 
were at the rate of £~g 18s. 7d. per track mile, an increase of 
10s. 9d. per mile as compared with the year 1909. The receipts 
from the London County Council and Liverpool Corporation 
tramways, which are included in the above statistics, are for a 
preceding week, as these two corporations issue their returns 
later than the others. 



SINGLE- TRUCK PREPAYMENT CARS FOR NEW ORLEANS 



The St. Louis Car Company has just completed 50 single- 
truck cars for the New Orleans Railway & Light Company. 
These cars have round-end vestibules, monitor deck roof with 
detachable hoods, straight side paneling, and are arranged for 
double-end operation and prepayment fare collection. 

The car body is 22 ft. 1 in. over the corner posts, and 32 
ft. 8 in. over the buffers. It is 8 ft. 4 in. wide over all and 
8 ft. 27-8 in. wide over the side posts. 

The bottom construction is the car builder's Robertson steel 
channel design. The side sills consist of two 6-in. channels 
placed back to back with wrought-iron spaces between to 
receive the posts. The subsills consist of angle iron riveted 




Single-Truck Cars for New Orleans 

together and bolted to all cross and end sills. The end sills 
and cross timbers are all of white oak. The cross timbers are 
securely fastened to the channel sills with 5^-in. corner irons 
bolted through to the outside channels. The draft timbers 
are of white oak. The outside draft timbers are reinforced 
with 6-in. x ^2-in. iron plate. The flooring is of 13-16-in. 
yellow pine. Maple strip floor mats are used. 

The body framing is of the straight panel type for 10 win- 
dows on each side and two at each end. The doors in the 
bulkheads are of the double sliding type. The interior finish, 
including all doors, end and side linings, is of mahogany. 
The cars are equipped with the car builder's latest walk-over 
seats with corner grip handle. The trimmings throughout 
are nickel plated and are of the car builder's patterns. 

The cars are further equipped with the St. Louis Car Com- 
pany's standard 14-in. brake handle and drawbars. 



January 14, 191 1. 1 



ELFLTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



85 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY LEGAL DECISIONS 



CHARTERS, ORDINANCES AND FRANCHISES 

Missouri. — Eminent Domain — Condemnation for Railroads 
— Prerequisites to Right — Right to Question. 

A railway company organized under Rev. St. 1899, chap. 
12, art. 2 (Ann. St. 1906, p. 804), derives from the State 
authority to condemn lands for railroad purposes, and not 
from a city or other municipality in which it may desire 
to enter, and it need not first procure consent of a munici- 
pality to use its streets as a prerequisite to its legal right 
to condemn private property for such purposes. 

The power of a regularly organized and chartered rail- 
road company chartered to construct and operate a railroad 
for public use in the conveyance of persons or property to 
run freight trains over its track cannot be questioned in a 
condemnation proceeding. (State ex rel. Greffet et al. v. 
Williams, Judge, et al., 127 S. W. Rep., 52.) 
Missouri. — Eminent Domain — Taking of Property — Ease- 
ments — Instructions. 

The owner of real estate abutting on a public street has 
an easement therein of light, air and access, which is prop- 
erty, of which he cannot be deprived without compensation. 

When an elevated street railroad, constructed and oper- 
ated on permanent structures along a public street pursuant 
to permission from the city, deprived an abutting owner of 
his easement in the street of light, air and access, he could 
recover the damages sustained. 

In an action for damages caused by the construction and 
operation of an elevated street railroad, an instruction that 
the measure of damages was the difference between the 
market value of the property immediately before the "con- 
struction, maintenance and operation" of the road and im- 
mediately after was not in conflict with an instruction that 
if the market value of the property immediately after the 
"building and operation" of the road was equal to or greater 
than it was immediately before there could be no recovery, 
and that the burden rested on the abutting owner to prove 
that he had been damaged by reason of the "construction" 
of the road, since they fixed the measure of damages at the 
difference, if any, between the market value of the prop- 
erty immediately before and immediately after the construc- 
tion and operation of the road, as the omission of the word 
"maintenance" in the second instructions could not have 
misled the jury. (Rourke et al. v. Holmes St. Ry. Co. et al., 
119 S. W. Rep., 1094.) 

New York. — Eminent Domain — Action for Compensation — 
Judgment — Award of Damages. 
In an action by an abutting owner for damages caused 
by the construction and operation of a street railroad, de- 
fendants are entitled to have the judgment against them 
distinguish between the rental and fee damages, and it was 
reversible error to render a judgment awarding a single 
sum for both. (Duncan v. Nassau Electric R. Co., 91 N. E. 
Rep., 787.) 

New York. — Eminent Domain — Compensation — Additional 
Servitude. 

Where an abutter does not own the fee in the street, dam- 
ages from the construction of a street railroad may be re- 
stricted to injury to light, air and access, his only ease- 
ments; but if he owns the fee subject to the public ease- 
ment he may recover additional damages which proper 
operation of the road entails. (Rasch v. Nassau Electric 
R. Co. et al., 91 N. E. Rep., 785 ) 
New York. — Judgment — Conclusiveness — Parties. 

That a village intervened after judgment in foreclosure 
proceedings against a street railroad company as a creditor 
at the foot of the judgment to establish claims against the 
property in the hands of the railroad company's receiver 
did not render the judgment conclusive as against the vil- 
lage in so far as it authorized the purchaser to reject any 
contracts, franchises, rights, etc., purchased at the sale 
which it did not desire to assume on its assigning the same 
to the receiver. (Knickerbocker Trust Co. v. Tarrytown, 
W. P. & M. Ry. Co. et al., 123 N. Y. Sup., 954.) 
New York. — Foreclosure of Mortgages — Debts Entitled to 
Priority. 

The surety on an appeal bond given by a street railroad 



company on appeal from a judgment recovered by the city 
of New York for car license fees, which has paid the judg- 
ment and taken an assignment thereof, is subrogated only 
to the rights given by the judgment; and, there being no 
statute giving such judgment any lien or preference, it is 
not entitled to priority of payment over a prior mortgage 
on a sale of the company's property in foreclosure proceed- 
ings. (Central Trust Co. of New York v. Third Ave. R. Co. 
et al., 180 Federal Rep., 710.) 

New York. — Foreclosure of Mortgages — Receivership — Im- 
provement of Property. 
A court of equity which through its receivers is operat- 
ing an extensive system of street railroads pending the 
foreclosure of mortgages and liens on its various parts has 
power in its discretion to authorize the expenditure of 
money by the receivers in the completion of car houses, 
which are being rebuilt or enlarged on certain of the lines, 
where in its judgment such expenditure is necessary to 
meet the requirements of the system and render adequate 
service to the public, leaving the question of the distribu- 
tion of the expense as between the different mortgagees to 
be determined on a final accounting. (Pennsylvania Steel 
Co. et al. v. New York City Ry. Co. et al., 180 Federal Rep., 
704-) 

New York. — Rights in Streets. 

The rights of an electric railway company in a highway 
are subject to the right of the public authorities to improve 
the highway as the public interest requires, and to the lia- 
bility of being required to change its location, grade, etc., 
to conform to the requirements of such public improve- 
ments, at its own expense, without recourse against those 
lawfully engaged in improving the highway for any damage 
that might be done to the railroad property, when no reck- 
less or negligent act causes any damage; and where pro- 
ceedings authorizing the improvement of a highway as a 
state road were regularly had, an electric railway company 
occupying the highway could not recover for damages re- 
sulting from the careful construction of the road. (Malone, 
Ft. C. & H. P. Ry. Co. v. Spuyten Duyvil Const. Co. et al., 
121 N. Y. Sup., 656.) 

New York. — Nuisance — Injunction — Partial Defense. 

Where there is a technical nuisance, if plaintiff's damage 
is small, or only occasional, or easily compensated for in 
money, and injunctive interference with defendant would 
work great public mischief and inconvenience, equity will 
seek to protect plaintiff's right by other means. 

In a suit to restrain a nuisance, consisting of defendant's 
maintenance of an electric power plant in the vicinity of 
plaintiff's residence, a partial separate defense, alleging that 
defendant's business was maintained to supply electricity 
to operate the various trolley and elevated railroads in the 
borough of Brooklyn, that defendant had complied with all 
the municipal ordinances, used the best appliances and ma- 
terials, and exercised great care, and could not carry on its 
business in any other manner, was not demurrable. (Ray- 
mond v. Transit Development Co., 119 N. Y. Sup., 655.) 
Oklahoma. — Municipal Corporations — Grant of Right to 
Use Street — Exclusive Grant. 

An ordinance of a municipal corporation granting to a 
corporation authority to use the streets, alleys and public 
grounds of a city for the purpose of constructing and oper- 
ating an electric light and power plant to furnish light and 
power to a city and its inhabitants confers privileges which 
are exclusive in their nature against all persons upon whom 
similar rights have not been conferred; and any person or 
corporation attempting to exercise such right, without leg- 
islative authority or sanction, invades the private property 
rights of the corporation to whom such franchise has been 
granted, and may be restrained at the instance of the owner 
of the franchise. ( Bartlesville Electric Light & Power Co. 
v. Bartlesville Interurban Ry. Co., 109 Pac. Rep., 228.) 
Pennsylvania. — Rights in Streets — Right to Cross — Corpor- 
ations — Implied Powers. 

That a city does not properly maintain a street for public 
use does not affect its right to prevent a railroad company 
from occupying the street. 

A railroad company to cross a city street without mu- 
nicipal consent must possess such charter power, though 
it owns the land on both sides of the street. 



86 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



That a lessee railroad company under its charter has 
power to cross city streets without municipal consent would 
not authorize it to extend a leased road over a street with- 
out such consent where the charter of the leased road re- 
quires such consent. 

The doctrine of implied power of corporations will not 
be extended to permit that to be done by a corporation 
which the Legislature has previously said shall not be done, 
even if without such implied power the grant of some par- 
ticular franchise would be valueless. (Pittsburgh Rys. Co. 
v. City of Pittsburg, 75 Alt. Rep., 681.) 

Pennsylvania. — Municipal Corporations — Taxation — Liabil- 
ity of Property — Public or Quasi Public Corporations. 
The real estate of a public or quasi public corporation 
essential to the exercise of its corporate franchises is not 
subject to taxation for local purposes, in the absence of 
legislative authority imposing such taxes. (Federal St. & 
P. V. Pass. Ry. Co. et al. v. City of Pittsburgh et al., 75 
Atl. Rep., 662.) 

South Carolina. — Baggage — Refusal to Transport. 

If a street car company waived its rule prohibiting pas- 
sengers from bringing large and unwieldy articles into the 
car by permitting a passenger to bring a graphophone horn 
into the car with him, it will be liable to punitive damages 
for afterward refusing to allow plaintiff to become a pas- 
senger with a graphophone horn. ( Vlasservitch v. Augusta 
& A. Ry. Co., 67 S. E. Rep., 306.) 

Texas. — Stopping of Cars to Permit Passengers to Alight — 
Ordinances. 

Under an ordinance requiring a street railroad to stop at 
street crossings where passengers request it, where the con- 
ductor received the fare and was then informed that the 
passenger wanted to alight at a particular street, he must 
stop the car there to permit the passenger to alight. (Texas 
Traction Co. v. Hanson, 124 S. W. Rep., 494.) 
Vermont. — Carriers — Rebates — Intrastate Shipment. 

A contract between the receiver of a railroad company 
and a shipper for payment of a rebate on an intrastate ship- 
ment is not illegal. (Bibber-White Co. v. White River 
Valley Electric Ry. Co., 175 Federal Rep., 470.) 
West Virginia. — Crossing with Other Roads — Suit to De- 
termine — Parties. 

In a suit pursuant to Code 1906, c. 52, sect. 11. for decree 
fixing the crossing of one railroad by another, the holders 
of the mortgage bonds of the defendant railroad are not 
necessary parties when the trustees in the mortgage are 
made parties. 

An electric railroad may be decreed the right to cross a 
steam railroad. The physical character of the railroad 
seeking the crossing, or that of the railroad proposed to be 
crossed, has nothing to do with the applicability of the 
statute. 

Grade crossings are not prohibited but are authorized by 
the law of this State. Where the facts warrant a crossing 
at grade, its construction and operation may be decreed. 
(Tri-State Traction Co. v. Pittsburgh, W. & K. R. Co. et al., 
68 S. E. Rep., 25.) 

Wisconsin. — Right to Street — Injunction — Alternative Legal 
Relief. 

The operation of interurban cars being unlawful, both 
as against the adjoining landowners, being an additional 
burden on the public easement in the street, and as against 
the public, the company's charter not authorizing^ such 
operation, a court of equity could not, in consideration of 
money paid to the adjoining owners in satisfaction of their 
private wrongs, refuse to enjoin the company's unlawful 
act, though the adjoining owners' property be of insignifi- 
cant value to them as compared with the advantages that 
would accrue to the company from the use of the street. 
(Schuster et al. v. Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co. 
et al., 126 N. W. Rep.. 26.) 

LIABILITY FOR NEGLIGENCE 
Delaware. — Street Railroads — Collision of Car and Team — 
Due Care — Concurrent Negligence. 
The proper care required to be exercised both by the 
motorman of a street car and the driver of a team in ap- 
proaching a crossing, to avoid a collision, depends on the 
facts and circumstances of each case. 



Where, in case of the collision of a street car and team, 
both the motorman and the driver were negligent, there 
can be no recovery for injury to the team and driver, unless, 
after the driver got in the place of danger, the motorman 
saw, or by the exercise of reasonable care could have seen, 
him in time to avoid the accident. (Clay v. People's Ry. 
Co., 76 Atl. Rep., 319. ) 

Illinois. — Injury to Person on Track — Care Required. 

Where decedent was killed after alighting from a car, by 
a car passing in the opposite direction as he was going 
around the end of the car from which he alighted, he was 
only bound to the exercise of reasonable care under all the 
circumstances, and was not bound "to ascertain" whether 
there was a car approaching on the other track from the 
opposite direction. (Stack v. East St. Louis & S. Ry. Co., 
92 N. E. Rep., 241.) 

Indiana. — Street Railroads — Crossing Accident — Care Re- 
quired. 

The driver of an interurban electric car over a city street 
crossing is bound to have his car under control to avoid 
collision with other travelers on the streets, so that, while 
the operation of a train on a steam railroad over a country 
crossing at from 30 to 60 miles an hour may not be negli- 
gent, the operation of an electric car over a street crossing 
at anything like such rate of speed would constitute gross 
negligence. (Union Traction Co. v. Howard (No. 6324), 86 
N. E. Rep., 967.) 

Indiana. — Street Railroads — Injuries to Travelers — Fright- 
ening Horses — Negligence — Imputed Negligence. 
Where plaintiff when she was injured was riding with her 
son, 20 years of age, able to manage horses under any or- 
dinary circumstances, and, when the team was frightened 
by the approach of defendant's car, he did what he could 
to avert the accident, instructions that the son's negligence 
could not be imputed to plaintiff if she was free from fault, 
and the passive guest of the son, without any authority to 
direct or control his movements in managing the team, 
were proper. (Cincinnati. L. & A. Electric St. R. Co. v. 
Cook (No. 6695). 88 N. E. Rep., 76.) 

Kentucky. — Master and Servant — Injuries to Servant — Fel- 
low Servants — Motorman. 
A street railway motorman is not the fellow servant of 
the motorman of another car running on the same line and 
employed by the same company. (Louisville Ry. Co. v. 
Hibbitt, 129 S. W. Rep., 319-) 

Louisiana. — Care Required — Noises. 

Where a street railroad company had created a confusion 
of noises and car tracks at a crossing, it was bound to use 
extraordinary care in handling its cars there to prevent in- 
juries to pedestrians. (Hanna v. New Orleans Ry. & Light 
Co. (No. 17,570, 52 S. Rep.. 856.) 

Louisiana. — Street Railroads — Operation — Duty — Rate of 
Speed — Street Car. 
The necessity of being careful about the speed of a street 
car is not as urgent at 12 o'clock at night as it is during the 
active business hours of the day, when there are many 
persons and vehicles on the street. (Dubose v. New Or- 
leans Ry. & Light Co., 49 S. Rep.. 696.) 

Louisiana. — Collisions — Negligence- — Evidence. 

A child about six years old suddenly started from the 
sidewalk to run across a street on which street cars were 
operated, when a car was approaching. The car according 
to some witnesses was near, and according to others 10 ft. 
or 15 ft. away. The motorman saw the child start across 
the street and endeavored to stop the car, which was run- 
ning at half speed; but he failed to do so, and the car struck 
the child. The car was stopped within 46 ft. Experienced 
men testified that a stop of the car within 30 or 50 ft. was 
a good stop. Held, as a matter of law, that the accident 
did not result from the negligence of the motorman. 
(Litolff v. New Orleans Ry. & Light Co., 50 S. Rep., 105.) 

Massachusetts. — Street Railroads — Injuries to Travelers- 
Instructions. 

In an action for injuries in a collision with a street car, 
a request for rulings on the question of liability, excluding 
the question of plaintiff's due care, was properly refused. 

In an action for injuries to a traveler in a street car 



January 14, 191 1 .] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



«7 



collision, a request for a ruling, excluding the distinction 
between negligence and a mere error of judgment on the 
part of the motorman, was properly refused. Blackburn vs. 
Boston & N. St. Ry. Co. : Knowlton vs. same, 87 N. E. Rep., 
579-) 

New Jersey. — Death — Excessive Damages. 

Where, in an action for wrongful death, it appeared: 
That decedent was 50 years old; that he was earning $10 a 
week; that, though at one time when running a farm with 
the aid of his family he earned a much larger income, he had 
quit farming and was working as a farm laborer; that in 
three months' time he had contributed only $40 to the sup- 
port of his family; that all but four of his children were 
married; and that the unmarried children were aged 14, 20, 
22 and 24 years of age, respectively— a verdict for $6,000 was 
excessive. (Settlemeyer vs. Public Service Ry. Co., 73 Atl. 
Rep., SO.) 

New York. — Street Railroads — Actions — Instructions — 
Standard of Care. 
An instruction that when a pedestrian attempts to cross 
a street car track at such a distance from an approaching car 
that he has reasonable ground to suppose that he will be 
able to cross it is the driver's duty to give him a reasonable 
opportunity to cross made the pedestrian's reasonable 
ground for belief, and not his supposition, the standard of 
his care. (Sperry v. Union Ry. Co. of New York City, I 14 
N. Y. Sup., 286.) 

New York. — Master and Servant — Electricity — Death of 
Employee — Employer's Failure to Report Defect. 
In an action against an employer for the death of an em- 
ployee claimed to have been caused by electricity passing 
through a rubber glove furnished him, it was improper to 
submit to the jury the question of the employer's negligence 
in furnishing improper gloves, where the employee had the 
better opportunity to ascertain whether the gloves were de- 
fective. 

As to an employee, an employer is not chargeable with 
notice of a defect which it is the employee's duty to report, 
but which he fails to do. (Gardner v. Schenectady Ry. Co., 
112 N. Y. Sup., 369.) 

New York. — Negligence — "Res Ipsa Loquitur" — Burden of 
Proof — Carriers — Street Railroads — Injuries to Passen- 
gers — Negligence — Nominal Damages. 

While the doctrine of "res ipsa loquitur" does not permit 
a recovery without some proof of negligence, yet, if proof 
of the occurrence shows that the accident could not have 
happened without negligence according to the ordinary ex- 
perience of mankind, the doctrine is applicable, though the 
precise omission or act of negligence is not specified. 

Where a street car passenger was thrown to the floor in 
a collision, the cause of which was not shown, and there was 
no suggestion that plaintiff was negligent, he was at least 
entitled to recover nominal damages, regardless of the ex- 
tent of his injuries. (Levine v. Brooklyn, Q. C. & S. R. Co.. 
119 N. Y. Sup., 315.) 

Pennsylvania. — Carriers — Setting Down Passengers — Negli- 
gence. 

Passengers on a street railway could alight on either side 
of the car, and in alighting step down on a level macadam 
road on one side, or on a receding gutter on the other side. 
A passenger in an open summer car with a running board on 
<>ach side stepped off on the gutter side, and in so doing, the 
step being a little high, she lost her balance and fell and was 
injured. The accident occurred in the twilight. The gutter 
was made by grading the highway under municipal regula- 
tion, and was of the general character of gutters alongside 
country roads. Held, that such passenger was not entitled 
to recover for the injuries sustained. (Sligo et al. v. Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Co., 73 Atl. Rep.. 211.) 

Pennsylvania. — Carriers — Street Railways — Collisions at 
Steam Railroad Crossing — Accident to Passenger. 
The trolley wheel of a car left the wire when the car 
was passing over a steam railroad crossing without negli- 
gence on the part of the street railway company, and the cai 
was run into by a locomotive. There was nothing to show 
that the parting of the trolley was due to any defect in the 
construction or to lack of care. Held, that the passenger 
could not recover. (Gaines et al. v. Chester Traction Co.. 
73 Atl. Rep., 7.) 



Texas. — Railroads — Killing Persons on Track — Negligence 
— Burden of Proof — Use of Track — Licenses. 

Trainmen discovering an object on the track in front of 
the train must at least exercise ordinary care to ascertain 
what it is, and where, by failure to do so, a person lying on 
the track is killed the company is liable. 

One suing for the death of a person struck by a train be- 
cause of the failure of the trainmen to exercise ordinary 
care, after discovering decedent's peril, has the burden of 
proving that the discovery of the peril of decedent was made 
in time to enable the trainmen by the exercise of proper 
care to avoid the collision. 

A license to use a railroad track for a footpath does not 
include the right to use it as a place whereon to lie or sit. 
(Caldwell et al. v. Houston & T. C. Ry. Co., 117 S. W. Rep., 
488.) 

Texas. — Carriers — Injuries to Passengers — Care Required. 

In an action for injuries sustained by falling from a street 
car step while alighting, because the steps were worn and 
slanting, and were slippery from mud, and because of the 
conductor's failure to warn plaintiff of their condition and 
assist her to alight, the court, after instructing that it was 
the company's duty to use such means to enable passengers 
to alight safely as persons of the greatest care and prudence 
would use, which was the care a very prudent, careful and 
competent person would use under similar circumstances, in- 
structed that it was the conductor's duty to be prudent and 
skilful to see that passengers were not injured in alighting, 
and he was negligent if he failed to use the greatest degree 
of care as defined, and that it was the company's duty to 
exercise the greatest degree of care as defined to construct 
and maintain proper steps for its cars so as not to injure 
passengers, and, in the next instruction, left it to the jury 
whether the conductor's failure to assist and the slippery 
condition of the steps, etc., was negligence, and also gave a 
proper charge on contributory negligence. Held, that the 
charge as a whole fairly and fully presented the issues, and 
was not misleading, as instructing that it was the conduc- 
tor's duty to use care in aiding plaintiff to alight. (North- 
ern Texas Traction Co. v. Danforth, 116 S. W. Rep., 147.) 

Virginia. — Street Railroads — Injuries to Travelers — Liabil- 
ity — Instructions. 

A traveler on a street on which a street car is operated 
may go on or near the track in passing a wagon standing 
near the curb, and the motorman must warn her of the 
approach of the car, where there is danger of running her 
down, and must slow down his car so as to avoid injuring 
her, if he can do so in the exercise of reasonable care after 
he ought to have seen her peril. 

Where, in an action for injuries to a bicycle rider struck 
by a street car, the evidence showed that the rider went on 
or near the track in passing a wagon standing near the curb, 
and the proof was conflicting whether the accident occurred 
before or after the car had passed the wagon, an instruction 
that the car had the right of way at the point at which the 
accident occurred, and that if the motorman was proceeding 
at a lawful rate of speed, and plaintiff was not approaching 
a place of obvious danger, the motorman owed no duty to 
slow down his car, covered both phases of the case and left 
the jury to determine at what point plaintiff was injured, 
rendering it proper to refuse instructions assuming that the 
accident did not occur until after the car had passed the 
wagon. (Norfolk & P. Traction Co. v. O'Neill, 64 S. E 
Rep., 948.) 

Washington. — Death — Damages — Excessiveness. 

Decedent, a stone mason by trade, 47 years old and in 
good health, with ability to earn wages at from $6 to $6.50 
per day, was killed while attempting to alight from defend- 
ant's moving electric car. He was a kind, affectionate 
father and devoted most of his earnings to the support of 
his family. There was no evidence as to his habits of in- 
dustry or sobriety, except that on the day he was killed 
there was evidence that he had spent the afternoon with a 
companion in a saloon playing cards and pool, and that, 
after they boarded the train, they were seen by fellow pas- 
sengers drinking from a bottle. Held, that a verdict for 
$10,000 was excessive and should be reduced to $6,000. (Felt 
et al. v. Puget Sound Electric Ry., 175 Federal Rep., 477.) 



88 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



News of Electric Railways 



"Program of Mid-Year Meeting 

The last week of this month will be an active one for the 
American Electric Railway Association and its affiliated 
organizations. 

On Wednesday, Jan. 25, a meeting will be held in New 
York of the executive committee of the American Electric 
Railway Claim Agents' Association. On the same day 
meetings will be held by a number of committees of the 
Transportation & Traffic Association. Several of these 
will be held in New York, including that of the committee 
on interurban rules. Others will be held elsewhere when, 
in the opinion of the chairman of the committee, a larger 
attendance of the members of the committee will be se- 
cured than if New York was selected as the place of meet- 
ing. On Wednesday and Thursday the classification com- 
mittee of the Accountants' Association will meet in New 
York. 

On Thursday, Jan. 26, beginning at 10 a. m., a great many 
committee meetings are scheduled to be held in New York 
City. These include meetings of the executive committees 
of the Accountants' Association and of the Transportation 
& Traffic Association and of the following committees of 
the American Association: Public relations, compensation 
for carrying United States mail, rates and fares, taxation, 
insurance and public relations. In the afternoon of the 
same day a meeting will be held of the executive committee 
of the American Electric Railway Association. 

As already announced in this paper, the annual mid-year 
meeting of the American Electric Railway Association will 
be held on Friday, Jan. 27. and will consist of two sessions, 
one in the morning beginning at 10 o'clock, and the other in 
the afternoon beginning at 2 o'clock. The program of this 
convention, so far as it is now determined, is as follows: 

Address on "Return on Investment," by Thomas N. Mc- 
Carter, president Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J. 

Address on "The Adjustment of American Street Rail- 
way Rates to the Expansion of City Areas," by George H. 
Davis, Ford, Bacon & Davis, New Orleans, La. 

Address on "Discount on Securities," by Bentley W. 
Warren, general counsel Boston & Northern Street Rail- 
way and Old Colony Street Railway, Boston, Mass. 

Address on "Railway Arbitration, with an Example," by 
Clarence Deming, associate editor Railway Age-Gazette. New 
Haven, Conn. 

In the evening the Manufacturers' Association will enter- 
tain at a banquet the officials of the member companies 
of the association in attendance at the meeting. This din- 
ner will be given at the Hotel Astor at 7 p. m. and will be 
followed by addresses by prominent speakers. 

The notices of the annual meeting, which were sent out 
by the secretary some time ago, were accompanied by a 
card upon which the companies were requested to advise 
the secretary of the name of the official who would prob- 
ably attend this annual mid-year meeting. These cards are 
now being received by the secretary in large numbers and 
indicate that the attendance at the meetings will be very 
representative as regards both number of companies and 
individuals. 



Conference on Interurban Operating Methods in New York 

The following official call has been made by the Public 
Service Commission of the Second District of New York 
through J. S. Kennedy, secretary of the commission, for the 
conference of general managers, division superintendents, 
chief train dispatchers and master mechanics of the inter- 
urban electric railways under the jurisdiction of the com- 
mission in Syracuse on Jan. 19, 191 1, of which brief mention 
was made in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 31, 
1910, page 1283: 

"The following resolution has been adopted by this com- 
mission: 

"Whereas, There have occurred during the past few 
months a number of serious accidents on interurban elec- 
tric railroads (nearly all outside the State of New York 



but involving conditions existing in this State), and the 
same are of frequent occurrence; and 

"Whereas, Nearly all of these accidents were caused by 
defective methods of operation, defects in block signals or 
violation of rules or orders; now 

"Resolved, That a conference of the general managers, 
division superintendents, chief train dispatchers and master 
mechanics of the interurban electric street railroads under 
the jurisdiction of this commission be called and held in 
Syracuse, N. Y., on Jan. 19, 191 1, at 10 a. m., for a discus- 
sion of all questions affecting the safety of operation by 
said railroad companies. 

"C. R. Barnes, the electric railroad inspector of this com- 
mission, has been instructed to arrange the details of this 
conference, and he has suggested the following program, 
which has been approved by the commission. 

"In view of the limited time which can be devoted to this 
conference, we believe that the best results will be obtained 
by limiting the discussion to four important subjects which 
have a direct bearing on collisions and their causes. 

"With the view of facilitating the work of the conference 
and to effect the purpose indicated above, the commission 
has invited the following-named gentlemen to prepare and 
read papers on the indicated subjects: 

" 'Methods of Employment, Instruction and Discipline of 
Motormen and Conductors on Interurban Roads,' by J. K. 
Choate, general manager of the Otsego & Herkimer Rail- 
road. 

" 'Collisions on Interurban Roads and Their Causes,' by 
E. F. Peck, general manager of the Schenectady Railway. 

" 'Train Dispatching on Interurban Roads,' by C. E. 
Lewis, chief train dispatcher of the New York State Rail- 
ways. 

" 'Block Signals on Interurban Roads,' by W. K. Howe, 
signal engineer. 

"These men, by reason of their experience, are ably quali- 
fied to point out defects in present-day methods of opera- 
tion, and the ideas expressed in their papers, followed by a 
full and free discussion by all present, it is hoped will form 
the basis for suggestions for greater safety of operation. 

"You, and the members of your operating force desig- 
nated in the above resolution, are respectfully requested to 
attend the conference, which will be called to order at the 
Onondaga Hotel in Syracuse on the above-mentioned date 
and hour, and which will continue for two days if neces- 
sary." 



Program of Central Electric Railway Association 



The following program has been announced for the 
annual meeting of the Central Electric Railway Association, 
which is to be held in the palm room of the Claypool Hotel, 
Indianapolis, Ind., on Jan. 19, 1911: 

MORNING SESSION, 9 :30 A. M. 

Business session and reports of special committees. 
Paper, "Logical Basis for Valuations of Interurban Street 
Railways," by C. G. Young, engineer, New York, N. Y. 
Discussion. 

Paper, "Relation of Common Carriers to the Public," by 
Joseph A. McGowan, secretary and treasurer of the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, Indian- 
apolis. Ind. 

Discussion. 

Adjournment for lunch. 

AFTERNOON SESSION, I P. M. 

Paper, "Automatic Signaling for Electric Railways," by 
W. K. Howe, engineer of the General Railway Signal Com- 
pany, Rochester, N. Y. 

Discussion. 

Reports of standing committees. 
Annual report of secretary-treasurer. ' 
Annual address of the president. 
Election of officers. 

The executive committee will meet immediately after the 
adjournment of the association. 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



The official call for the meeting, signed by George Why- 
sail, president of the association, and A. L. Neereamer, 
secretary, is dated Jan. 6, 191 1. It contains the following 
suggestions : 

"In view of the fact that this is the annual meeting and 
that the officers for the ensuing year are to be elected as 
well as reports from the standing committees read, it is 
sincerely hoped that every member of the association will 
be present and make it one of intense interest. 

"It is suggested to those members living at a distance- 
that the trip be made in special interurban cars, which 
will tend not only to increase the interest but make the 
trip one of immense value by personal observation. 

"Members have the privilege of bringing their wives and 
inviting any friends they wish to have present at this meet- 
ing. It is also urged that all operating, traffic and me- 
chanical officers be present. 

"The attention of managing officers is called to the fact 
that some of their subordinate officers are on important 
committees which should make report at this meeting." 



Transit Affairs in New York 



The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company made a propo- 
sition to the Public Service Commission on Jan. 10, 1911, 
which involves the expenditure of $30,000,000 for the opera- 
tion of the Fourth Avenue subway in Brooklyn and certain 
extensions of its own existing system which, with a pro- 
posed subway across Manhattan Island connecting with 
Brooklyn by way of the Manhattan Bridge, would give the 
company a through route, for the most part four-tracked, 
from the North River to the Atlantic Ocean. It is stipu- 
lated in the proposition that the fare to Coney Island shall 
be ro cents, although the city is given the right to reduce 
the fare to 5 cents provided the city assumes any deficit 
resulting from the operation at that fare. 

The company offers to divide the net profits equally 
with the city for the Fourth Avenue subway, but stipulates 
that the city bind itself to stand any losses should the 
profit not be sufficient to meet the sinking fund costs and 
the cost of construction. For the line into Manhattan the 
company offers only to stand interest on the cost of con- 
struction and the sinking fund charge, the city still to be 
liable for any deficit. The company proposes also to extend 
the four-track system of the Brighton Beach line north of 
Church Avenue and to connect that line with the Fourth 
Avenue subway, which is now under construction by the 
city as far as Forty-third Street. The company also pro- 
poses to operate trains across the Manhattan Bridge and 
across Manhattan Island in a subway to be laid out along 
some route that may seem feasible. The offer includes the 
extension of the Brooklyn Fifth Avenue line from Third 
Avenue and Sixty-fifth Street to Fort Hamilton. This 
would not interfere with the previous proposition of the 
company to use the Centre and Delancey Street subway 
from the Williamsburg Bridge for surface cars, as well as 
for elevated trains. 

The letter of the Public Service Commission of the First 
District of New York favoring the proposal of the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company for the construction and 
operation of new subway lines in New York was considered 
by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment of New 
York on Dec. 30, 1910, and referred by that body to its 
transit committee, consisting of Mayor Gaynor, Comptroller 
Prendergast and President Mitchel, of the Board of Alder- 
men. At the meeting of the board on Jan. 5, 191 1, Messrs. 
Prendergast and Mitchel, as 2. majority of the transit com- 
mittee, presented a report in which they assailed the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company and declared in favor of 
an independent subway as the only solution of the city's 
transit problem. In connection with their report Messrs. 
Prendergast and Mitchel sought to obt?.in the adoption of 
the following resolutions: 

"Resolved, First — That the available credit of the city 
be devoted to the construction of an independent munici- 
pally owned and controlled subway system, whose integrity 
as an operating unit can be forever maintained. 

"Second — That the present or future ava.ilable credit of 
the city shall not be lent, in whole or in part, to any ex- 
isting system of subways until such independent system 
shall be completed and put in operation." 



When put before the board this resolution to commit the 
city at this time to an independent subway system and to 
deny municipal credit to the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company for its extensions was defeated by a vote of 10 
to 6. The question was raised whether the meetings of 
the Board of Estimate in committee of the whole for the 
consideration of the subway matter should be open or 
private. Mr. Mitchel offered a resolution to the effect that 
all such meetings, with the exception of the conference 
with the Public Service Commission, should be public, but 
withdrew his resolution on the understanding that the board 
would meet publicly when important action on the matter 
was to be taken or discussed in a formal way. The vote 
for the resolution referring the matter to the committee 
of the whole was unanimous. 

The Public Service Commission has adopted a resolution 
providing for a public hearing on the proposition for a 
subway and tunnel from Fourth Avenue and Sixty-fifth 
Street, Brooklyn, under various streets and private prop- 
erty and New York Harbor to St. George, Staten Island. 
This would connect with the Fourth Avenue subway, 
although that has been contracted for only as far as Forty- 
third Street. A resolution requesting the commission to 
lay out such a rapid transit route has been passed by the 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment on motion of Bor- 
ough President George Cromwell, of the Borough of Rich- 
mond. The hearing is set for Jan. 18, 191 1. 

Suit Heard to Compel Annulment of Agreement Between 
Company and City of Philadelphia 

The suit of Elmer E. Erode, as a taxpayer of Philadel- 
phia, to annul the agreement executed on July 1, 1907, be- 
tween the City of Philadelphia and the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company was before the Supreme Court in Phila- 
delphia on Jan. 3, 191 1, for argument on appeal from the de- 
cision of Judge Kinsey in Common Pleas Court No. 1 sus- 
taining the validity of the agreement. John McClintock, Jr., 
represented Mr. Brode, and James G. Gordon and Ellis 
Ames Balla.rd appeared for the city and the company. This 
is the last of the several suits arising from the adoption of 
this agreement and the withdrawal of the six-for-a-quarter 
tickets. 

Mr. McClintock's principal contention was that the act of 
April 15, 1907, under which the agreement was made be- 
tween the city and the company, was unconstitutional, in 
that "it violates Article IX, Section 7, of the Constitution 
of Pennsylvania, in attempting to authorize cities to acquire 
the property of motor-power companies which are holding 
companies, and thereby become stockholders in such com- 
panies, and in attempting to authorize cities to loan their 
credit to private corporations by attempting to authorize 
such cities to enter into the management of such companies 
by the appointment of directors." 

In replying Mr. Gordon, after giving a synopsis of the 
agreement between the city and the company and the pur- 
poses of the agreement, said in part: 

"It is indeed magnifying the letter and killing the spirit 
of the Constitution to argue that the provision of this 
agreement which enables the city to resume at a fair price 
certain functions which the most progressive school of 
political economy now says should never have been granted 
to private corporations should be blocked by a constitu- 
tional provision intended solely to put a stop to a diversion 
of public funds in aid of private promotions. 

"Reverting to Wheeler vs. Philadelphia, we may say in 
the language of this court: 'We may be very sure that a 
purpose so unreasonable was never entertained by the 
framers of the Constitution.' 

"As a corollary to his main proposition, the appellant 
argues at great length that credit has been lent to the 
Philadelphia Rapid Trasit Company by reason of the fact 
that a partnership has been effected. It is an abuse of terms 
to speak of the city and the company as being or becoming 
partners. There cr.n be no partnership between them. The 
company was, is and will continue to be a corporation, 
transacting its business as such, and that business cannot 
become a partnership in any sense. The prohibition of the 
Constitution is not against a partnership, but against a 
lending of credit. Credit in this sense must be money credit, 
and not merely the assurance of stability, which arises 
when the relations between a corporation and a municipality 



oo 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



are amicably and equitably fixed and determined on an 
enduring basis." 

Mr. Kinsey briefly held tha.t the contract was not a com- 
plete partnership because the city is not obliged to assume 
any financial losses of the company, but merely to share 
in certain earnings. He also held that the right of the city 
to hold and operate a public utility was not involved in the 
proceeding, as the city did not contemplate any such action. 

The court reserved decision. 



Cleveland Traction Situation 

At the regular meeting of the City Council of Cleveland 
on the evening of Jan. 3, 191 1, a letter, formulated by 
Mayor Baehr and G. M. Dahl, street railway commissioner, 
was adopted as a reply to the communication of the Cleve- 
land Railway asking for a conference on the changes in 
the Tayler grant under which the Cleveland Railway oper- 
ates suggested by N. W. Harris & Company and recom- 
mended by Harris & Company to be made. The reply re- 
fuses to grant a conference and the Council places itself on 
record as opposed to the changes suggested. The letter 
suggests, however, that the administration might consider 
the idea of allowing bonds to be sold at a discount. 

When asked for a statement in regard to the action of the 
Council, J. J. Stanley, president of the company, said that he 
hoped the Mayor, the street railway commissioner and 
the Council would do nothing to prevent the company 
from giving good service and improving its system. Mr. 
Stanley sa.id further that it was the avowed intention of 
the framers of the franchise to protect the stockholders in 
the values allowed them and pay a dividend of 6 per cent 
on the investment, as well as the return of the principal. 
He also said that the action of the Council indicated that 
the city does not wish to treat with the compa.ny upon its 
recommendations, one of which was to amortize the fran- 
chise value given to the stock, to insure the stockholders 
the full amount allowed them in the settlement. 

By some it is thought that the company will do the best 
it can with the power and equipment it has until the city 
authorities see fit to aid in securing funds with which to 
meet its needs. Others have concluded that the city offi- 
cials a.re playing politics and do not wish to make a move 
that would injure their interests. 



Railway Affairs in Detroit 

The committee on franchise of the Detroit City Council 
had no report to make to that body on the evening of Dec. 
28, 1010, regarding the proposed negotiations with the De- 
troit (Mich.) United Railway on the franchise question. 
The committee met and discussed the matter earlier in the 
day, but reached no conclusion. 

F. T. Barcroft, who appraised the property of the com- 
pany for the committee of fifty, was present at the meeting 
on Dec. 28, 1910, and again stated that he was ready to 
discuss his work under "proper conditions." Several mem- 
bers of the committee are in favor of allowing him to pro- 
ceed, provided he does not consume unnecessary time. 

The committee seems to be divided over the necessity of 
having another appraisal until an agreement is made which 
will insure the acceptance of the new appraisal by both 
sides. Some of the members felt that the Webster ordi- 
nance has in a way met with the approval of the people, 
and that the company has verbally agreed to accept it if 
enacted, provided a valuation fixed by a competent board 
of arbitration is embodied in it. 

Judge Connelly has given the company another week in 
which to make tests and prepare plans for ventilating its 
cars. Attorney Donnelly, for the company, stated that a 
ventilating system made by a local company is perhaps the 
best, but that it requires a change in the heating system of 
the cars which will entail too heavy an expense at this 
time. He said this system would be installed as rapidly 
as the heaters wore out or need repairs, but that plans for 
immediate improvements will be presented at the time 
specified by the court. 



Suit to Set Aside Chicago Settlement Dismissed. — The 

Supreme Court of the United States has dismissed an ap- 
peal from the decision of the Supreme Court of Illinois, 



which had dismissed a suit brought by Clarence H. Vernier 
as a stockholder of the Chicago City Railway to set aside 
the street railway settlement ordinance of Chicago which 
was approved in 1907. 

Dedication of Mechanical Engineering Laboratories, Uni- 
versity of Nebraska. — On Jan. 9 the new Mechanical En- 
gineering Laboratories of the University of Nebraska at 
Lincoln were formally opened. Invitations to the cere- 
mony were issued in the name of the Board of Regents, 
the Chancellor and the Faculty of the College of Engineer- 
ing of the University. 

Bion J. Arnold to Report on Service in Providence. — Bion 
J. Arnold, Chicago, 111., who has been in conference re- 
cently with the special committee on railroad franchises 
of City Council of Providence, R. I., is to be retained by 
the City Council to study traffic conditions in Providence, 
with a view to making recommendations as to how the 
Rhode Island Company can improve its service. 

Two Technical Papers Combine. — Announcement has re- 
cently been made of the consolidation of the Electric 
Trunk Line Age and the Railway Electrical Engineer. 
C. L. de Mura.lt, of the firm of Muralt & Company, engi- 
neers, and professor of electrical engineering at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, has been retained as editor. He was 
formerly editor of the Electric Trunk Line Age. 

Test of Storage Battery Car in San Francisco. — The pub- 
lic utilities committee of the Board of Supervisors of San 
Francisco, Cal., has decided to recommend that the board 
accept the offer of the Federal Storage Battery Car Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y.. to furnish a storage battery car for 
experiment on the Geary Street Park & Ocean Railroad, 
which is being equipped for operation by the city, to deter- 
mine the possibilities of the car for use on the road. 

Railways Sustained in Their Contentions Against the 
Ohio State Tax Commission. — On Jan. 3, 191 1, Judge Kin- 
kead, sitting at Columbus, Ohio, ruled, in the injunction 
cases of the Cincinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth Railway 
and the Felicity & Bethel Railway against the Ohio State 
Tax Commission, that the character of the business rather 
than the charter is the vital point of difference between 
^-team railroads and interurban railways. The companies 
mentioned had brought suit to prevent the commission 
from certifying them to the state auditor as steam rail- 
roads or on the tax basis of steam railroads, and the re- 
straining order is continued in force by the court. Both 
these roads were formerly operated as steam railroads, but 
several years ago they changed their motive power to elec- 
tricity and the character of the business to interurban 
work. Had they been certified as steam railroads they 
would have been compelled to pay an excise tax of 4 per 
cent on their gross earnings. Under the interurban rule 
they will pay 1.2 per cent. Owing to the failure of the 
company to state its causes of action properly Judge Kin- 
kead sustained the demurrer of Attorney General Denman 
against the petition filed by the Youngstown & Ohio River 
Railway in a case similar to those above, but the same 
Keneral ruling was made. 

Meeting of National Civic Federation. — The invitations 
have been issued for the eleventh annua.l meeting of the 
National Civic Federation, which was called for Jan. 12, 13 
and 14, 191 1, at the Hotel Astor, New York. The discussion 
of the subject of industrial efficiency, including considera- 
tion of the piecework, bonus and premium system of pay- 
ment for labor, occurred on Jan. 12, 191 1. The proposed 
uniform State measure on compensation for industrial acci- 
dents was presented and discussed on Jan. 13. The other 
subjects for consideration, to wit, "The Regulation of Com- 
binations and Corporations" and "Methods of Preventing 
Industrial Disturbances," are likewise of interest to all em- 
ployers. The speakers on the subject of "Efficiency" were 
Harrington Emerson, of the Emerson Company, New 
York City; H. L. Gantt, industrial expert, New York City; 
Warren S. Stone, grand chief of the International Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers, Cleveland, Ohio; James 
O'Connell, president of the International Association of 
Machinists, Washington, D. C. The program of the meeting 
of the federation on Jan. 12, 13 and 14, 191 1, was given 
briefly in the Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 17, 1910, 
page 1213, and the meeting of the sub-committee of the fed- 
eration to discuss means of preventing strikes by employees 



January 14, 191 1. 1 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



91 



of public service corporations was referred to in the same 
issue, page 1205. 

LEGISLATION AFFECTING ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 

Massachusetts. — The Legislature of 1911 convened on 
Jan. 4. Speaker Joseph Walker of the House, and Presi- 
dent Allen T. Treadway of the Senate, were re-elected. In 
accordance with the ideas advanced by Governor Foss, a 
bill has been introduced to abolish the Railroad Commis- 
sion, the Gas & Electric Light Commission, the Highway 
Commission a.nd the Boston Transit Commission, and 
create a new public utilities board to assume the functions 
of the existing commissions in the main. The bill as drawn 
would provide two commissions of three members each, one 
with jurisdiction in Boston and the other with jurisdiction 
in the rest of the State. Many special reports to the Legis- 
lature by various commissions are expected. Among these 
are the studies of the Railroad, Harbor a.nd Land, Metro- 
politan Park and Boston Transit Commissions of the elec- 
trification of railroads, inter-terminal tunnel, Boston & 
Eastern Elevated Railroad project, consolidation of the 
Boston Elevated Railway a.nd West End Street Railway, 
acquisition of control of suburban traction systems by the 
Boston Elevated Railway and the construction of additional 
subways and tunnels for rapid transit service in Boston. 

New Jersey. — The Legislature convened on Jan. 10. John 
Franklin Fort's term as Governor will end on Jan. 16, 191 1. 
Dr. Woodrow Wilson, his Democratic successor, will be 
inaugurated on Jan. 17. Governor Fort in his message 
recommended that the Legislature should enact a law 
abolishing the rule which makes the negligence of a fellow- 
servant a defense in personal injury cases, but he made no 
reference to the work of the new Board of Public Utility 
Commissioners. The Senate is Republican and the House 
is Democratic, and a flood of bills was introduced in the 
Senate at once which are in keeping with Republican 
pledges. One of these measures would confer rate-making 
powers on the Board of Public Utility Commissioners. Both 
branches have adjourned until the evening of Jan. 16. 

New York. — The Legislature convened on Jan. 4 and 
continued in session for two days, when it adjourned to 
reconvene on the evening of Jan. 12. During the prelimi- 
naries incident to organizing for business Senator Stilwell, 
a Democrat from the Bronx, introduced a bill abolishing 
the Public Service Commissions and establishing in thefr 
place two new commissions to lie known as corporations 
commissions, one with jurisdiction outside of New York 
City and the other with jurisdiction in New York City. 
The commission with jurisdiction in the State would con- 
sist of five members, as at present, with a salary of $10,000 
each, the new commissioners to be appointed by Governor 
Dix. It is proposed to substitute a corporation commission 
of five members for the present commission of the First 
District, one member to be elected from each borough, and 
the salary to be $10,000 each. The same powers are pro- 
posed for the new commissions as are vested in the Public 
Service Commissions, except that the telegraph and tele- 
phone supervision would be divided territorially between 
the two corporation commissions instead of being lodged 
with the Public Service Commission of the Second District 
as at present. 

Rhode Island. — The Legislature convened on Jan. 3, 191 1, 
and before the committees were appointed a bill to create 
a public service commission in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of Governor Pothier in his annual message was 
introduced by Senator Pierce, of Cranston. Accompanying 
the act was a resolution calling for the appointment of a 
special joint committee to consider the subject and all other 
matters of the same nature. The act provides for a 
service commission of five members, to be appointed by the 
Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
with full control over fares, freight rates, price of gas and 
electricity and telephone rates. The commission would be 
vested with power to fix the wages and regulate the hours 
of labor and conditions of employment of conductors, 
motormen, engineers, brakemen, linemen, operators, clerks 
and other employees in any of the public services regulated 
by the act. The bill provides that no motorman or con- 
ductor of any street railway shall be required to work more 
than 10 hours in any one day. 



Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Market 

Jan. 10, 1911. 

Sharp selling of practically all of the active issues during 
the closing hour of trading to-day carried prices below 
yesterday's levels. The net losses were not lar^e, but they 
were recorded in almost every issue. The earlier hours 
of the day had developed much the same conditions that 
had characterized the market for the last week. Trading 
was confined largely to the professionals. The indus- 
trials were weaker than the railroads, although there was 
no apparent reason for this. 

The bond market continues to be encouraging and the 
money market easy. Quotations for money to-day were: 
Call, 3@4 per cent: 90 days, 3J/2@3M per cent. 

Other Markets 

Traction shares have been fairly active in the Philadelphia 
market during the week, but not sufficiently so to indicate 
that any particular buying sentiment has developed. 

Railways certificates have been much less active during 
the week in the Chicago market than they were before the 
close of the old year. Series 2 has been far more active 
than the others, but there has been little change in price. 
There has been a small movement in Metropolitan Elevated 
with some advance in the selling-price of both issues. 

Massachusetts Electric issues and Boston Elevated have 
been traded in to a limited extent in the Boston market 
during the week, but there have been no particular price 
changes. Other tractions are inactive. 

There has been very little trading in United Railways 
stock on the Baltimore market within the past week. Th e 
bonds of the same company have been fairly active at 
former prices. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

Jan. 3. Jan. 10. 

American Railways Company a-42'/ 2 at\2 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) a.13 a\aV\ 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) 83K a85K 

Boston Elevated Railway 129 129 % 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common).... ai6 ais'A 
Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred).... 872 a7i 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common)., aio aiolA 
Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred), a^gV 2 a40 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit 7S 3 A 75 £6 

Brooklyn Rapid Tranr.it Company, 1st ref. conv. 4s... 83!^ 83 

Capital Traction Company, Washington ai2g *i2g 

Chicago City Railway 165 a2oo 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common).... *3'A *3'A 
Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred).. *y'/i *T l A 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 aioo aioo 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 a25J4 a2.s 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 an!4 an 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 4 af>y 2 a6'/2 

Cleveland Railway *9i l A *9i!4 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey a72 a72'/4 

Consolidated Traction of N. J., 5 per cent bonds .... aio4 3.104*/$ 

Detroit United Railway *(>gVn 3-67'A 

General Electric Company ai$i l A ai52 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common).... 117^4 118 
Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred).... 87^4 88'X 

' Interborough-Metropolitan Company (common) 19M 19% 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 5454 53 3 A 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (4I/2S) 79>i 79-V& 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common)... &22 l A a22 
Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred).. a72 a?i 

Manhattan Railway.^ ai40 ai40 

Massachusetts Electric Company (common) *i$A ai9 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) a8s a§5 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) a22\A a22 ! /4 

Metropolitan West Side. Chicago (preferred) a7o a6q l A 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York *igA *i9'/4 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light ( preferred) .... *i 1 *no 

North American Company 65^4 64 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) a22 a22 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) a65 a6j 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common) 50^ as2 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (preferred) 43 a44' ; 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company aiSl-i aig^i 

Philadelphia Traction Company a§4 a84*A 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent col. notes.... ag6 ag6 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs aiooJ/J aioo' ■ 

Seattle Electric Company (common) aio6 l / 2 aio6';. 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) ai02'/2 aio3 

South Side Elevated Railroad (Chicago) a72 a68 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York 10 an'j 

Toledo Railways & Light Company a8 a8 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) ... .aiog ai09 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia a\iV 2 a45'6 

United Rys. & Electric Company, Baltimore *i4'/2 ai7 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (common) 31^ 41H 

Llnited Rys. Inv. Co. (preferred) 60 65 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) a33?4 *33 3 ^> 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred).... 86V2 *S6'/j 

West End Street Railway, Boston( common) a9i ag2^i 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) aio3 ai04-K- 

Wer.tinghouse Elec. Si Mfg. Co 66 66'4 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st pref.) *i^4 

a Asked. "Last sale. 



92 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



Annual Report of the Boston & Worcester Electric 
Companies 

A statement of the results of operations of the Boston & 
Worcester Electric Companies for the year ended Sept. 
30, 1910, shows total income of $55,710, of which $30,375 
was received as dividends on Boston & Worcester Street 
Railway shares owned and $25,335 was interest on notes 
and other miscellaneous income. Total disbursements were 
$54,549, divided as follows: Dividend of $1 per share on 
preferred shares, payable on Jan. 1, 1910, $33,936; interest 
on $300,000 of 3-year notes, $18,000; miscellaneous expense, 
$2,613. The surplus for the year was $1,161 and the ac- 
cumulated surplus $4,296, making a total surplus of Oct. 
1, 1910, of $5,457. The report of the Boston & Worcester 
Street Railway for the year ending Sept. 30, 1910, follows: 
Income: 

Passenger receipts $576,154 

Transportation library books 200 

United States mail 451 

Track and power rental 1,031 

Rent of buildings, equipment, advertising, etc 5,048 

Total income $582,884 

Operating Expenses: 

Maintenance of track and line $35,9 '5 

Maintenance of buildings 410 

Maintenance of equipment 71,184 

Transportation labor 83,399 

Electric motive power, including power plant repairs.. 81,568 

Other transportation expenses 10,728 

Salaries of treasurer, superintendents, auditors and 

clerks 16,598 

Fuel for buildings 475 

Printing, tickets and stationery 3,641 

Removal of snow and ice 2,220 

Track rental 710 

Insurance 10.500 

Advertising 3,733 

Damages 17,782 

Otber general expenses 4,482 

Total operating expenses $343,345 

Net above operation . $239,539 

Interest cbarges $130,231 

Taxes 40,077 170,308 

Surplus for year $69,231 

Dividend 1 1 / 2 per cent, paid during year 30,375 

Net surplus for year $38,856 

Surplus Oct. 1, 1909 2,873 

$41,729 

Less deductions for adjustment of old accounts 6,188 

Total surplus Oct. 1, 1910 $35,541 

William M. Butler, president of the Boston & Worcester 
Electric Companies, says in his report: 

"Passenger receipts of the street railway company in- 
creased about $24,000 ever' the previous year, approximately 
4 I /< per cent, which compares favorably with the increase 
of passenger revenue of other street railways throughout 
the State. It will be remembered that the company dur- 
ing the year ending Sept. 30, 1909, received an unusual in- 
come of about $19,000 for the sale of power to other street 
railways on account of temporary disability of power 
plants. No such unusual income has been received the 
past year, but the passenger receipts have so increased 
that this amount has been more than made good and the 
total gross income has increased $5,300 more than the 
year before. 

"The operating expenses were $22,000 in excess of the 
previous year, a large part of which is accounted fcr by 
the increased amounts charged to the maintenance of track, 
line and equipment. 

"The fixed charges for the year were somewhat less than 
last year, as a portion of the floating debt of the previous 
year was converted into capital stock. 

"The profit and loss surplus has increased during the 
year frcm $2,873 to $35,541. 

"The street railway company has now no floating debt, 
except that owed to the Boston & Worcester Electric Com- 
panies and its current accounts, and has a good supply of 
cash on hand for its requirements. 

"While the net earnings of the operating company for 
the past two years have been disappointing, the share- 
holders may be assured that the management is making 
every effort to increase its revenue and to operate the 
property in a most economical manner, always having in 
mind, however, the necessity of keeping its roadbed, equip- 
ment and other property in a high state of efficiency. 



"The passenger express service between Boston and 
Worcester, inaugurated in the early part of this year, has 
proven popular and successful and will undoubtedly con- 
tinue to stimulate our through travel between Boston and 
Worcester, and the natural growth of the cities and towns 
through which we operate should continually produce a 
healthy increase in local travel. 

"The trustees, after most careful consideration of the 
dividend question, unanimously decided that no. action rela- 
tive to a dividend be taken at this time. 

"The financial condition of the company is excellent, 
but it seems wise to defer dividend action for the present, 
so that when dividends are resumed they may be expected 
lo continue without interruption." 



United Properties Company of California 



The United Properties Company of California was in- 
corporated at Dover, Del., with a capital stock of $200,000,- 
000 on Dec. 30, 1910, to merge all the public utilities com- 
panies of Oakland and Berkeley, Cal., including the ferry 
line that connects those places, with San Francisco. The 
directors of the company are F. M. Smith, W. S. Tevis, 
R. G. Hanford, Gavin McNab, C. B. Zabriskie, W. A. Al- 
berger, Dennis Searles and Harry W. Davis. The operat- 
ing offices will be in San Francisco and Oakland. Mr. 
Zabriskie is manager in New York of the Pacific Coast 
Borax Company, of which Mr. Smith is president. In 
addition to public utilities, the promoters will establish a 
steamship line. F. M. Smith, speaking of the company's 
plans, said: 

"The company will organize, finance and create many 
new enterprises, as well as increase and develop others 
already in existence, and means a great deal to California. 
Most of the activity will be on the Oakland side of San 
Francisco Bay, and immense sums of money will be ex- 
pended in the elaboration of carefully worked out plans, 
of wide scope, for the gradual development of public 
utilities, the completion of which will be fully consummated 
as rapidly as possible. Among the plans so far decided on 
are those for the development of the Key Route basin, em- 
bracing projects of great value to the industrial, manu- 
facturing and commercial interests of Oakland. While 
outside capital has taken advantage of the situation, the 
composition of this new company is strictly Californian, 
and the management will be in the hands of local men 
familiar with the conditions who have been the principal 
factors in the origin of the properties now to be fully de- 
veloped." 



Report on Assets of New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad 



The special committee, consisting of Walter Perley Hall, 
George W. Bishop, Clinton White, William D. T. Trefry and 
A. B. Chapin, appointed by the Legislature of Massachu- 
setts to appraise the property of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad with a view to ascertaining 
if the assets of the company exceeded its outstanding capital 
stock and indebtedness, filed the following report on Dec. 
31, 1910: 

"The commission created under Acts of 1910, Chapter 
652, 'An act to validate the present outstanding securities 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and 
to provide for an examination of its property,' now files 
a certificate of its finding with the secretary of the Com- 
monwealth. This is to certify that the outstanding capital 
stock and indebtedness of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad as of June 30. 1910, which it finds to be 
the only practical date of ascertaining this indebtedness, 
were as follows: 

Outstanding capital stock $104,435,600 

Indebtedness 289,711,863 

"And it further certifies that the outstanding capital stock 
as of June 15, 1910, was $104,435,600, and its indebtedness as 
of said June 15 was not in excess of $289,711,863. 

"And it further certifies that the aggregate corporate as- 
sets of said corporation we.re sufficient as of June 15, 1910, 
to secure its said outstanding capital stock and indebted- 
ness to the said amount hereinbefore stated." 

In an explanatory note the commission adds: 

"June 30, 1910, was the date of the close of the financial 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



93 



year of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 
and all its subsidiary companies, and is identical in time 
with the financial year for which a return is required by 
the interstate commerce commission and the Massachusetts 
railroad commission. 

"The return of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad, as of said June 30, disclosed capital stock of 
$121,878,100. One hundred and seventy-two thousand nine 
hundred and forty-six shares of said capital stock were on 
said date in the treasury of the New England Navigation 
Company, and 1479 shares in the treasury of the Rhode 
Island Company. By virtue of stock ownership of said 
companies by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road Company, certificates of said amounts have been 
treated as treasury stock of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad and not as outstanding capital stock. 

"All payments to the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad on account of the stock subscriptions and premiums 
thereon have been taken as indebtedness and not as capital. 
Payments for the New England Navigation Company have 
been deducted therefrom by virtue of the stock ownership 
by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad." 

On or before Feb. 15,1911, the commission is expected to 
file a detailed report of the results of its work, in accordance 
with the provisions of the validating act. 



Chicago (111.) Railways. — In the account which was pub- 
lished in the Electric Railway Journal of Jan. 7, 191 1, 
about the sale of the property of the Chicago Consolidated 
Traction Company to the Chicago Railways and the County 
Traction Company mention was made of the controversy 
over the question of fares which arose as the result of the 
separate operation of the lines within the city and those 
outside the city. These difficulties still remain unsettled, 
although the compromise is still in effect which provides for 
a 5-cent fare until Feb. 12. 1911. A number of conferences 
have been held and indications point to an arrangement 
which will provide for one fare across the city limit line 
within prescribed zones. 

Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Railway, Delaware, Ohio. — 
The stockholders of the Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Rail- 
way have voted to increase the capital stock of the com- 
pany to $600,000 by an issue of $100,000 of preferred stock, 
with a view to ending the receivership. 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railway. — It is stated that nego- 
tiations are pending for the purchase or underwriting by a 
Montreal syndicate headed by J. W. McConnell, of John- 
ston, McConnell & Allison, of a block of $1,500,000 of first 
consolidated mortgage 4^2 per cent bonds, to provide for 
the floating debt and the resumption of dividends. 

Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & St. Nicholas Ave- 
nue Railroad, New York, N. Y. — The sale of the property 
of the Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & St. Nicholas 
Avenue Railroad under foreclosure has been further post- 
poned by Judge Lacombe of the United States Circuit Court 
to March 17, 1911. 

Louisville & Eastern Railroad, Louisville, Ky. — T. J. 
Minary, president of the Louisville & Interurban Railroad, 
has announced that the Louisville & Eastern Railroad, 
which was purchased by the Louisville & Interurban Rail- 
road at receiver's sale on Jan. 3, 191 t , as announced in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Jan. 7, 191 1, page 50, will be 
consolidated with the Louisville & Interurban Railroad 
under that name. The Louisville & Interurban Railroad is 
incorporated with a capital stock of $1,500,000, which will 
be increased by $2,000,000. No cha.nges will be made in the 
officers or organization of the Louisville & Interurban Rail- 
road. Notice of the sale has been filed with the court, and 
Henry Glover, as receiver, will be discharged within the 
next 30 days. The Louisville Railway held claims against 
the Louisville & Eastern Railroad which amounted to $1,- 
717,500. These claims consisted of mechanics' lien amount- 
ing to $57,000; $700,000 of bonds; $500,000 of construction 
notes, and most of the receiver's certificates, amounting to 
$460,000, issued to complete the Shelbyville extension. 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York, N. Y. — The sale 
of the property of the Metropolitan Street Railway under 
foreclosure, which was scheduled for Jan. 5, 1911, has been 
postponed until Feb. 16, 191 1, upon the petition of the 
reorganization committee. 



Somerset Water, Light & Traction Company, Somerset, 

Ky. — The property of the Somerset Water, Light & Trac- 
tion Company will be sold under foreclosure on Jan. 16, 
191 1, at Somerset, Ky., by the Master Commissioner of the 
Pulaski Circuit Court. The company has been in the hands 
of J. L. Waddly as receiver for two years. 

South Shore Traction Company, Patchogue, N. Y. — It is 
stated that Joseph G. Robin, the indicted president of the 
Northern Bank of New York, which suspended recently, 
owns $569,100 of the $600,000 stock of the South Shore Trac- 
tion Company, which was placed in the hands of Paul T. 
Brady and Willard V. King as receivers on Dec. 31, 1910, as 
noted in the Electric Railway Journal of Jan. 7, [911, page 
50. Notes of $95,820 are due or about to fall due, and the 
application for the appointment of receivers was granted on 
the ground of insolvency. 

Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power Company, Lan- 
caster, Pa. — The Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power 
Company is negotiating with the United Traction Com- 
pany, Reading, Pa., to lease the properties in Reading 
which are controlled by that company. 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York, N. Y.— Robert A. 
Chesebrough, as holder of $112,000 of the bonds of the 
Third Avenue Railroad, which are represented by the bond- 
holders' reorganization committee, and the Chesebrough 
Building Company, as the owner of $55,000 of these bonds, 
have brought suit in the Supreme Court against the reor- 
ganization committee as individuals, seeking an injunction 
restraining the committee from attempting further to carry 
into effect the so-called second plan of reorganization for 
the Third Avenue Railroad. 



Dividends Declared 



Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway, 3 per cent. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) City Railroad quarterly. 2 per cent. 

London (Ont.) Street Railway, 3 per cent. 

Springfield & Xenia Railway, Springfield, Ohio, quarterly, 
l H P er cent, preferred; ]/ 2 of 1 per cent, preferred, extra. 

Stark Electric Railroad, Alliance, Ohio, quarterly, 75 cents. 

Thirteenth & Fifteenth Streets .Passenger Railway, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., $6. 

Western Ohio Railway, Lima, Ohio, quarterly, lyi per 
cent, second preferred. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MONTHLY EARNINGS 

CHATTANOOGA RAILWAY & LIGHT CO. 



Period. 




Gross 
Revenue. 


Operating 
Expenses. 


Net 
Revenue. 


Fixed 
Charges. 


Net 
Income 


1 m. 
1 " 
1 " 
1 " 


, Nov. 


'10 

'09 
10 
'09 


$70,840 
65.171 
799-419' 
707,16; 


$36,326 
36,342 
407.43 1 
405,684 


$34,154 

28,469 
391.985 
297,08 1 


$24,120 
22,237 
258,722 
237.519 


$10,034 
6,232 
133.263 
60.462 




COMMONWEALTH POWER. RAILWAY S 


: LIGHT CO 




1 111. 

1 

r " 


, Nov. 


'io 

'09 

'10 

'09' 


$431,851 
401,219 
4.513.565 
3,961,850 


$219,742 

201,41 5 
2,323.808 
2,030,431 


$212,109 
199, S04 
2.189.757 
1. 931. 419 


$120,862 
1 17.495 
1,352.559 
1.300,795 


$91,247 
82,309 
837.198 
630,624 








EAST ST. 


LOUIS RAILWAY. 






im. 
1 11 
1 " 
1 " 


, Nov. 


'10 

'09 

'10 

'09 


$194,974 
177.712 
2,161,328 
1,850,565 


$101,661 
89.839 
1.134.179 

1,001,050 


$93,313 
87.873 
1,027,149 
849.515 


$50,347 
49.941 
551.402 
544.544 


$42,966 
37.932 
475-747 
304.971 




FORT WAYNE & WABASH VALLEY TRACTION CO. 




1 111. 
1 " 
1 " 
1 " 


, Nov. 


' 1 

'09 

'10 

'09 


$123,554 
123,651 
1,389.640 
1,284,806 


$66,666 
69,770 
772,946 
748,696 


$56,888 
53.880 
616.694 
536, 1 1 1 


$45,384 
45,213 
496,767 
468.943 


$ 1 1 .504 
8,667 
1 19.927 
67,168 








ILLINOIS ' 


FRACTION 


SYSTEM. 




1111. 
1 " 
1 " 
1 " 


, Nov. 


' I 

'09 
'10 
'09 


$578,769 
479.820 
5.597.634 
4.859.145 


'$335,255 
*253.6 7 8 
*3. 301. 331 

*2, 774, 240 


$243,514 
226, 1 42 
2,296,333 
2,084,905 








ST. JOSEPH RAILWAY, LIGHT, 


HEAT & 


POWER CO. 


im. 
1 " 
1 " 
1 " 


Nov. 


'10 

'09 

'10 

'09 


$87,644 
82,296 
948,007 
893.466 


$43.96l 
42.334 
502,857 
460,03 I 


$43,683 
39.962 
439.150 
427.43 5 


$23,308 
21,608 
250,364 
235.210 


$20,375 
18,354 
188,786 
185.347 






TWIN CITY 


RAPID TRANSIT 


CO. 




1 m. 
1 " 

1 " 


, Nov. 


'10 
'09 
' 1 
'09 


$Si 9, 149 
^80,795 
6,884,875 
6,354.177 


$319,732 
273.044 
3.316,581 
2,982,786 


$299,417 
307.75 1 
3.568,291 
3.37L39> 


$137,912 
1 40.25 1 

1,539.886 2 
1,529,012 1 


$161,505 
1 67,500 
.028,408 
,842,379 






UNION RAILWAY, GAS & 


ELECTRIC CO. 




1 ni 
1 " 

1 " 


, Nov. 


' 1 
'09 
' 1 
'09 


$265,668 
251.351 
2,687,557 
-'.534.338 


$138,840 
134.71-' 
1,475,661 
1,301,649 


$126,828 
1 1 6,639 
1 .2 1 1 ,896 
1,232,689 


$67,762 
65,026 
728,063 
708.344 


$59,o66 
51.613 
483.833 
524,345 



V4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



Traffic and Transportation 

Insufficiency of Present Street Railway Fares 



The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Mil- 
waukee, Wis., published the following advertisement re- 
cently in the daily papers of Milwaukee under the heading 
"Insufficiency of Present Street Railway Fares": 

"Street railway fares in many cities must be increased in 
the near future, or some limit must be placed upon the 
service to be furnished for one fare. 

"This is the unanimous judgment of street railway men 
and all others who have thoroughly studied traction condi- 
tions as they exist throughout the country. 

"Financial statements of individual companies and statis- 
tics compiled by the United Census Bureau for the whole 
country show clearly that the companies will be unable to 
meet the constantly increasing demands for service and 
the increasing cost of production and still continue to carry 
passengers at present unremunerative rates of fare. 

"Reduction of operating costs has reached its limit. For 
years experts all over the country have studied every little 
detail in every branch of street railway operation to re- 
duce its cost. Every economy that practical experience and 
scientific skill could devise has been applied. 

"Much money has been saved in this manner, but the 
saving has been more than offset by the higher cost of mate- 
rials, labor, fuel and the other items of expense. In spite 
of all economy, the cost of service has become steadily 
greater and is constantly increasing. 

"Street railway men of long experience and experts are 
convinced that there can be no further reduction of operat- 
ing costs except by cutting wages. Therefore they feel that 
relief must be found in higher fares or limitation of service. 

"Among those who have studied the subject seriously it 
is agreed that unless present conditions are changed the 
cities will be obliged in time to provide their own street 
railway service by municipal ownership and operation. 
Under this plan all deficits would be made good from the 
public funds. Losses from street railway operation would 
fall upon the taxpayers. 

"It is considered reasonably certain that if the companies 
continue to operate one or more of the following changes 
of method must be put into practice: 

"(a) Abolishment of free transfers. 

"(b) Adoption of the European zone system of fares. 

"(c) Increase in rate of fare. 

"(d) Reduction or abolishment of taxes. 

"The taxes of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company in 14 years increased 481 per cent. In the same 
period the operating revenue increased 242 per cent." 



An Interurban Creed 



E. F. Schneider, secretary and general manager of the 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway, Cleveland, 
Ohio, as a. part of the campaign against accidents which he 
has carried on for three years, has presented each employee 
of the company with a copy of "The Southwestern Creed," 
printed in colors. As it is a creed to which all employees 
of electric railways, no matter where they are located, 
might well subscribe, it is appended in full: 

"I believe in the Southwestern of to-day and in that 
glorious ?-nd harmonious spirit of its employees which will 
surely build up the Greater Southwestern of to-morrow. 

"I believe in the territory and community through which 
it runs and in the future development of its business. 

"I believe in my passengers and in the public, and know 
they will co-operate with us when they understand what 
we are trying to do and what we are trying to accomplish, 
i. e., to make the Southwestern an absolutely safe railro?.d 
to ride upon. 

"I believe in man. and most thoroughly believe in my 
fellow employee, through whom we will be able to do away 
with the disastrous and dangerous part of this business, 
and run a railroad without any a-ccidents whatsoever. 

"I will help my fellow employee and ask my fellow 
employee to help me to attain that end so that we may 
truly say we have caused no pain, we have caused no suffer- 
ing, we have caused no death. 



"Believing all these things as I do, and steadfastly look- 
ing forward to the dawn of the new day which will make 
the Southwestern greater on account of the personal inter- 
est of the employees, the one to the other, and the personal 
interest of the employees to the passenger and to the public, 
and the personal interest of the public to the company, I 
heartily subscribe to the above tenets, and will use my 
utmost endeavors to live up to this creed." 



United Board Investigating Railway Service in Balti- 
more. — The Public Service Commission of Maryland has 
commenced an investigation into possible methods of re- 
lieving the street railway congestion in Baltimore during 
rush hours. 

Fare Case in Reading Argued. — Judge Endlich, in the 
District Court at Reading, Pa., has reserved decision after 
hearing the argument on the application for a permanent 
injunction to restrain the United Traction Company, Read- 
ing, Pa., from discontinuing the sale of six-for-a-quarter 
tickets in Reading. 

Service in Richmond, Ind. — Certain members of the Board 
of Public Works of Richmond, Ind., have been delegated 
to visit the officers of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 
Eastern Traction Company in Indianapolis and confer with 
them regarding the improvement of the service of the com- 
pany in Richmond. 

Increase in Fare by Southern Pennsylvania Traction 
Company. — The Southern Pennsylvania Traction Company 
has increased the fare between Angora and Media, on its 
Media-Philadelphia line, from 5 cents to 10 cents, and has 
increased the fare for the through trip between Media and 
Philadelphia from 15 cents to 20 cents. 

Railways to Increase Pay of Employees. — S. F. Hazel- 
rigg, who is president of the Staten Island Midland Railway 
and the Atlantic Coast Electric Railway and vice-president 
and general manager of the Richmond Light & Railroad 
Company, recently issued a notice to motormen and con- 
ductors that on Jan. 1, 1911, these railways would increase 
the rate of pay 12^2 per cent. 

New Agreement Between Railways. — The agreement be- 
tween the St. Joseph Valley Traction Company and the 
Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway con- 
cerning the operation of cars between Elkhart, Ind., and, 
Bristol, Ind., went into effect Jan. 1, 1911, by which the 
St. Joseph Valley Traction Company will use the tracks 
of the Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway. 

Service in Sea Cliff, N. Y. — The Public Service Commis- 
sion of the Second District of New York has closed upon 
its records the complaint of the residents of Sea Cliff, L. I., 
against the Nassau County Railway, Sea Cliff, as to con- 
dition of roadbed, stations, paving, etc. After service of 
the complaint a conference was held between the officials 
of the village and the company and satisfactory adjustment 
was made. 

Service in Fishkill, N. Y. — The Public Service Commis- 
sion of the Second District of New York has closed upon 
its records the complaint of the residents of Glenheim, 
Dutchess County, against the Fishkill (N. Y.) Electric 
Railway, as to additional passenger service between Fish- 
kill Village and Fishkill Landing, changes in operation hav- 
ing been made which removed the cause of complaint with- 
out the necessity of an order by the commission. 

Front Platforms Will Be Cleared. — John B. Gorman, 
superintendent of transportation of the Worcester (Mass.) 
Consolidated Street Railway, has issued instructions that 
no passenger shall ride on the front platform of a car 
unless he has a permit to do so. In the past it has been 
customary to allow passengers to occupy the front plat- 
form during rush hours, but owing to an accident tha.t re- 
cently occurred because the motorman was crowded and 
distracted by the passengers, it was felt best by the com- 
pany to keep the platform clear. 

Plan Proposed by Company to Improve Service in 
Springfield, Mass. — L. S. Storrs, president of the Springfield 
Street Railway, has recently signified the willingness of 
his company to contribute $10,000 toward the expense of 
opening a new street south of Mill River, provided the 
company is given a location grant on the street. The com- 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



<J5 



pany also wants to re-route and lay extra tracks on some 
of its lines during 191 1. Petitions for these changes have 
been made at different times, but have been rejected by 
the Board of Aldermen. The company has now renewed 
its petition in a letter sent by Mr. Storrs to Claud C. Mar- 
gerum, chairman Board of Public Works, Springfield. 

Decision in Regard to Fares to Coney Island on Satur- 
days, Sundays and Holidays. — The Public Service Commis- 
sion of the First District of New York handed down a deci- 
sion on Jan. 10, 1911, dismissing the complaint of Jonas 
Monheimer against the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad 
asking that this company should be required to re-establish 
a 5-cent care to Coney Island on days other than Saturdays. 
Sundays and holidays. The proceeding followed a previous 
decision of the commission in which it was decided 
that the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad could nut 
be obliged to establish a 5-cent fare on Saturdays, Sundays 
and holidays, but might be required to do so on other days. 

United Railways Entertains Employees and Their Fami- 
lies. — The United Railways Company, St. Louis, Mo., 
gave a Christmas entertainment on Dec. 23, 1910, to 
its employees and their families in the company's hall, at 
Grand Avenue and Park Avenue. The company issued hun- 
dreds of free car tickets to and from the hall, so that all of 
the employees a.nd their families would feel able to attend. 
Arrangements had been made for a vaudeville and moving 
picture show, which was greatly enjoyed by all the 2500 
people present. During the evening several numbers were 
played by the company band, which is made up entirely of 
employees. Before closing the program the company gave 
a box of candy to every child present. 

Passes Abolished in Trenton. — The Trenton & Mercer 
Traction Company has abolished all passes, and transports 
free only employees of the road and policemen and firemen 
in uniform. The company's formal announcement in regard 
to the abolition of passes, which was signed by Rankin 
Johnson, vice-president of the company, follows: "The 
Trenton & Mercer County Traction Corporation has, effec- 
tive Jan. 7, 191 1, decided to discontinue issuing free trans- 
portation, except to employees and to policemen and fire- 
men in uniform. This step has been taken after careful 
consideration, and in recognition of what we believe to be 
a modern tendency in the changing relations between 
public utility corporations and the people, to which we 
desire to conform." 

Railway to Have Ventilation Inspectors. — E. G. Buckland, 
vice-president of the Connecticut Company, who has taken 
over the personal supervision of the trolley traffic difficul- 
ties in Bridgeport, Conn., announced after a conference with 
Mayor Buckingham, of Bridgeport, that a special force of 
inspectors will be placed on the different lines, who will 
give their whole attention to the proper ventilation and 
heating of cars. As to the crowding of cars during rush 
hours, when two or three cars follow each other on the 
same line, a red sign will be used when necessary on which 
will be inscribed "Car following." Passengers seeing this 
sign will know that the car is crowded and that the crew 
has placed the sign on the car to notify them that they will 
be better accommodated in the next car. Should a car 
carrying one of these signs empty its load before reaching 
its destination the sign will be removed. 

Police Must Stand in Cars. — Mayor Gaynor and Police 
Commissioner Cropsey, of New York, have recently been 
receiving numerous complaints that policemen monopolize 
seats in the street cars and in the subway and elevated 
trains, while revenue passengers are standing. The police 
manual contains a rule forbidding policemen who are enjoy 
ing free transportation to occupy seats which revenue pas- 
sengers should have. To emphasize this Commissioner 
Cropsey has issued the following order: "No member of 
the police force riding free upon any surface car, subway, 
elevated, or steam railroad train, whether so riding because 
of being in uniform or upon the presentation of a trans- 
portation card or pass, shall occupy any seat in such con- 
veyance if any other passenger is standing, but shall im- 
mediately arise and tender his seat to such other passenger 
and remain standing so long as any other passengers are 
not seated." 

Terms of Settlement of Winnipeg Strike. — As stated in 
the Electric Railway Journal of Jan. 7, [911, page 46, the 



strike of the conductors and motormen of the Winnipeg 
(Man.) Electric Railway was terminated on the afternoon 
of Dec. 31, 1910. The company offered to take back 300 
of the men who went on strike, giving the married men the 
preference and reserving the right to retain certain men 
hired during the strike. After a conference lasting several 
hours the men voted to accept the offer of the company. 
On Jan. 1, 191 1, a number of the men applied to the com- 
pany for reinstatement and were given their former posi- 
tions. The company refused, however, to take back the 
three men whose discharge for drinking while in uniform 
caused the strike. The company has placed an old em- 
ployee and one of the men engaged during the strike on 
each car. The full terms of the settlement were nut made 
public. 

Physical Examination of Brooklyn Employees. — The an- 
nual physical examination of the surface car motormen of 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company has been completed 
by Dr. Edward T. Gibson, the examining physician for the 
system. The examinations were made at the depots, the 
terminals and on the forward platforms of the cars them- 
selves. It consisted of a thorough examination of the heart 
and a general inspection of the motorman's face and body. 
When a man's face indicated that he was not well Dr. 
Gibson ordered him to the medical examination room, at 
the main office of the company, for a complete examina- 
tion so that he could satisfy himself as to the condition of 
the man's health. In these inspections particular atten- 
tion is given to the heart, the lungs, the hearing and eye- 
sight. Under the eyesight test great care is used to detect 
color blindness. Men who wear glasses are not admitted 
to the company's uniformed service. When a conductor 
who has been in the service for many years has a reputable 
oculist certify that his glasses are of minor strength and 
that he will not be helpless if they are broken, he is given 
a special permit for their use, but these cases are the ex- 
ceptions. A feature of Dr. Gibson's recent examination, 
which is, of course, supplemental to entrance and preceding 
annual physical examinations and is intended to show any 
defects that may have developed in a twelvemonth, was 
the remarkable freedom from tuberculosis and other lung 
complaints among the motormen. The annual tests will now 
be extended to the motormen on the elevated trains. In 
cases where men cannot pass the tests they are removed at 
once to some other department of the railroad, where the 
safety of its passengers does not depend upon the physical 
fitness of the employee. 

Complaint Against Operation of Hoboken Terminal Dis- 
missed. — The Board of Public Utility Commissioners of 
New Jersey has dismissed the complaint brought by the 
City of Hoboken against the Public Service Railway in re- 
gard to the facilities of the company at its Hoboken ter- 
minal. The board recommends that the company place in 
operation at least one, and if practicable two, additional 
turnstiles during the rush hours. It also recommends that 
cars be stopped for transfer at the crossing of Washington 
Street nearest to the terminal. The board says: "The 
board would not be justified in finding that the company 
does not, in the particular complained of, furnish adequate 
service. Investigation of the conditions prevailing at the 
Hoboken terminal of the company makes it clear that to 
permit the desired transfer to be made would interfere with 
the plan of operation in force at that point. Such interfer- 
ence would present no ground for the dismissal of the com- 
plaint if the board in fact found that such plan clearly in- 
convenienced a considerable part of the traveling public or 
resulted in furnishing them with inadequate facilities. This 
fact the board has, however, not found. On the contrary, 
it finds that the plan of operation of the terminal is well 
designed to meet the needs of the traveling public as a 
whole. It serves to separate the incoming and outgoing 
travel, prevents confusion and delay in loading and unload- 
ing, dispenses with the delay in collection of the fares of 
passengers entering cars, enables adherence to schedule 
and observance of headway and so facilitates the ready and 
regular movement of traffic. The ends so accomplished by 
this plan are important to the traveling public, as a whole, 
employing the several lines passing through the terminal. 
To grant the request of the complainant would require 
changes to some extent destroying the advantageous results 
attained through the present plan of terminal operation." 



9 6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



Personal Mention. 



Mr. Frank Arnold has resigned as superintendent of the 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad. Boone, la. 

Mr. John Y. Boyd, Harrisburg, Pa., has declined reap- 
pointment as a member of the Pennsylvania State Railroad 
Commission. 

Mr. H. W. Ellicott, purchasing agent of the Northwestern 
Pacific Railroad, San Francisco, Cal., has also been elected 
treasurer of the company to succeed Mr. C. H. Redington. 

Mr. C. H. Robertson, superintendent of the East Shore & 
Suburban Railway, Richmond, Cal., will hereafter act as 
purchasing agent of the company as well as superintendent. 

Mr. Van Dusen Rickert, who is purchasing agent of the 
Eastern Pennsylvania Railways, Pottsville, Pa., was also 
made claim adjuster of the company, effective on Jan. 1, 
191 1. 

Mr. J. C. Bell, who was division superintendent of the 
Eastern Pennsylvania Railways, at Lansford, Pa., has been 
made division superintendent of the company, with head- 
quarters at Pottsville, Pa. 

Mr. E. N. Lake, formerly division engineer of electrical 
transmission and distribution, Boa.rd of Supervising Engi- 
neers, Chicago Traction, has resigned and entered the engi- 
neering department of Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Ralph S. Powley has resigned as auditor and general 
passenger agent of the Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Trac- 
tion Company, Fostoria, Ohio, to become district agent of 
the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company, Fos- 
toria, Ohio. 

Mr. A. G. H. Jenssen, district passenger and freight agent 
of the Ohio Electric Railway, had his jurisdiction extended 
over the entire Lima-Toledo Division on Jan. 1, 1911, not 
including Lima. Mr. Jenssen's headquarters are in the 
passenger station of the company at Toledo. 

Mr. J. L. Blake has resigned as general manager and pur- 
chasing agent of the Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern 
Railroad, Boone, la., to engage in farming. Mr. Blake was 
closely identified with the building of the Fort Dodge, 
Des Moines & Southern Railroad and he will remain with 
the company until the construction of the extensions is 
finished. 

Mr. Charles Remelius, who resigned in November last as 
superintendent of rolling equipment of the Public Service 
Railway, Newark, N. J., has become connected with the 
Pay-As-You-Enter Car Corporation, for which he will co- 
operate with railway companies and manufacturers of pay- 
as-you-enter cars in improving the details of design and 
construction, so as to make the equipment suitable for dif- 
ferent classes of service. A biography of Mr. Remelius 
was published in the personal column of this paper for Dec. 
3. 1910. 

Mr. Charles F. Propst, formerly president of the Den- 
ver & Inter-Mountain Railroad, Denver, Col., has been ap- 
pointed local manager of the Michigan United Railways 
in Battle Creek. Before being elected president of the Den- 
ver & Inter-Mountain Railroad Mr. Propst was second vice- 
president and purchasing agent of the company, serving in 
those capacities during the work of equipping the line with 
electricity. He was formerly in the lumber business with 
his father in Paris, 111., and later was manager of the Paris 
(111.) Traction Company. 

Mr. Walter H. Acker has resigned as engineer of power 
stations of the West Penn Railways, Connellsville, Pa., to 
become chief engineer of the Newport News & Old Point 
Railway & Electric Company, Newport News, Va. Mr. 
Acker entered the service of the West Penn Railways 
about four years ago as construction foreman at Charleroi. 
About three years ago he succeeded Mr. L. O. Veser as 
assistant to Mr. J. S. Jenks, superintendent of power. This 
position he held until about two years ago, when he was 
promoted to the position of chief engineer. 

Mr. H. A. Benedict, who resigned recently as mechanical 
and electrical engineer of the United Traction Company, 
Albany, N. Y., to become mechanical engineer of the Pub- 
lic Service Railway, Newark, N. J., as announced in the 
Electric Railway Journal of Dec. 17, 1910, was tendered 
an informal dinner at the Hotel Ten Eyck, Albany, on the 



evening of Dec. 31, 1910, by some of his associates in Cen- 
tral New York. Among those at the dinner were Mr. 
J. P. Barnes, electrical engineer of the Syracuse Rapid 
Transit Railway; Mr. W. J. Harvie, chief engineer of the 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway; Mr. F. J. Doyle, master 
mechanic of the Schenectady Railway; Mr. E. S. Fassett, 
general manager of the United Traction Company; Mr. 
Charles H. Smith, general superintendent of the United 
Traction Company; Mr. M. C. Carpenter, master mechanic 
of the United Traction Company, and Messrs. H. N. Ran- 
som, C. F. Scott and C. 'E. Barry, of the General Electric 
Company. 

Mr. A. T. Bushong has recently been appointed super- 
intendent of the Green Bay (Wis.) Traction Company, to 
succeed Mr. J. M. Carl. Mr. Bushong began his railway 
career in 1895 as a lineman with the Consolidated Traction 
Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. After being connected with the 
Consolidated Traction Company about a year and a half 
Mr. Bushong served successively the Metropolitan Street 
Railway, New York; Columbia Railway, Washington, D. C. ; 
International Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., and the 
Lima Electric Railway & Light Company, Lima, Ohio, in 
various capacities from foreman to superintendent of con- 
struction in charge of track and electric line construction. 
In 1902 Mr. Bushong accepted the position of roadmaster 
with the Elgin, Aurora & Southern Traction Company, 
Aurora, 111., but resigned from the company in 1906, shortly 
after the property was merged with the Aurora, Elgin & 
Chicago Railroad, to become engineer of maintenance of 
way with the Michigan United Railways, with headquarters 
in Kalamazoo. He resigned from the Michigan United 
Railways in 1908, and entered the employ of the Hudson & 
Manhattan Railroad, which operates under the Hudson 
River between New York and New Jersey. Mr. Bushong 
resigned from the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad to spend 
a year on his farm near Washington, D. C, for the benefit 
of his health. 

Mr. Paul Shoup, who was recently elected vice-president 
of the reorganized Pacific Electric Company, Los Angeles, 
Cal., has assumed the active management of the system, 
which comprises all of the electric railways out of Los 
Angeles, and extends from the seashore at a dozen different 
points eastward to Redlands and Riverside. Prior to under- 
taking his present work Mr. Shoup was assistant general 
manager of the Southern Pacific Company in charge of its 
electric lines in California, which included the Los Angeles- 
Pacific Company and the Peninsular Railway at San Jose. 
Inasmuch as the Los Angeles-Pacific Company is now 
merged in the Pacific Electric Company, Mr. Shoup's duties 
at San Jose are only incidental. He is the active representa- 
tive of the Southern Pacific Company in the Pacific Electric 
Company, and since the withdrawal of Mr. Henry E. Hunt- 
ington Mr. Shoup has been in charge. For many years Mr. 
Shoup was assistant general passenger agent of the Southern 
Pacific Company at San Francisco. He entered the service of 
the Southern Pacific Company in 1891 as a station clerk in 
the office at San Bernardino. When the old narrow-gage road 
between Riverside and San Bernardino went into the hands 
of a receiver Mr. Shoup was practically in charge, and he 
is said to have been largely responsible for converting the 
road into a paying investment. Next Mr. Shoup entered the 
passenger department of the Southern Pacific Company. 
Soon thereafter he was assigned to San Jose as district 
freight and passenger agent of the company. Later he went 
to Portland. Ore., and reorganized the freight department 
of the Southern Pacific Company in 'that city. Since De- 
cember, 1908, Mr. Shoup has given his time to the interests 
of the late E. H. Harriman in California not directly related 
to the Southern Pacific Company. He will still remain at 
the head of this department, but his new duties make it 
necessary more minutely to classify and organize its work. 
Mr. Shoup's headquarters are in the Pacific Electric Build- 
ing, Los Angeles, Cal. 

OBITUARY 

William H. Martin, a retired capitalist of San Francisco, 
is dead. Mr. Martin organized the Powell Street Cable 
Railway, San Francisco, and constructed the cable railway 
from Market Street, San Francisco, to North Beach. This 
road is now controlled by the United Railroads of San 
Francisco. 



III.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



97 



HCtion News 

Cons ruction es are classified under each head- 

ing alph. .< : I 51 

An asterisl a project not previously 

reported. 

ORATIONS 

Alberta (Alte. ' <vray. — Application for a char- 

ter will be made mpany at the present session of 

the Dominion Pa. , .it to build electric railways, tele- 
graph and telephon lines throughout the province. The 
members of this proposed company are said to be an 
English firm of electric railway builders, and it is their 
intention to proceed with the work as soon as the charter 
is granted. One of the branches of this line is proposed 
to extend from Calgary to McLeod, through Southern 
Alberta. [E. R. J., Nov. 12, '10.] 

United Properties Company of California, San Francisco, 
Cal. — Incorporated in Delaware to build and operate elec- 
tric and steam railroads, electric light and power lines, etc. 
Capital stock, $200,000,000. Operating offices, San Fran- 
cisco and Oakland, Cal. Directors: H. W. Davies, Wil- 
mington, Del., of the United Traction Company. Albany, 
N. Y.; F. M. Smith, president of the Oklahoma, Kansas & 
Missouri Interurban Railway, Miami, Okla. ; W. S. Tevis, 
vice-president of the Power, Transit & Light Company, 
Bakersfield, Cal.: R. G. Hanford, Gavin McNab, C. B. Za- 
briskie, W. R. Alberger and Dennis Searles. 

Lake Erie & Northern Railway, Brantford, Ont. — Appli- 
cation has lately been made by this company to the Do- 
minion Parliament for a charter to build a radial electric 
railway from Brantford to Port Dover. Capital stock, $1,- 
000,000. Incorporators: Hal Donley. M. P., Somcoe; W. S. 
Brewster, R. E. Ryerson, John Muir and W. D. Schultz, 
Brantford. [E. R. J., May 29, '09.] 

*Port Bolivar Iron Ore Railway, Longview, Tex. — Char- 
tered in Texas to build a 50-mile electric or steam railway 
from Longview, Gregg County, through Gregg, Upshur, 
Harrison, Marion and Cass Counties to a point in Cass 
County about 10 miles north of Hughes Springs. Capital 
stock, $50,000. Headquarters, Longview. Incorporators: 
L. P. Featherstone. Fox Winnie, L. C. Luckel, W. D. 
Myers, W. C. Brothers, Eugene A. Wilson. Lewis A. 
Featherstone. Murrell L. Buckner and T. B. Stinchcomb. 

FRANCHISES 

Montgomery, Ala. — The Montgomery Traction Company 
has received a franchise from the City Council to build 
several extensions in Montgomery. C. G. Abercrombie, 
Montgomery, general manager. [E. R. J., Jan. 7, '10.] 

Modesto, Cal. — The San Joaquin Valley Electric Railway, 
Stockton, has received a franchise from the City Council to 
build its railway over certa/in streets in Modesto. Morris 
L. Brackett is interested. [E. R. J., Dec. 24, '10.] 

Sacramento, Cal. — The Northern Electric Railway. Chico, 
has asked the City Trustees for a renewa.l of its franchise 
to build a line on Front Street and on M Street, from 
its intersection with M Street, in Sacramento, to the Sacra- 
mento River. 

Hartford, Conn. — The Connecticut Company has asked 
for another franchise from the Council to double track 
some of its lines in Hartford. 

Moodus, Conn. — The Moodus & East Hampton Electric 
Railway, Swansea Centre, will ask the Council for a fran- 
chise to build an electric railway in Moodus. [E. R. J., 
Dec. 24, '10.] 

*Chicago, 111. — The Chicago Subway, Arcade & Traction 
Company has announced that it will ask the City Council 
for a franchise to construct passenger and freight sub- 
ways in Chicago. Dwight H. Perkins is interested. 

Ludlow, Mass. — The Springfield Street Railway, Spring- 
field, has received a franchise to build its railway over cer- 
tain streets in Ludlow. 

Swansea, Mass. — The Providence & Fall River Street 
Railway, Swansea Centre, will ask the Council for a fran- 
chise to extend its line in Swansea for about a mile to 
North Swansea. 

Worcester, Mass. — The Worcester & Northern Street 
Railway, Worcester, has received a year's extension of 



time of its franchise from the Massachusetts Railroad Com- 
mission in which to construct its proposed electric railway 
to connect Fitchburg, Princeton and Worcester via Wachu- 
sett Mountain. There is a provision in the grant stating 
that work must be begun within a year. All rights-of-way 
have been secured. [E. R. J., Jan. 15, '10.] 

Middletown, Ohio. — The Ohio Electric Railway, Cin- 
cinnati, is negotiating with the authorities of Middletown 
for a 25-year franchise to build a.n electric railway in Mid- 
dletown. The company proposes to build three lines, one 
of which involves the construction of a. bridge by the 
municipality in order to reach the large plant of the Ameri- 
can Rolling Mill Company. 

Toledo, Ohio. — The Toledo Railways & Light Company 
has asked the City Council for a franchise to extend its 
street railway south of Fassett Street, including the 
territory reached by Owens Street, Oakdale Street and 
Prentice Street and that occupied by the Stillman Brown 
addition in Toledo. 

Hamlin, Tex. — The Hamlin Street Railway has received 
a franchise to build its railway to the Central Na,zarene 
University. 

♦Aberdeen, Wash. — The Citizens' Lighting & Power 
Company, Aberdeen, will ask the City Council for a fran- 
chise to build an electric railway in Aberdeen. 

Bellingham, Wash. — The Nooksack Valley Traction Com- 
pany, Bellingham, has received a year's extension of its 
franchise to complete its proposed electric railway in 
Bellingham. The line will connect Bellingham, Ferndale, 
Blaine, Lynden and Sumas. J. S. Wheeler, Seattle, gen- 
eral manager. [E. R. J., Oct. 29, '10.] 

♦Seattle, Wash. — George W. White and associates have 
asked the City Council for a franchise to operate an elec- 
tric railway from the intersection of First Avenue south 
to the city limits in Seattle. 

*South Bend, Wash. — J. D. Creary has asked the City 
Council for a franchise to build an electric railway in South 
Bend and extend it to Raymond. Work will be begun in 
the spring. 

*Tacoma, Wash. — The Island Railway & Navigation 
Company has asked the City Commissioners for a franchise 
to build a proposed 3-mile electric railway on Sixth Avenue, 
from Proctor Street, Tacoma, to the Narrows. 

TRACK AND ROADWAY 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark. — This company will build 2 miles of new track during 
1911. D. A. Hega.rty, general manager. 

Fresno (Cal.) Traction Company. — During 191 1 this com- 
pany will build 30 miles of single track. F. A. Caslin, super- 
intendent. 

Uncompahgre & Gunnison Valley, Montrose, Col. — It is 

reported that this company has awarded the contract to 
M. L. Pa.ret, Kansas City, Mo., for the engineering work 
for building its proposed 29-mile electric railway to con- 
nect Montrose and Delta via the west side of the Uncom- 
pahgre River, along Spring Creek mesa and California 
mesa to Olathe and through Sharano and Coal Creek Val- 
ley. J. M. Pepper, Montrose, is interested. [E. R. J.. Oct. 
15. '10.] 

Norwich, Colchester & Hartford Traction Company, 
Norwich, Conn. — It is reported that this company will 
petition the General Assembly for an amendment to its 
charter, thus gaining another entrance to Norwich. H. M. 
Pollock, secretary. [E. R. J., Dec. 31, '10.] 

Connecticut Company, Waterbury, Conn. — This company 
has filed a petition with the Secretary of State, asking the 
General Assembly to grant a charter right to build ?, loop 
line through Pearl Lake Road, connecting the Baldwin 
Street and South Main Street lines, in Waterbury. 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company, Atlanta, Ga. — 
This company will double-track its Forrest Avenue line in 
Atlanta from Peachtree Street to Jackson Street. Work 
will begin in the spring. 

*Wendal, Idaho. — Mayor J. Calhoun, Boise, representing 
Eastern capital, it is said, is promoting the construction of 
an electric railway from Wendell to Hagerman. 

Charleston, Westfield, Marshall & Terre Haute Electric 
Railway, Charleston, 111. — Interest has again been revived 



9 8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



in this proposed 12-mile electric railway. Surveys have 
been completed and rights-of-way secured. The railway 
will connect Charleston, Marshall and Westfield, 111., and 
Terre Haute, Ind. W. R. Patton, Charleston, president. 
[E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

Springfield & Central Illinois Traction Company, Spring- 
field, 111. — This company has surveyed 45 miles of its line 
from Springfield to St. Louis. This proposed 110-mile elec- 
tric railway will connect Pawnee, Morrisonville, Hillsboro, 
Coffeen, Durley, Greenville, Carlyle, Hoffman and Cen- 
tralia. The following officers have been elected: Isaac 
Smith, St. Louis, president; George W. White, vice-presi- 
dent; Noble E. McMillan, treasurer, and James W. Gullett. 
secretary. 

Evansville, Mt. Carmel & Olney Electric Railway, Evans- 
ville, Ind. — This company has begun the construction of its 
14-mile line from Mt. Carmel to Lancaster. The line will 
be extended later to Evansville. This proposed 65-miL 
railway will connect Mt. Carmel, Highland, Darmstadt, 
Cynthiana, Owensville, Friendsville, Lancaster, Berryville 
and Olney. E. Q. Lockyear secretary. [E. R. J., Oct. 
29, '10.] 

Charles City & Western Railway, Charles City, la. — This 
company intends to build during 191 1 about 20 miles of new 
track- C. W. Hart, president. [E. R. J., Sept. 10, '10.] 

Iowa City, Ottumwa & Southwestern Electric Railway, 
Iowa City, la. — It is said that this company will let several 
contracts in the spring for building its proposed 70-mile 
electric railway to connect Iowa City and Ottumwa via 
Sharon Center, Trytown, Amish, Wellman, Keota e.fi/1 
Ollie. Frank Tanner, Iowa City, general manager. [E. R. 
J., Aug. 27, '10.] 

Oklahoma-Kansas Railway, Baxter Springs, Kan. — This 
company has completed surveys ?..nd has partly secured 
capital for construction work. It will award contracts thi- 
spring. The railway will connect Columbus, Galena, Hat- 
tonville, Miami, Sunny Side and Lincolnville. C. F. Lam 
bert, Kansas City, chief engineer. [E. R. J., Jan. 7, 'll.] 

Manhattan City & Interurban Railway, Manhattan, Kan. 
— A 15-mile extension from Manhattan to Fort Riley will 
be constructed by this company during the year 191 1. 
Joseph T. West. Manhattan, purchasing agent. 

Twin City General Electric Company, Ironwood. Mich. — 
This company expects to build 5^2 miles of single track 
from Ironwood to Bessemer during 191 1. 

Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Company. — About 5 miles of 
new track will be built by this company in Lincoln during 
191 1. 

Brooklyn & Jamaica Bay Railroad, Brooklyn, N. Y. — 

Commissioner Bassett, of the Public Service Commission, 
will recommend the commission to grant the certificate of 
convenience and necessity to this company for building a 
2 I 4-mile electric railway from Liberty Avenue and Mon- 
tauk Avenue, Brooklyn, down Montauk Avenue to Railroad 
Avenue and Old Mill Creek, Jamaica. Horace J. Subers, 25 
Broad Street, New York, president. [E. R. J., June 25, '10.] 

Cleveland, Alliance & Mahoning Valley Railway, Alliance, 
Ohio. — It is announced that construction will be com- 
menced on this line between Ravenna and Alliance early 
in the spring and cars will be running by fall. This sec- 
tion will be operated in connection with the Stark Electric- 
Railroad, whose owners are also largely interested in the 
new company. It is estimated that the line between Cleve- 
land and Ravenna will be in operation two years. The 
railway will connect Cleveland, Alliance and Mahoning. 
[E. R. J., Nov. 5, '10.] 

Illinois Central Electric Railway, Canton, Ohio. — This 
company expects to build a 6^-mile extension from Norris 
to Farmington during 191 1. Geo. W. Chandler, chief engi- 
neer. 

Columbus, Urbana & Western Railway, Columbus, Ohio. 

— In order that it may extend its tracks to Dublin at once, 
and later on to Plain City, this company has asked the city 
of Columbus to waive its rights across the McLaughlin 
place and allow it to construct its tracks along the Ohio 
River banks nea.r the storage dam. The land was deeded 
to the city on condition that the grant become void in case 
any public service corporation was granted the right to 
build on the land or east of it. 



Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway, Fostcria, Ohio. — 

This company is considering plans for building an exten- 
sion to Prairie Depot. 

Tri-State Traction Company, Steubeiiville, Ohio.— This 

company is considering plans to extend its railway to 
Weirton. 

Ottawa, Rideau Valley & Brockville Railway, Ottawa, 
Ont. — This company has completed preliminary arrange- 
ments and will begin construction in the spring on its pro- 
posed 60-mile electric railway which is to connect Ottawa 
and Brockville. Andrew Haydon, president. [E. R. J., 
Nov. 19, '10.] 

*Salem, Ore. — It is reported that J. J. Hill has closed a 
deal for the Salem, Falls City & Western Railroad, which 
terminates at Salem. The newly acquired railway will be 
electrified and added to the Oregon Electric Railway. 

*Sutherlin, Ore. — M. M. Valerius, Sutherlin, and G. E. 
l'osbroke, St. Paul, are promoting plans to build an electric- 
railway in Sutherlin. It is also planned to build a power 
plant. 

Clarion & East Brady Electric Railway, Clarion, Pa. — 

This company has awarded the contract to the Carnegie 
Steel Company for 1500 tons of rails. G. E. Arnold, 
Clarion, president. [E. R. J., Dec. 3. '10.] 

West Penn Railways, Pittsburgh, Pa. — This company will 
soon build a 20-mile extension to connect Bitner, Vance 
Mill, West Newton and Hunkers. 

Wilkes-Barre & Wyoming Valley Traction Company, 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. — This company has placed in operation 
its 8-mile extension from Miller Hill to West Avoca. 

Sherbrooke (Que.) Street Railway. — During 191 1 this 
company will rebuild 5 miles of track and build a 2-mile 
extension. Material has been ordered. 

Aberdeen (S. D.) Street Railway. — This company has 
finished and placed in operation its 5-mile electric railway in 
Aberdeen. Charles N. Herried, Aberdeen, president. [E. 
fl. J.. May 21. '10.] 

Chattanooga Railway & Light Company, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. — During 191 1 this company will extend its line for a 
distance of about 5 miles. 

Cleburne (Tex.) Street Railway. — This company has 
begun work on its 6-mile electric railway in Cleburne. 
Power will be purchased from the Cleburne Electric & Gas 
Company, and the company will operate 5 cars. Capital 
stock, $65,000. Officers: Daniel Hewitt, Cleburne, presi- 
dent and general manager; A. M. Morgan, vice-president; 
Perry E. Coon, secretary and treasurer, and T. Bushon, 
electrical engineer. [E. R. J., Dec. 13, '10.] 

Haskell (Tex.) Traction Company. — An 11 -mile exten- 
sion from Haskell to Rule will be constructed by this com- 
pany during 1911. 

Houston (Tex.) Electric Company. — This company will 
expend $400,000 during 191 1 for improvements to its rail- 
way. The Washington Street line will be extended to the 
Southern Pacific Company's tracks, and a bridge will be 
built across Buffalo bayou at the foot of Texas Avenue, 
leading to the Grand Central Station. 

Rutland Railway, Light & Power Company, Rutland, Vt. 
— During 191 1 this company will build a 9-mile extension 
from Poultney, Vt., to Granville, N. Y. 

Seattle-Tacoma Short Line Railway, Tacoma, Wash. — 
This company expects to compete its 65-mile railway be- 
tween Seattle and Tacoma during 191 1. A. E. Rothermel, 
Tacoma, secretary. 

SHOPS AND BUILDINGS 
British Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver, B. C. — 

This company is considering plans for building a new sta- 
tion at Edmonds, which is situated just on the city limits 
in Burnaby. The structure will be similar to the one at 
Chilliwack. 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn. — This com- 
pany has completed plans for building an additiona.l build- 
ing adjoining its present car house on Midland Avenue, 
Port Chester. The structure will be 180 ft. x 225 ft. and 
of brick, steel and reinforced concrete construction with 
slag roof. It will afford space for 58 cars, also paint, truck 
repair and pump rooms. The present machine shop will 



January 14, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



99 



be enlarged 50 ft. X 160 ft., in similar style, and another 
addition will enlarge the office building 20 ft. x 50 ft., in 
duplication ol its present two stories. 

Boise & Interurban Railroad, Boise, Idaho. — This com- 
pany has completed and is now occupying its new depot on 
Seventh Street and Bannock Street in Boise. 

Illinois Traction System, Champaign, 111. — This company 
has started condemnation proceedings to secure certain 
property necessary to complete the site for its new terminal 
station at Twelfth and Linden streets in St. Louis. 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railway. — This company will be- 
gin work in the spring on a new depot, freight and ca.r 
house on Saginaw Street, in Pontiac. When the work is 
completed the car houses at Birmingham will be abandoned 
by the company. 

Michigan United Railways, Lansing, Mich. — This com- 
pany completed and placed in service on Jan. 2 its new 
interurban terminal. 

Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J. — This company 
will soon build new car houses in South Orange on Spring- 
field Avenue, between Forty-third Street and Boyden Ave- 
nue, Hilton. The structure is to be one story high, except 
at its easterly end, where it will be two stories high. It 
will be 362 ft. x 200 ft. and of steel, brick and concrete con- 
struction. It will be built in accordance with the standard 
type of. car houses adopted by this company. It will ha.ve 
a storage capacity of 120 cars, also an office, a recreation 
room for the employees of the division, and an assembly 
hall with dressing-room and a well-equipped kitchen. The 
cost is estimated to be about $150,000. 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Railroad, Syracuse, N. Y. 
— Plans are being considered by this company for building 
a. new union station in Rochester. 

Oklahoma (Okla.) Railway. — This company expects to 
build a repair shop at Olie Avenue and Second Street in 
Oklahoma City. The cost is estimated to be about $75,000. 

POWER HOUSES AND SUBSTATIONS 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Railway & Light Company, 
Cedar Rapids, la. — This company will build two new power 
stations during 1911. One will be at Iowa City and the 
other at North Liberty. 

Lexington & Interurban Railways, Lexington, Ky. — This 
company, which is planning the construction of a large 
power house and which had indicated that the structure 
would be erected at Valley View, on the Kentucky River, 
has decided to build the power house at Lexington 
instead. 

Berkshire Street Railway, Pittsfield, Mass. — This com- 
pany is. now building a new power house at Zylonite which 
will furnish power for the electrification of the Hoosac 
tunnel in North Adams. The cost is estimated to be about 
$200,000. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, 
Ohio. — This company, in order to supply additional power 
until the new power station at Cuyahoga Falls is com- 
pleted, has placed orders for a 2500-kw turbine and a 1000- 
kw generator, both to be installed in the Akron station. 

Oklahoma City (Okla.) Railway. — This company will 
double the capacity of its present power plant at Oklahoma 
City. It will also build an addition to its present power 
plant at Belle Isle, which will double its present capacity, 
increasing the hp from 2500 to 5000. 

Mt. Hood Railway & Power Company, Portland, Ore. — 
This company has begun the construction of a water power 
plant in Portland. 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — This 
company has placed an order with the Westinghouse Ma- 
chine Company, Pittsburg, Pa., for one 4000-kva turbo- 
generator set. The turbine is to operate between 175 lb., 
100 deg. superheat and a 28-in. vacuum. The generator is 
designed for 3-phase, 25-cycle operation at 13,300 volts. 

Utah Light & Railway Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. — 
This company has finished and put in operation its new 
power station at Murray. 

Seattle (Wash.) Electric Company. — This company will 
build a new power house at Tenth Avenue and Madison 
Street in Seattle. 



Manufactures & Supplies 

ROLLING STOCK 
Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Company will order four or six 
passenger cars. 

Springfield (Mo.) Traction Company will purchase six 
double-truck motor cars. 

Inter-State Traction Company, Duluth, Minn., will pur- 
chase two double-truck motor passenger cars. 

Norfolk City & Suburban Railway, Norfolk, Va., has 

purchased two passenger cars from The J. G. Brill Com- 
pany. 

Washington Water-Power Company, Spokane, Wash., 

has ordered 25 pay-as-you-enter cars from The J. G. Brill 
Company. 

Charleston (S. C.) Consolidated Railway & Lighting 
Company will order six single-truck cars with complete 
equipment. 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railway, Fort 
Dodge, la., has purchased one electric locomotive crane 
from the Browning Engineering Companv, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

Municipal Street Railway, Regina, Sask., has placed an 
order with the Ottawa Car Company for four single-truck 
and two double-truck cars, delivery to be made by July 
5. 191 1. 

Rio de Janeiro Tramway, Light & Power Company, Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil, has ordered from the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Manufacturing Company 150 No. 304 interpole 
motors. 

Oklahoma Railway, Oklahoma City, Okla., has purchased 
through J. G. White & Company, from the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., two 
quadruple equipments of No. 101-B motors. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway has ordered from the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 50 quad- 
ruple motor equipments, which include hand-operated unit- 
switch control and No. 306 interpole motors. 

Quebec (Que.) Railway, Light, Heat & Power Company 
will purchase eight pay-as-you-enter, double-truck steel 
motor cars, eight double-truck trailer cars, 10 single-truck 
open car bodies and 25 closed box cars, including trucks. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio, 
has ordered 25 cars from the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio. Eight of these cars will be for interurban 
service and 17 will be for city and suburban service. The 
contract calls for the cars to be delivered early in the 
spring. 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railways has ordered 50 new 
cars, which will be built under license from the Pay-As- 
You-Enter Car Corporation. Thirty-five of these cars are 
to be built by the G. C. Kuhlman Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, and 15 by the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company, 
Niles, Ohio. 

TRADE NOTES 
Wendell & MacDuffie Company, New York, N. Y., have 
received the contract to cover the roof of the new express 
and freight building of the Dartmouth & Westport Street 
Railway, Fall River. Mass., with asbestos corrugated 
sheathing. 

McKeen Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb., has received 
an order from the North Coast Railroad for a 70-ft. gaso- 
line motor car, which will be delivered in March. This 
company also reports that it is operating two 55-ft. motor 
cars in the vicinity of Kenniwick, Wash. 

Dossert & Company, New York, N. Y., report a large 
increase in their export business during the year 1910. 
Among other orders they have, recently shipped to South 
Africa through the Western Electric Company an order 
for over 2500 connectors of various types and sizes. 

Pressed Steel Car Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., is building 
five additions to its works at McKee's Rocks, to accom- 
modate the new department it will start shortly for the 
building of all-steel passenger and traction cars. The new 
department will give employment to at least 500 skilled 
mechanics. 



lOO 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 2. 



Michel-Kurze Company, New York, N. Y., has been or- 
ganized to do photo retouching and illustrating of ma- 
chinery subjects. The business will be managed by A. E. 
Michel, and the staff of artists will be in charge of Wm. F. 
Kurze. who for several years has been art director of the 
Scientific Engraving Company. 

Lord Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y., which 
succeeded to the business of the manufacturing department 
of the Lord Electric Company on June t, 1910. reports a 
better record for the year just ended than the manufac- 
turing or railway department of the Lord Electric Com- 
pany ever made. The company begins the year 191 1 with 
sufficient business in hand and contracts for future delivery 
to keep the manufacturing department busy for several 
months. 

George C. Wing and Frederick W. Hempy, Cleveland, 
Ohio, have just been granted another patent covering the 
construction of maximum standing capacity cars in which 
the seats may be folded or unfolded in accordance with 
traffic demands. The original design was described on page 
409 of the Electric Railway Journal for July 9, 1910. In 
the second patent'the usual cross seats are arranged be- 
tween transverse handrests so that they may be folded 
back or collapsed at will. 

1 James A. Farrell, president of the United States Steel 
Products Company, has been named as president of the 
United States Steel Corporation, to succeed William Ellis 
Corey, who has tendered his resignation. This announce- 
ment was made known by Judge Elbert H. Gary, chairman 
of the finance committee and the board of directors of the 
corporation. Mr. Farrell before becoming preside'nt of the 
United States Steel Products Company had been an official 
of the American Steel & Wire Company. 

F. G. Bolles, who recently resigned as commercial engi- 
neer of the Allis-Chalmers Company, is the principal stock- 
holder in the Alliance Engineering & Sales Company, incor- 
porated for $50,000, which has purchased the patents and 
taken over the exclusive sales a.gencies of the Reliance 
Engineering & Equipment Company. The consulting work 
carried on by the latter will be retained by it, under the 
management of C. A. Tupper. The offices of both com- 
panies are in suite 415-417 Engineering Building, Milwaukee. 

Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis., lias elected 
D. W. Call president, to succeed W. H. Whiteside, resigned. 
Mr. Call is of Scotch descent, ami was burn on a farm near 
Cleveland, Ohio. At the 



age of 17 years he com- 
menced his business career 
in Cleveland, and later 
entered the employ of the 
National Malleable Cast- 
ings Company, manufac- 
turer of car couplers and 
railroad castings. He was 
appointed general man- 
ager of sales of this com- 
pany in 1900, from which 
position he resigned in 
1904 to accept the position 
of assistant to the presi- 
dent of the American 
Steel Foundries Company, 




with headquarters in New 

York City. Mr. Call's D. W. Call 

wide experience in the sales department in the railroad 
supply field and in the executive management of large 
manufacturing corporations will be invaluable to him in his 
new position at the head of the Allis-Chalmers Company, 
which has such a large and diversified output of mechanical, 
electrical and mining machinery. 

Western Electric Company, New York, N. Y., has this 
year changed the fiscal year to end Dec. 31, instead of Nov. 
30. For the 13 months ending Dec. 31, 1910, its sales were 
approximately $66,000,000, as compared with $45,000,000 for 
the 12 months of last year. The best year in the history 
of the company was in 1906, when its sales amounted to 
$69,000,000. The increase over the past year has been well 
distributed over the various lines which the company 
manufactures. In the latter part of 1910 the company 
authorized the construction of several new buildings at 
Hawthorne to cost $1,000,000. which will still further in- 



crease the capacity of the plant. The company now em- 
ploys in all departments nearly 24,000 men. 

Ackley Brake Company, New York, N. Y., manufacturer 
and exporter of the Ackley adjustable brakes, has just com- 
pleted the^rst year of business devoted entirely to the ex- 
port or foreign trade in these brakes. That it has been suc- 
cessful can be attested by the fact that the brake has been 
introduced into every important country of the world in 
that time. Throughout Continental Europe it is becoming 
widely used and hundreds of Ackley brakes have been shipped 
into Japan. China, Australasia and the Philippines during 
the year. The roads in the British Empire are supplied 
through the British Ackley Brake Company of London. 
Ackley brakes are in use in Egypt, Tunis, Algiers, Morocco, 
Greece. Turkey, Roumania and Russia. Trondhjem, Nor- 
way, is the city farthest north, and Dunedin, New Zealand, 
is the city farthest south whose cars are equipped with these 
brakes. G. S. Ackley, patentee and inventor of the brake, 
is at present making a tour of the principal cities of South 
America in the interests of his company, and has cabled to 
the New York office of the company orders aggregating 
800 Ackley brakes for various tramways in the South. Dur 
ing the past year the brake has received meritorious awards 
at various exhibitions abroad, the principal one being the 
silver medal award at the International Exposition at Brus- 
sels. 

ADVERTISING LITERATURE 
American Blower Company, Detroit, Mich., has recently 

issued bulletin No. 266 on steam traps. 

Frank Ridlon Company, Boston, Mass., has issued a 
catalogue giving a list of second-hand electrical machinery 
for January, 191 1. 

Wendell & MacDuffie Company, New York, N. Y., have 
issued a postal card describing the different features of the 
Russell snow plow. 

Rogers, Printz & Company, Warren, Pa., have recently 
issued several folders illustrating and describing the differ- 
ent types of "Arpeco" wrenches. 

N. W. Halsey & Company, New York, N. Y., are dis- 
tributing gratuitously a vest pocket card containing 1911 
calendar and bond interest table, which will be found very 
useful to bond buyers. 

Trussed Concrete Steel Company, Detroit, Mich., has 

issued a catalog illustrating and describing the standard, 
types of United steel sash. The catalog also contains com- 
plete tables of dimensions and full-sized details of the 
lintels, sills and jambs. 

Hess-Bright Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
has recently issued a very attractive catalogue illustrating 
and describing the different styles of Hess-Bright ball 
bearings and also containing a number of tables on sizes, 
dimensions and sustaining capacity of the bearings. In 
connection with the catalogue the company has issued a 
small folder for convenient ready reference, duplicating 
the different tables on bearings. 

Westinghouse Machine Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has 
reprinted a paper on "Present Steam Turbine Progress" 
presented by Edwin D. Dreyfus before the Railway Club of 
Pittsburgh on May 20, 1910. Mr. Dreyfus' paper showed 
by both illustrations and figures wherein the present steam 
turbine excels the original forms in requiring less space, 
adjustment and oil; in giving better steam economy, and 
in costing less to maintain. The paper also referred to 
turbines for low-pressure service and other special appli- 
cations. 

Walpole Rubber Company, Walpole, Mass., has had 

printed in pamphlet form under the title "A Visit to Wal- 
pole" the story of its growth from a small factory estab- 
lished under the name of the Massachusetts Chemical Com- 
pany in South Boston in 1892 for the manufacture of liquid 
electrical insulating compounds. In 1900 the company 
moved to a new plant at Walpole, which has been enlarged 
several times to provide additional space to care for the in- 
creased output, which includes insulating compounds, tapes 
and cloths, molded rubber goods and pneumatic tires. To 
handle the company's Canadian business a large factory was 
built at Granby, Que., in 1909. The pamphlet is a very 
handsome piece of printing and is illustrated with numerous 
views of the company's factories at different periods to 
show the steady growth of the business. 



E^ctric Railway Journal 

A CONSOLIDATION OF 

Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Vol. XXXVII. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 21, 1911 No. 3 



PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY 

McGraw Publishing Company 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 

James H. McGraw, President. 
Hugh M. Wilson, ist Vice-President. A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President. 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 



Henpy W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. 
Associate Editors: 
Rodney Hitt, Frederic Nicholas, Walter Jackson. 
News 1 Editors : 
G. J. MacMurray, Frank J. Armeit. 

Chicago Office 1570 Old Colony Building 

Cleveland Office 1015 Schofield Building 

Philadelphia Office Real Estate Trust Building 

European Office .... Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, Eng. 
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 
For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published frcm time 
to time in New Yotk City or elsewhere: United States, Cuba and Mexico. 
$3.00 per year; Canada, $4-50 per year; all other countries, $6.00 per 
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Requests for changes of address should be made one week in advance, 
giving old as well a? new address. Date on wrapper indicates the month 
at the end of which subscription expires. 

NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS. 

Changes of advertising copy should reach this office ten days in advance 
of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 



Copyright, 191 1, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9000 copies 
are printed. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 21, 1911. 



CONTENTS. 



A Startling Opinion on Public Utility Boards 101 

Shortening Business Trips by Interurban Patronage 101 

Standardizing Air Brakes 102 

Another Decision in Fare Collection 102 

Arbitration in Industrial Disputes 103 

The Flectrical Equipment of the Detroit River Tunnel — II 104 

Electric Club of Chicago ". . . . . 108 

Portable Erector for Ornamenting Iron Poles in San Francisco 109 

Patents — What They Are, and How to Read and Understand Them., no 

Report of the Chairman of the Central Electric Traffic Association.. 113 

Extension of Engineering Force of McKinley Properties 113 

Train Dispatching on Interurban Roads 114 

Report of the Secretary and Treasurer of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association 114 

Logical Basis for Valuations of Interurban Street Railways 115 

Committees of American Electric Railway Engineering Association... 118 
Methods of Employment, Instruction and Discipline of Motormen and 

Conductors on Interurban Lines 120 

Electric Railway Repair Shop Practice 122 

Hearing on Plan of Reorganization of Metropolitan Street Railway.. 123 
Increased Pay for Individual Employees Adopted by Bradford (Eng.) 

Corporation Tramways 124 

Messages of the Governors..' 125 

Electric Railway Transportation 126 

Hearing on Service in Trenton 127 

Meeting of the National Civic Federation 127 

Proposed Duplex Transfer Ticket 128 

Railroad Date Stamp 128 

Coasting Clocks for the Third Avenue Railroad, New York 129 

Trolley Frog ]29 

A New Sleet Cutter I2Q 

News of Electric Railways 130 

Financial and Corporate ,3 4 

Traffic and Transportation 13G 

Personal Mention ,39 

Construction News 14 o 

Manufactures and Supplier. t 41 



A Startling Opinion on Public Utility Boards 

The air is rife with many ideas about government by com- 
mission in general and by State public service boards in par- 
ticular. We do not believe, however, that many hold the view 
on commissionership duties which was expressed by Governor 
Baldwin in his inaugural address to the Legislature of Con- 
necticut. In this document, which was abstracted in the Jan. 
14 issue of the Electric Railway Journal, the Governor ap- 
proves a proposed bill to create a public utilities board but 
objects to paying each commissioner $7,500 on the startling 
ground "that the time of the commissioners would by no 
means be fully occupied by their official duties and that to some 
extent each would pursue what had been his former occupa- 
tion in life. An annual salary of $5,000 would seem quite 
sufficient." While we have no quarrel with the Governor as 
to what is or is not an ample salary for the office in question, 
we take most decided exception to his attitude which implies 
that a public service commissioner's duties are not onerous 
enough to require all of his working time. Political hacks 
may be the right timber for figurehead commissions. It should 
be otherwise when a State creates a board with sweeping 
judicial and executive powers over properties of enormous 
value. In the latter case it is absolutely essential for the well- 
being both of the people and the corporations that the com- 
missioners should have talents commensurate with their re- 
sponsibilities and that they should receive salaries which will 
enable them to give their whole-hearted attention to the com- 
plex problems before them for solution. Their decisions often 
have a direct effect on the prosperity of the railway companies 
and of the State and even upon the lives of the people who 
travel by the railways. Should such labors as these be intrusted 
to men of mediocre abilities? In short, if a State undertakes 
at all to regulate closely any of its important industries, its 
representatives should be as free from material cares and 
as broad-minded as the judge who sits on a Supreme Court 
bench. Unlike the proverbial loaf of bread, half a commis- 
sioner is worse than none. 

Shortening Business Trips by Interurban Patronage 

The value of a well-appointed electric interurban railway 
service is probably better known to traveling men than to 
almost any other class of transportation patrons. It is diffi- 
cult to gage the benefit of a fast and frequent trolley service 
through a district formerly served only by a few daily steam 
trains on a rigid schedule. Perhaps no other agency has done 
so much as the electric railway to modernize communities that 
without superior transportation connections with the larger 
and distant centers of population would soon "lapse back into 
aboriginal social haphazardism," to quote the words of an 
eminent divine. Many of these benefits, such as the opportuni- 
ties for social intercourse and the advantages to be derived 
from better schools and other educational facilities, have been 



102 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 3. 



mentioned before. These follow as the means are improved 
of reaching the city from the country. But the reflex gain to 
the country resident when the suburban town becomes more 
accessible to the city resident and to commercial travelers has 
not been so thoroughly discussed. The influx of the permanent 
resident from the city, the more frequent receipt of mails and 
of magazines and the more prompt delivery of the daily papers 
must keep the old-time country resident more in touch with 
outside events. Even the fact that the traditional village store 
is modernized by having added to its stock the latest patterns 
of salable articles should have a beneficial influence compared 
with the condition when so much time was lost by traveling 
men in going from place to place that often only the largest 
centers were profitably visited. 

Standardizing Air Brakes 

Up to the present time there has been little necessity or even 
opportunity for the general interchange and joint operation of 
interurban railway rolling stock equipment, and for this reason 
a wide diversity of types of couplers, control apparatus and 
air brakes is to be found on the cars which are now in service. 
The standardization committee of the Central Electric Railway 
Association has been endeavoring for the past two years to 
determine upon standards for such parts of interurban cars as 
affect their interchange and joint operation in trains. The 
committee has already recommended the M. C. B. type of auto- 
matic coupler without the complication of a self-centering radial 
attachment, and at its last meeting held in Indianapolis on 
Jan. 6 it took up the question of standards for air brakes. In 
line with its policy of recommending standards consistent so 
far as possible with those of steam railroads the committee de- 
cided to recommend the adoption of automatic air brake equip- 
ment conforming to the standards and operating practices of 
the steam railroad brake equipment. The automatic air brake 
is a very delicate piece of apparatus and it is difficult to make 
the various essential parts work properly together unless each 
detail is proportioned and built especially to operate with all 
the other details which go to make up a complete car or train 
equipment. This fact has led to the creation of a practical 
monopoly in the manufacture of brake apparatus for steam 
railroads. Obnoxious as a commercial monopoly may be in 
the abstract, the great progress which has been made in steam 
railroad air brake equipment has been due largely to the fact 
that each successive step in advance has been worked out by a 
single manufacturing company which has devoted millions of 
dollars to development work and has had at its command from 
the beginning every opportunity for experimenting and im- 
proving its devices. In the electric railway field a number of 
manufacturers have made and sold air-brake apparatus, but 
unless care is taken to maintain standard connections it will 
be impossible satisfactorily to operate together in trains cars 
equipped with brakes of different makes. The work of the 
standardization committee of the Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation has not terminated with the general recommendation 
of the adoption of automatic air brakes. It will be necessary 
in the future to go even farther and determine upon certain 
requirements of operation which will insure that the brakes 
on any car will operate satisfactorily in conjunction with 
brakes on any other car. The Master Car Builders' Association 
adopted standards of this kind some years ago, and the essential 
parts of the brake equipment for all freight and passenger 



cars must conform to these standards. Needless to say, such 
recommendations should not be made without full consultation 
with and co-operation from all of the manufacturers who are 
to-day engaged in making and selling air brakes for electric 

cars. 



ANOTHER DECISION IN FARE COLLECTION 

The subject of reasonable regulations in fare payment was 
discussed editorially in our issue of Sept. 3, 1910, in connection 
with a recent decision by the New York Supreme Court ac- 
cording to which passengers on pay-as-you-enter cars must 
deposit their fares in a fare box when requested by the com- 
pany to do so. The increasing use of prepayment cars renders 
of special interest all further legal decisions of this character, 
and one involving some new points was rendered last week by 
the Supreme Court of Rhode Island. This decision upheld the 
right of the Rhode Island Company to require a passenger to 
deposit his fare in the form of a nickel in the Rooke fare 
registers used on the lines of that company. 

The case was that of Joseph Martin vs. the Rhode Island 
Company. It seems that the plaintiff was ejected twice from 
the cars of the company. On one occasion he tendered a nickel 
in payment of his fare, but the conductor refused to accept it 
and asked him to insert it in the automatic registering device 
which the conductor held in his hand. This the plaintiff de- 
clined to do and his ejectment followed. On another occasion 
he gave the conductor five pennies, which the conductor took 
and tendered him a nickel, asking him to insert it in the regis- 
tering device. This the plaintiff again refused to do and was 
again put off the car. The court considered the subject from 
two points of view. The first was whether a passenger could 
be compelled to pay his fare and also insert it in an automatic 
registering device. The most closely allied cases were several 
which had been adjudicated in connection with the use of the 
"coffee pot" fare box in Michigan, but the court also reviewed 
other regulations, such as that requiring passengers to purchase 
and deposit tickets in a fare box, as on the elevated and subway 
lines in New York. The New York case already mentioned was 
also cited. From these cases the court concluded, and we think 
properly, that the regulation of the Rhode Island Company was 
entirely reasonable, even to the extent of declining to allow the 
passenger to put five pennies in the register. The court held 
that the advantages to the company of the registering device 
which it used in simplifying its accounts and in securing accu- 
racy in the collection of its fares should be approved rather 
than condemned and that they more than counterbalanced any 
slight degree of annoyance to the passenger incident to the use 
of the device. 

The final legal point involved was whether the company vio- 
lated the statute of the United States which provides that minor 
coins of the United States shall be a legal tender, at their 
nominal value, for any amount not exceeding 25 cents in any 
one payment. This statute undoubtedly , makes the tender of 
five separate cents legal tender for a debt of 5 cents. On this 
point also the court upheld the company, because it held that 
the conductor did not refuse the five separate cents on the 
ground that their purchasing power was not equivalent to a 
nickel and not sufficient for the full payment of a fare. On the 
contrary, the conductor accepted them and tendered a nickel in 
exchange for them, so that the case became analogous to those 



January 21, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



103 



in which the passenger is required to purchase a ticket and 
deposit it in a box. 

The decision as a whole emphasizes the extent to which the 
courts will allow companies to go in enforcing regulations for 
their own protection in the mode in which passengers must pay 
their fares. Statutes which specify the amount of fare to be 
charged for transportation are simply to protect travelers from 
demands for excessive amounts of fare and are not intended 
to interfere with any reasonable rule which a railway company 
may find necessary to make in regard to time, place and mode 
of making the payment. 



ARBITRATION IN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES 



At the annual meeting of the National Civic Federation, 
which ended last Saturday, one entire session was given up to 
the subject of arbitration of labor disputes. The discussion 
centered principally upon the practical results secured in 
Canada with the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act and in 
this country with the Erdman federal act, which provides for 
the investigation of the causes of labor troubles on interstate 
railroads in the United States. It was stated that in the three 
years during which the Canadian law has been in force 82 
boards of arbitration had been appointed, that in 76 of these 
cases the decisions of these boards have been accepted and that 
the other six ended in strikes which were failures. The law 
provides simply for an investigation of the causes of the dis- 
pute and is compulsory only in cases of mining and public 
service corporations, but labor difficulties in industrial enter- 
prises are investigated in the same manner, where both par- 
ties agree. Acceptance of the findings of the board is not 
obligatory, but the inauguration of a lock-out or strike during 
the investigation is punishable by fines of from $100 to $1,000 
a day for the employer, of from $10 to $50 a day for the em- 
ployee and of from $50 to $1,000 a day for any strike organizer 
or lockout inciter. The board is made up of three persons, 
one recommended by each of. the parties to the dispute and a 
third recommended by the Deputy Minister of Labor. Origi- 
nally the act prescribed that 30 days' notice should be given 
in the case of either employer or employee before any change 
affecting wages or general conditions of work could go into 
effect. Later this provision was amended to provide that 
such changes may not take place until the dispute has been 
finally dealt with by a board. Under the Erdman investigation 
act both parties must agree to arbitration, but it was stated that 
in only one case has mediation been refused where the other 
side applied for arbitration. This was in the case of the switch- 
men's strike in the Northwest in 1909, and this strike failed. 

At present nearly every State in the Union has boards of 
arbitration, but the composition of the boards and their 
powers vary greatly. Their practical utility, moreover, in 
cases of serious trouble is questionable. Their great weakness 
is the tendency of boards of this kind to recommend a com- 
promise, independent of the merits of the question under con- 
sideration. The reason for this is obvious. The services of 
the board are not usually requested until matters have reached 
an acute stage. At that time each side submits its maximum 
<lemands. The board can see its way more easily to bring pres- 
sure upon the employer than upon the employees to accept its 
decision, so that its efforts have usually been directed toward 
determining the extent to which the employees would modify 
their demands rather than judicially to consider the merits of 
the case. This fact explains the reluctance of most employers 



to submit their cases to arbitration. If the principle of arbitra- 
tion is to be successful, the method followed must be different 
from that usually employed. 

From the many suggestions, based on the practice of other 
countries, to reduce strikes in this country we can eliminate at 
the beginning that of compulsory arbitration, known as the New 
Zealand system. This is contrary to our idea of individual 
freedom and, in fact, to that of most other civil'zed countries, 
and, according to reports, is not working out satisfactorily in 
the place of its origin. Unless the workmen of an industry 
are placed practically under military law, as is now proposed 
on the railway systems in France, it is difficult to understand 
how they can be coerced to work, nor has it been found possi- 
ble even in New Zealand to require employers to continue a 
business at a loss. 

One step toward reform in decisions of boards of arbitra- 
tion would be to forbid compromise decisions, as is done under 
the arbitration law of Great Britain. There the arbitrators 
must decide directly in favor of or against the claim of each 
side. Such a plan has discouraged the making of excessive de- 
mands, because the board must select of the two propositions 
before it without modification the more reasonable. 

The discussion at the meeting of the National Civic Federa- 
tion, however, also developed the value of an examination of 
the merits of the questions involved in labor disputes before a 
strike begins. This is the chief feature and also the chief 
merit of the Canadian act. During an investigation under this 
act work must be continued under existing conditions until 
the board renders its decision. The penalties have already been 
mentioned. The hearings before the board are open, and the 
public can learn through the testimony presented at them the 
merits of the controversy. It is true that some of the labor 
representatives at the Civic Federation meeting expressed a 
belief that an enforced delay of a strike during the course of 
the arbitration proceedings, as required by the Canadian law, 
was detrimental to labor because it gave the employer long 
warning of a proposed strike ; but the point was made that if 
there was immediate advantage from a sudden strike the ad- 
vantage was temporary only. Another suggestion made at the 
meeting was that all arbitration boards should consist of six 
members rather than of three, the usual number. Two would 
represent each side and two be the judges. The theory of this 
plan is that the two representatives for each side would be 
more apt to agree to a reasonable proposition than one because 
each would receive the moral support of the other and there 
would be fewer charges of weak judgment or of "selling out" 
with two representatives on each side than with one. 

The subject is not an easy one to settle. We believe, how- 
ever, that there would be far fewer industrial strikes if the 
public knew the facts in regard to matters in dispute in ad- 
vance of the beginning of the strike. It is notorious that the 
public press in cases of this kind does not properly present the 
case of the employer, especially after a strike has been called 
and the passions of the employees, and possibly of both sides, 
are inflamed by open hostilities. Perhaps this attitude of the 
press is unavoidable and will continue just as long as the 
proprietors of these papers think that the public is more inter- 
ested in a distorted story than in the facts. But if all the 
points at issue were brought out thoroughly and analyzed im- 
partially at a public hearing so that the facts would be a mat- 
ter of record there could not be the same excuse for public 
ignorance or bias. Experience has shown that publicity is the 
strongest weapon for peace. 



104 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 3. 



THE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT OF THE DETROIT RIVER 
TUNNEL— II 



The article published in last week's issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal described the general scope of the Detroit 
River Tunnel electrification and presented details of the sub- 
station, the third-rail construction and the locomotives. This 
article will conclude the description with data concerning dif- 
ferent miscellaneous features. 

PUMPING EQUIPMENT 

The arrangements provided for keeping the tunnel free from 
water are of interest. The capacity of the machinery installed 
for this purpose was based on the heaviest rainfall for 35 years 
and the addition of an ample margin of safety. Five pumping 



and are provided with aluminum shades so as to reflect the 
light in the direction of travel and thus avoid glare in the 
eyes of trainmen. 

Transformers are placed in niches at suitable points to both 
tunnels and the primaries are fed by 440-volt feeders from the 
substation, wh'le the 104-volt secondary side of the transformers 
is fed directly to the lamps. There is a lighting cabinet 
in each transformer niche to control the lighting in its im- 
mediate vicinity, and each cabinet controls eight local light- 
ing circuits and in some cases signal track transfoimers have a 
primary feed from the lighting cabinets. These transformers 
are single phase, of 7^-kw capacity, and are connected alter- 
nately to the different legs of the three-phase feeders in such, 
a manner as to balance the load. 

The lighting of the yards is accomplished by 100 7^-amp_ 





Fig. 1— Detroit Tunnel— Cross-Section of Tunnel and Longitudinal Section of East-Bound Track 



Diaphragms- 
H Steel Plate. ] 

ElxtrU By. Tuu 'r 



stations or sumps have been constructed. One is situated at 
each portal, there is one at each shaft and the fifth is in the 
center of the subaqueous section. 

The pump motors range from [5 hp to 30 hp in size, and are- 
operated from the substation. An annunciator system, installed 
for each sump, rings a bell and lights a red pilot lamp in the 
substation when the water in either sump reaches the high- 
water setting for the float equipment. The bell alarm is cut 



490-watt, series a.c. arc lamps. Each lamp is supported on a 
cast-iron pole of neat design. This lighting system is fed from 
the constant-current transformers already mentioned. 

The motor-generator room of the substation is lighted by 
21 clusters of tungsten 40-watt lamps. Two of the clusters in 
the center of the station are fed from the main storage battery 
for emergency lighting. The other clusters are fed from the 
substation light and power transformer equipment. 





Fig. 2 — Detroit Tunnel — Windsor Approach 

off when the operator starts either pump set located in the sump 
from which the alarm was received, and when the water in the 
sump is pumped to the low-water level for which the float 
equipment is set a green pilot lamp is lighted on the sump con- 
trol panel and the pump is shut down. 

LIGHTING SYSTEM 

The tunnel is lighted by approximately 860 incandescent 
lamps, which are spaced 40 ft. apart on both side walls of either 
trnnel. The lamps have carbon filaments, are of 16 cp each, 



Fig. 3 — Detroit Tunnel — Locomotive at Detroit Approach 

TUNNEL DETAILS 

In this article it would be interesting to deal at some length 
with the tunnels themselves, as undoubtedly their construction 
is one of the most interesting pieces of engineering work 
accomplished in recent years, but as this part of the subject 
has already been covered in other articles only a few of the 
most important facts bearing on the scheme of electrification 
will be mentioned. 

Fig. 1 shows a section through the tunnel and Fig. 5 is the 



January 21, 1911.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



reproduction of a view in the tunnel showing the third rail. 

The subaqueous portion of the tunnels was built up in 11 
different sections on land and afterward sunk in position on 
a concrete bench placed on the bottom of a trench dredge in 
the river bed. These sections when in place were bolted 
together, gaskets being used to insure the waterproofing of the 
joints. With this form of construction it was questionable 
whether stray current would not lead to electrolysis at these 
joints. Therefore copper bonds were employed to make the 
metallic portion of the tunnel a continuous conductor with the 
Detroit end tied in with the negative return feeders. 

The running rails are of special composition ; they weigh 100 
lb. per yard, and are of the A. S. C. E. standard section. Each 
joint is bonded with two bonds General Electric, each of 500,- 
006 circ. mil capacity. The drainage scheme of the tunnels 
calls for a continuous open gutter for the entire length of each 
tunnel, which made necessary a special form of ties for the 
track rails. Fig. 5 shows the construction adopted. The ties 
are embedded in concrete, protruding only about 3 in. above 
the surface. Dowels were placed in the concrete between each 
tie to prevent any possibility of slipping, and to make the road- 
bed a thoroughly homogeneous mass. These ties have a sec- 
tion of 8 in. x 11 in. and are 4 ft. long. They are of Louisiana 
long-leaf yellow pine. The long ties for supporting the third 
rail brackets are of the same section and are 6 ft. long. They 
are spaced with 10-ft. centers. The distance from center line 
to center line of the tracks in the tunnel is 20 ft. 6 in. on 
tangent and 26 ft. 4 in. on maximum curves. 

Fig. 2 shows the Windsor approach, while Fig. 3 is a view 
of the Detroit approach. The latter picture was taken with the 
locomotive in the portal to show the ample clearances provided 
in the tunnel. It also shows the point where the ordinary yard 
track construction gives way to the special construction for the 
tunnel. 

Referring back to Fig. r, the conduits provided in the tun- 
nel for the different electric cables will be noticed. Those 
on the extreme right are reserved for future power require- 
ments. The telephone, telegraph and signal cables are carried 
in the large nest of ducts in the base of the dividing wall 
between the two tunnels, while the cables for tunnel lighting are 
taken in the three ducts shown under the left bench wall on the 
right-hand tunnel. The power cables for the operation of the 
tunnel and Windsor yards are carried in the ducts shown in the 



The splicing chambers are spaced approximately 400 ft. apart 
on straight work and are all properly drained and ventilated. 
In the tunnel their width and height is necessarily small on 
account of the limited space, but is sufficient for all the 
requirements. They are each 8 ft. in length. 

The lead-covered cables are supported in the manholes from 
malleable iron cable racks hung from vertical tee irons secured 
to the walls of the splicing chambers. These tee irons are 





Fig. 4 — Detroit Tunnel— Exciter Set for Booster 

extreme right of the drawing presented on the preceding page. 

To avoid the use of poles throughout the yards all cables 
are carried in ducts underground. Vitrified clay ducts are 
employed in the tunnel and throughout the yards, and iron 
conduits are used for the secondary wiring for the lighting of 
the tunnel. This lighting conduit is built in the concrete lining 
of the tunnel and runs directly into the junction boxes holding 
the incandescent lamps. 



Fig. 5 — Detroit Tunnel — Track Construction in the Tunnel 

provided with holes for practically their entire length to facili- 
tate the adjustment of the cable supports and for the better 
accommodation of the cables. In many places double cable 
supports have been used to reduce the amount of fanning neces- 
sary from the cable ducts to the splicing sleeves. Ground con- 
nections are provided in the manholes for grounding the lead 
covers of all cables. 

As the substation is located near the Detroit shaft this shaft 

is employed as the cable run in- 
stead of the Detroit portal. 
There are three vertical wells 
in this shaft for the exclusive 
use of the cables, the concrete 
surfaces of each well consisting 
of a series of shallow grooves 
each large enough for a single 
cable of the largest size; thus 
there is a barrier on each side 
of every cable. The weight of 
the lead cable is taken by 
wooden clamps held by U-bolts 
set in the concrete. These are 
spaced approximately 4 ft. apart. 

The total amount of cable in- 
stalled was 229,000 ft., of which 
by far the greater portion is 
multiple conductor. Most of 
this cable has varnished cam- 
bric insulation of a thickness 
depending upon the voltage of 
the circuit on which it is used, and a lead covering is used 
on all cables except the no-volt lighting cable, which is located 
in the iron conduit, where there is no possibility of water 
accumulating. 

In the splicing chambers the lead covering is protected by a 
covering of asbestos felt % in. thick, applied with a one-half lap 
and coated with silicate of soda. This precaution was taken to 



prevent communication of fire from one cable to another, where, 



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ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 3. 



on account of the somewhat limited space, it was impossible to 
separate the cables properly with barriers or split ducts. 

REGULATION OF LOAD 

The nature of the load and the mode of regulation are such 
as to warrant a somewhat detailed account. 

The energy is purchased on a maximum demand basis, which 
makes it necessary for economical operation to eliminate as far 
as possible excessive peaks from the incoming lines. A Gould 




Fig. 6 — Detroit Tunnel — Lower Battery Room 

storage battery has been installed to take care of the fluctu- 
ations of load and the regulation devices are such that the first 
800 amp are taken from the motor-generator sets; then the 
battery takes care of the load from 800 amp up to 8360 am]) ; 
that is, the battery takes 7560 amp. Anything above this figure 
is again taken from the motor generators. The maximum load 
is 9100 amp. When this load is being carried the motor-gener- 
ator sets would be delivering 1540 amp (their full-load rating), 
and the battery would be supplying 7560 amp. 

The battery consists of 312 cells, type U-43 plate elements in 
59 plate tanks. These plates are 18J/2 in. square, and each 
element has a capacity of 630 amp for 8 hours, 1260 amp for 3 
hours, 2520 amp for 1 hour, or 5040 amp for 20 minutes, and is 
capable of withstanding discbarges up to 8ooo amp capacity. 



and a small rectifier set for obtaining current tor regulating 
purposes, which varies according to the ampere times the 
power factor on the incoming supply. One floor of the battery 

house is shown in Fig. 6, while the exciter set, the motor-driven 
booster and the small regulating rectifier set are illustrated 
respectively in Figs. 4, 7 and 8. The load requirements are 
such that, taken in connection with the relatively low average 
demand, a practically instantaneous response to load changes 
must be obtained from the battery and booster, and to accom- 
plish this result a special Gould' high-voltage exciter has been 
provided, which upon the change of load occurring impresses 
an abnormal voltage on the booster field. This voltage is main- 
tained until the proper current flows through the booster field 
circuit to cause the booster to respond and so compel the bat- 
ter) to charge or discharge in accordance with the load 
changes. 

To reduce the size of the battery required to accomplish the 
work and also the size of the booster necessary, it is desirable 
to have the station voltage changed inversely according to the 
demand on the station ; that is, to have a high station voltage 
when the load is light and a low station voltage when the load 
is heavy. It is, however, not desirable that the variations in 
station voltage should occur at times other than times of maxi- 
mums and minimums. To accomplish this a load-limit device 
( see Fig. 10) has been installed, which changes the excitation of 
the direct-current end of the motor-generator sets either when 
the booster voltage capacity is reached or when the booster 
current capacity is reached, but at all other times permits 
normal excitation of the motor-generator set. This causes the 
motor-generator set voltage to be increased when the booster 
voltage reaches the limit in a charge direction or when the 
booster current reaches the limit in a charge direction, and 
decreases the voltage of the motor-generator set when either 
the booster voltage or current capacity in a discharge direction 
is exceeded. 

Inasmuch as the energy is purchased on a kilowatt-hour basis, 
it is desirable that when the voltage is decreased on the motor 
generator sets the current be increased, and to accomplish 
this a booster load limit device has been installed. This appa- 
ratus, in the event of a load carrying beyond the capacity of tho 
battery and booster, automatically shifts the excess load from 
it to the motor-generator set, thus preventing the opening of 
the battery circuit breaker and the consequent transference of 
the total load to the motor-generator set, which would result in 
the opening of the motor-generator circuit breakers. This load- 









Fig. 7 — Detroit Tunnel — Booster Set 

When a total of 59 plates is installed in the tanks each 
••lement will have a capacity of 870 amp for 8 hours. 1740 amp 
for 3 hours, 3480 amp for I hour, or 6960 amp for 20 minutes, 
and will be capable of withstanding discharges up to 11,000 amp. 

The battery installation is for the purpose of removing the 
fluctuations from the load and insuring a practically constant 
input from the Detroit Edison Company. It consists of the 
batterv, a motor-driven booster, an exciter set for the booster 



Fig. 8 — Detroit Tunnel — Rectifier or Permutator Sets 

limit device is actuated by battery discharge current and batten 
charge current, and by booster voltage in a charge direction 
and in a discharge direction. When the battery is discharging 
and this load-limit device is actuated, additional load is thrown 
on the motor-generator sets, and when the battery is charging 
and the load-limit device is actuated the load is removed from 
the motor-generator sets, but this device, like the load-limit 
control of the motor-generator sets, does not come into opera- 



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ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 3. 



tion until certain limits have been reached. At all other times 
the regulating apparatus and the battery preserve practically 
constant load on the lines from the Detroit Edison Company. 

It is thought that the following details of the apparatus may 
be of interest: In the incoming lines from the Detroit Edison 
Company series transformers are inserted and. from these series 
transformers current is led to a small rectifier set which consists 
of a synchronous motor and a small permutator. The syn- 
chronous motor drives the permutator in synchronism with the 
voltage, but in a reverse direction to the direction of the field 
set up by the current from the series transformers. This 
results in a field which is fixed in space so long as the power 
factor is unchanged. The permutator is provided with two sets 
of brushes, one practically at 90 electrical degrees to the other, 
one set being connected to the field of the counter machine and 
the other set connected to a by-pass circuit. The brushes are 
so set that with the normal current flowing from one set of 
brushes through the field of the counter machine no current 
flows through the by-pass circuit when the power on the incom- 
ing lines from the Edison Company is at 100 per cent power fac- 
tor. When set in this way a change in power factor on the in- 
coming lines without a shift of current will cause the current 
supply from the permutator to the field of the counter machine 




Fig. 10 — Detroit Tunnel — Quadruple Load Limit Device 



to be reduced and the current to flow in the by-pass circuit, and 
by proper adjustment of the resistance of the two paths the cur- 
rent flowing through the counter machine field is at all times 
proportional to the current times the power factor on the in- 
coming lines from the Edison Company. 

From the counter machine armature a circuit extends to and 
includes one field of the exciter and the armature of the 
bucker, this bucker being a machine designed to generate con- 
stant voltage irrespective of the direction and amount of current 
through its armature and provided to furnish a constant oppos- 
ing force for the regulation to work against. The voltage of 
this bucker is equal to the voltage of the counter machine when 
the normal load is on the incoming lines, and any change in load 
on the incoming lines will cause current to flow from the counter 
machine or to the counter machine through the exciter field, 
depending on whether the load is increased or decreased. From 
the exciter armature a circuit extends to the booster field and 
includes a reverse series winding on the exciter. This winding 
cuts down the exciter voltage when current flows to the booster 
field, thus permitting an abnormal voltage to be obtained from 
the exciter and applied to the booster field as long as required, 
or until current begins to flow through the booster field circuit, 
when this voltage is cut down in proportion to the current flow 
to the booster field. The wiring details of this apparatus are 
shown in Fig. 9. 

In this plant the time which is required to reverse the 



booster from approximately 80 volts in one direction to 
approximately 80 volts in the other direction, with normal 
voltage applied to its terminals, is approximately 4V2 seconds. 
By using the differential exciter voltage as high as 300 volts 
can be impressed on the booster field, which is wound for 
approximately 20 volts. The result is that the response of the 
booster is enormously quickened, and this excess voltage is cut 
down exactly as desired, so that at no time does an excessive 
or abnormal current flow through the booster field. Means are 
provided whereby the average load supplied by the Detroit 
Edison Company can be changed at will to accommodate this 
system to different schedule conditions. Means are also pro- 
vided whereby the regulation can be changed from 7J/2 per cent 
t° 33 T ~3 per cent; that is to say, the incoming power from the 
Detroit Edison can be kept constant within the limits of plus or 
minus 7^ per cent, or can be permitted to vary plus or minus 
33 '-3 per cent from any desired average. 

ELECTRIC CLUB* OF CHICAGO 

A well-attended meeting of the Electric Club of Chicago was 
held on Jan. 11 in the Coliseum during the Electrical Show, 
by the courtesy of Homer E. Niesz, who is general manager of 
the Electrical Show, as well as vice-president of the club. H. 
H. Cudmore, president of the Electrical League of Cleveland, 
was the principal speaker, as the result of an interchange of 
courtesies between the Cleveland and Chicago clubs, Mr. Vose, 
the president of the latter organization, having previously ad- 
dressed the Cleveland League. Mr. Cudmore said that the 
association in Cleveland is conducted on lines similar to those 
followed by the Electric Club of Chicago. Meetings are held 
twice a month, although it is expected that the plan of holding 
weekly meetings as in Chicago will be adopted at some future 
time. One feature of the Cleveland meetings is the chorus 
singing, which has proved an enjoyable diversion. Mr. Cud- 
more spoke particularly of the plan of co-operative newspaper 
advertising adopted by the electrical interests of Cleveland and 
he caused to be distributed sample pages of the newspaper pub- 
lishing these advertisements. An arrangement was made with 
the Cleveland News, an afternoon paper, by which on every 
Saturday there is published what is called "the People's Elec- 
trical Page." In the center of this page there is a collection 
of items of electrical information of general interest, and sur- 
rounding it are the advertisements of local electrical dealers, 
contractors and central-station interests. The idea is that 
the electrical advertising of Cleveland is thus massed in 
one broadside, as it were, and is, therefore, more effective. 
The work is in charge of M. E. Turner, of the Cleveland Elec- 
tric Illuminating Company, who is also an officer of the 
league. Mr. Cudmore closed with a cordial invitation to the 
members of the Electric Club of Chicago to visit the Elec- 
trical League of Cleveland. 

J. S. Badger, general manager and chief engineer of the 
Brisbane Tramways, of Brisbane, Australia, who has been 
spending some time in the United States investigating the man- 
agement of street railways in American cities, was a visitor, and 
spoke briefly by invitation. He said that all the trunk rail- 
roads and many of the street railway and electric light plants 
in Australia are owned by the government or by municipalities. 
He believes, however, that the electrical industry does not 
reach its highest development under government ownership. 
Public ownership has many good features, but it is undoubtedly 
true that private enterprise supplies that initiative which makes 
for the greatest degree of enterprise and development. Mr. 
Badger spoke of the remarkable progress in street-railway ser- 
vice in Chicago since he visited that city 15 years ago. The 
street railway systems of Australia are small compared with 
those of the United States, and the speaker gracefully ex- 
pressed a sense of obligation in being permitted to study freely 
many examples of American development. 

George H. Porter and Thomas C. Ringgold spoke briefly. 
The treasurer's statement was submitted, showing that on Jan. 
t the Electric Club of Chicago had $3,222.35 in its treasury. 



January 21, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



109 



PORTABLE ERECTOR FOR ORNAMENTING IRON POLES 
IN SAN FRANCISCO 



BY S. L. FOSTER, CHIEF ELECTRICIAN UNITED RAILROADS OF SAN 
FRANCISCO 



In San Francisco the United Railroads is at present engaged 
in installing about 600 iron poles with ornamental castings of 
an unusual design on three of the principal streets of the city 
— Market, Valencia and Sutter. These poles were modeled 
after the very ornate columns on the Alexandria bridge in 



being lowered into place, some device outside of the linemen's 
usual resourceful list of tools had to be provided. As the 
erection of 600 sets of these castings was a large piece of work, 
it justified considerable expense in constructing the apparatus 
so as to make it as labor-saving as possible and also to insure 
that this saving should more than repay the cost of building 
the hoist. 

The illustrations tell the story. An ordinary swinging-leaf, 
telescope tower wagon was equipped with a guyed rigid square 
5-in. x s-in. Oregon pine lower mast and a 3^-in. x 3%-in. 
pine top mast hinged to the former and tapering to 3% in. 





San Francisco Poles — View on Market Street and Rear View of Erector 



Paris and carry on the base many figures in bas relief repre- 
senting typical scenes from early California history. This 
article does not deal with the artistic design of the pole so 
much as with the practical task of installing the heavy orna- 
mental iron castings on the already set poles. 

The poles are of the usual steel tubular three-part construc- 
tion — 6 in., 7 in. and 8 in. in trade diameter. On Market 
Street, where there are four trolley wires and the distance 



octagonal at the end. When erect this top mast reaches to a 
height of 32 ft. above the sidewalk, but when lowered it lies 
on the top of the tower at the ordinary height so as to pass 
under span wires, etc. When erect the leaning top mast is 
locked at the hinge and back-guyed against the strain of the 
hoisting rope. The top is provided with an iron cap carrying 
the necessary eyebolts for the attachment of the guys and 
pulley blocks and so designed as to bring the strain flatly on 




San Francisco Poles — Portable Erector Closed and in Action 



between curbstones is 85 ft., "extra strong" pipe is used, but 
on the other streets, where there is but 42 ft. or 48 ft. between 
opposite poles, the "standard" pipe poles are used. To main- 
tain the continuity of the figures and produce the most com- 
pletely artistic effect each casting was made in one piece and 
had to be threaded over the pole. 
As the base was nearly 6 ft. high and weighed 500 lb. and 



the top of the mast. This gin pole is leaned so that the top is 
perpendicularly above a point enough beyond the side of the 
wagon to allow the 27-in. diameter sub-base to be hoisted clear 
of the tower. 

For the actual work of hoisting the half-ton of parts per 
pole expeditiously, a 2 hp, 500-volt shunt motor is used. This 
motor's pinion runs at 1200 r.p.m. and is geared by a double 



had to be swung in the clear above the 24-ft-high pole before gear and sprocket chain reduction to a drum to which the rope 



I IO 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 3. 



from the blocks is attached. On this 6-in. drum the i-in. rope 
is wound as it comes off the combination of single block above 
and single block below. 

The connection to the trolley wire is made by a long light 
"fishpole" and to the "ground" through the iron pole that is 
being ornamented. The speed of hoisting the heaviest piece, 
the base, weighing 500 lb., is 45 seconds. The lighter collars 
are hauled up by hand with a "whip" or single block, while 
the slings are being rigged on the heavier pieces. 

The span and anchor wires have to be cast off and the strains 
temporarily taken care of from the top of the tower, while the 
sub-base, base and ornamental rings are being slipped over the 
pole. Under favorable conditions 25 sets can be put in place 
in a day with this device. Before the ornamentations are put 
on the pole it is bored at the base for the arc-light conductors 
to connect the underground lines with the lamp in the orna- 
mental top. Every fifth pole on one side of the street has also 
been bored for the accommodation of the feed-in cable for 




San Francisco Poles — Ornamental Bases 



feeding the trolley wire from the underground feeders and 
each pole has been equipped with a roomy maple oil-impreg- 
nated switchboard for the attachment of switches and cut-outs 
to be located in the double-doored sub-base. 

The iron castings as received from the makers have been 
painted with one coat of red lead on the outside. The core sand 
is scraped or blown out by compressed air and the inside given 
a coat of pole paint by the company before erection. The 
pole is painted again where it is to be covered by the castings. 

After the installation of the ornamentations the pole is 
pulled or jacked plumb. The sub-base is then leveled rp, 
cemented in and provided with drainage for water of condensa 
tion or leakage, the cracks are puttied up over oakum and the 
whole pole is repainted. 

As the operator of the mechanism sits at his work he has the 
handle of the motor-starting resistance box conveniently be- 
fore him and a foot lever below him for throwing a dog Into 
the teeth of a gear on the end of the rope drum for emer- 
gency use in case both hoisting motor clutch and band brake 
should fail. A lever is at his right side for controlling a band 
brake on the drum on which the hoisting rope is wound and a 



lever at his left side for throwing into or out of contact an 
8-in. diameter cone friction head clutch coupling for use in 
connecting the motor mechanism to the hoisting rope mechan- 
ism. The band brake is used to control the speed of lowering 
the castings after being threaded over the top of the pole. 

To a street railway man visiting San Francisco the fine 
appearance of these ornamented poles is a striking feature of 
the rebuilding of the recently burned city. 



PATENTS— WHAT THEY ARE, AND HOW TO READ AND 
UNDERSTAND THEM 



BY S. E. DARBY, ATTORN EY-AT-LAW, NEW YORK 



Although the government has been granting patents for in- 
ventions for more than 100 years, they are, perhaps, the least 
understood of the various forms of property. In the popular 
mind they are regarded with more or less mystery and are fre- 
quently associated with visions of wealth, or else with vagaries 
of a diseased mentality. It is true that instances are common 
where patents for inventions have formed a basis for the 
accumulation of fortunes of greater or less degree, but the 
vast majority of patents have brought little or no return to the 
inventors who have given their time, efforts and patient toil 
in the creation of new ideas in the advancement of the useful 
arts. 

Perhaps herein lies the other popular fallacy referred to. 
It is often difficult to understand why any one in a normal 
state of mind should go on with experiment and development 
without reaping some benefit or advantage from the efforts, 
and often the expense, devoted to this work. It would be too 
much to say that in such cases the reward comes from the 
knowledge that mankind has benefited by the production of the 
invention. The making of inventions is not, as a general rule, 
founded on any such high and disinterested motive. There is 
always the hope of remuneration of some sort. At the same 
time the public does benefit, to some degree at least, by each 
invention made, and we owe our present stage of perfection in 
every line of industry and in every direction to the steps of 
advancement brought about by the exercise of the creative 
faculties which we call invention. 

To understand what a patent is we must not lose sight of 
the underlying basis of its grant. Among the powers con- 
ferred on Congress by the Constitution, which forms the basis 
for all our federal laws, is the power "to promote the progress 
of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to 
authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective 
writings and discoveries." 

This is the foundation on which the entire structure of our 
patent laws is erected. The invention or discovery which 
promotes the progress of a useful art is to be secured to the 
inventor for a limited time. It is secured by the grant of a 
patent. The limited time has been fixed as 17 years. During 
this period the patent secures to the inventor the exclusive 
right to the invention. At the expiration of this period it 
terminates and the invention becomes available to the free U6e 
of the public. The term of exclusive right which the grant 
secures to the inventor is known as the life of the patent. 
During this term the exclusive right to the invention is a 
property right. It can be owned, enjoyed, used and transferred 
like any other property. There is nothing peculiar or diffi- 
cult in the application of the ordinary rules to the property 
right secured by a patent. 

A patent has sometimes been referred to as a contract be- 
tween the inventor on the one hand and the government on 
the other. Being a contract it is based on mutual considera- 
tions passing between the contracting parties. The inventor, 
mi his part, having made an invention, agrees that if he be 
granted the exclusive right to the invention for 17 years the 
public may have the free use of it thereafter. The government, 
on its part, agrees that if the inventor has made an invention it 
will secure to him the exclusive right thereto for 17 years, by 



January 21, 191 1. 

tin.' grant of a patent, provided tin.' public may have the free 
right to the use of the invention at the expiration of that term, 
t his is the eontract. The inducement to the inventor is the 
knowledge that for 17 years he shall have exclusive right to 
his invention, that during this time he can do with it as he 
pleases and that no one else can use or enjoy it without his 
consent. The inducement to the government is that of pro- 
moting the progress of the useful arts and securing to the 
public at the end of the exclusive period the right to the free 
use of the patented invention. 

Every patent consists of two principal parts : first, the speci- 
fications, including drawings, where the nature of the inven- 
tion is such as to be capable of illustration by drawings, and, 
second, the claims. Since the invention is the exclusive prop- 
erty of the patentee for 17 years and is to become public prop- 
erty at the expiration of that time, it is necessary that the 
public may know exactly what the patented invention is. There- 
fore the specifications must include a written description of 
the thing patented and in such clear and concise terms as to 
enable any one skilled in the particular art to which the patented 
device relates to construct, compound or use the device, by 
following the written description and the drawings forming 
part of the patent. The thing patented, the invention, may be 
a new method of operation, a new machine, a new article of 
manufacture, a new composition of matter, a new combination 
of elements, or a new improvement on an old method, machine, 
manufacture, composition or combination. 

To define the exact scope and breadth of the invention, and 
of the grant which secures it for the limited period to the 
inventor, the claims of the patent are necessary. It is the 
claims which particularly point out and make clear the part, 
improvement or combination which the inventor claims as his 
invention or discovery. In securing a patent, therefore, the 
inquiry is: (1) Is the device sought to be secured by the in- 
ventor an invention ; that is, is it the result of the exercise of 
the creative faculties? (2) Do the specifications, including the 
drawings, describe it with such particularity, fulness and clear- 
ness as to enable any one skilled in the art to which it relates 
to make, construct and use it? (3) Do the claims sufficiently 
define the invention and distinguish what is new from what 
is old? 

Of these inquiries the last is the one which gives rise to the 
greatest conflict between the examiners in the Patent Office, 
whose duty it is to pass on the application for the patent, and 
the applicant for the patent. In this action there must be taken 
into account everything that has been done before in the par- 
ticular art to which the invention relates. The examiners, 
while, of course, not infallible, devote careful, conscientious 
and trained intelligence to their examination of each applica- 
tion for patent they are required to pass on and allow the patent 
only after being thoroughly satisfied that the invention is one 
worthy of being secured exclusively to the inventor and is a 
promotion of the useful arts. In the large majority of cases 
the conclusions and findings of the expert Patent Office examin- 
ers are sustained when finally tested in the courts. 

Many stand in great awe of a patent, and believe that all 
patents are good. To a certain extent this is as it should be. 
The grant of a patent carries with it the presumption that it is 
good. Indeed, so strong is this presumption that it requires 
proof to defeat it of the same order that, in the criminal law, 
is required to convict of murder, namely, proof that does not 
admit of a reasonable doubt. On the other hand, there are 
many who seem to believe that a patent is not good and is 
without value until it has been passed on by the courts and held 
to be good and valid This view is too frequently held by those 
who find themselves unlawfully appropriating that which has 
been exclusively secured by a patent to another. A very small 
minority bring a really intelligent understanding to bear on the 
subject when presented to them before venturing to declare a 
particular patent under consideration to be good or bad. 

A patent grant may be revoked and set aside by the courts 
on proper application based on fraud in connection with its 



1 I 1 

grant, hut this course is verv ranly invoked an ! is still more 
rarely effective. In the vast majority of cases where patent 
grants are held invalid, either wholly or in part, it is in suits 
brought on the patents for their infringement. This situation 
arises whe;e the owner of the exclusive right secured by a 
patent grant finds that the exclusive right is being appropriated 
by another without his consent. To enforce his right to ex- 
clude others from the use of the patented invention the owner 
of the patent sues the unauthorized user for remuneration and 
damages for the unauthorized use and for an injunction against 
the continued use of the patent grant. The usual defense to 
such a suit is that the patent is invalid and void because it does 
not cover a patentable invention, having been anticipated by 
something which existed in the art prior to the date of the 
inventive act creating the patented invention. It then becomes 
the duty of the court to consider and pass on the questions 
whether the patent is valid and whether the one charged with 
its infringement really does appropriate and use the patented 
invention, giving, as a general rule, the patentee the benefit of 
any doubts that may exist. Unfortunately patent infringement 
litigation is expensive to the parties engaged in it. To this 
may be due, in large part, the terror and awe in which patent 
rights are held by a large part of the public. But this is a fault 
of the practice that has grown up in connection with patent 
litigation, rather than of the patent system itself. 

It is usually difficult for the public at large to comprehend the 
difference between an invention and the machine, article, com- 
bination or thing into which the invention is. incorporated. We 
very frequently hear one charged with infringement of a patent 
lay: "I am not infringing b cause 1 have a patent myself for 
the machine or article I am using. The Patent Office would not 
grant me a patent for something which infringes a patent pre- 
viously granted to someone else." On its face this reasoning 
appears plausible, and to understand its fallacy it is necessary to 
go back to first principles. The invention which a patent grant 
secures exclusively to the inventor must be defined and par- 
ticularly pointed out in the claims, which thus become the 
measure by which the scope of the exclusive right is gaged 
Therefore, in granting a patent the Patent Office considers in 
this connection only the question of whether the claims prop- 
erly distinguish the new idea from what was old. It has no 
right or power to consider whether or not the machine, article 
or combination shown and described in the drawings and speci- 
fications contains the invention or inventive idea of some prior 
patent. That question is solely for the courts to consider. The 
duty of the Patent Office is to see whether or not the claims of 
the application for the patent can be allowed over what is shown 
or described in prior patents. It does not consider what is 
claimed in the prior patents. If what an applicant for a patent 
defines in his claims to be his invention is found to be old in a 
prior patent the applicant's claims are refused. If what is 
defined in the claims of the application is found to be new the 
claims are allowed, but their allowance and the issuance of the 
patent grant thereon do not give the patentee any right to use 
what has been exclusively secured in the claims of a prior 
patent. This can possibly be made clearer by illustrations. 

Let us suppose ourselves back at the dawn of civilization and 
that our present patent laws were then in force. Now suppose 
"A" to be the first to invent and build a house — a log cabin, as 
distinguished from a tent or a cave — and that he provided the 
house with a doorway through one of its walls, and a door for 
the doorway, the door being suspended by leather thongs from a 
horizontal pole arranged above the doorway so that the door 
could be shifted along the pole into open or closed position. 
"A" becomes so impressed with the value of being able to 
employ a door which is movable into open position to let the 
light of the sun shine into his habitation, or into closed posi- 
tion to shut out the cold winds and the rains, that he decides 
to secure the exclusive right to the invention he has made in 
the promotion of the useful arts. He thereupon makes appli- 
cation for a patent and makes the door the important feature 
of the invention, which he defines in a claim as follows: 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



112 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 3. 



The combination with a house having walls, one of the walls having 
an opening therethrough to form a doorway, a door for the opening, 
and means for supporting the door for movement into and out of posi- 
tion to close the opening. 

The examiner of the Patent Office, finding this invention to be 
new, allows the claim and the patent grant issues securing to 
"A" for 17 years the exclusive right to the invention defined 
in the claim. Subsequently "B," whether he has knowledge 
of "A's" invention or not, conceives the idea of supporting 
the door at its vertical edge upon hinges so that the door 
may rock or swing on its hinges into and out of position to 
close the doorway. This invention makes the use of the 
horizontal pole of "A's" device unnecessary. "B" then applies 
for a patent and defines his invention in a claim identical with 
that previously granted to "A." This claim, it will be seen, 
applies as readily to the one structure as to the other. The 
Patent Office examiner, in making his examination of "B's" 
application, finds 'A's" patent, and seeing that "B's" claim is 
satisfied by "A's" structure, refuses "B's" claim as being 
anticipated by "A's" prior patent. Thereupon "B," being 
satisfied that his construction possesses merit and advantage 
over "A's" arrangement, modifies his claim defining his inven- 
tion, and asks that a patent be granted to him upon the modified 
!aim as follows : 

'l ie combination with a house having walls, one of the walls having 
an opening therethrough to form a doorway, a door for the opening, 
nnd hinges for supporting the door along cue of its vertical edges 
whereby the dcor may be rocked or swung upon its hinges into and out 
of position to close the opening. 

The examiner finds that this claim points out a structure 
which "A's" patent does not disclose, and allows this claim, 
and a patent grant issues to "B" securing to him the exclusive 
right to the invention he has made. Therefore, "A," although 
having obtained a patent, is excluded from the use of "B's" 
invention. At the same time "B" is excluded from using "A's" 
invention. In granting "B's" patent the examiner did not 
take into account the scope of "A's" inveution as defined in his 
claim, but considered only the question presented to him by 
"B's" application, namely, whether "B's" claim defined a new 
structure and arrangement. Finding this question in "B's" 
favor, the patent issued to "B" as a promotion of the useful 
arts. While "B" secured the exclusive right to his own inven- 
tion, still this grant did not give him the right to use that 
which had been previously secured exclusively to "A," and since 
"A's" patent defined and pointed out in its claim a construction 
which included "B's" invention, that is, since "A" secured the 
exclusive right to employ a door for the doorway opening in 
the wall of the house, which door was defined as being "sup- 
ported for movement" into and out of position to close the door- 
way opening, "B" is excluded from using his arrangement 
wherein the door is supported on its vertical edge on hinges 
so as to rock or. swing into and out of position to close the 
door opening because in doing so he would be using a "door 
supported for movement" into and out of position to close the 
doorway opening. That was just what "A" had secured 
exclusively in his patent. This exclusion of "B" from using 
what he had invented must continue till the period of "A's" 
exclusive right terminates. During this period "A" is not at 
liberty to use a door supported at its vertical edge by hinges 
because that is what has been exclusively secured to "B." 

Suppose, however, that when "A" had originally applied for 
his patent he had failed to realize the value, importance and 
possibilities of different door movements, and had defined his 
invention in his claim as follows : 

The combination with a house having walls, one of the walls having 
an opening therethrough to form a doorway, a horizontal pole supported 
above the doorway opening and a door suspended from the pole to be 
shifted therealong into and out of position to close the doorway opening. 

A patent would have issued to him for the invention so 
defined. Now, if subsequently "B" made application for patent 
for his improvement of a hinged door and defined his invention 
in the terms of the claim specifying merely "means for support- 
ing the door for movement into and out of position to close the 
doorway opening," the examiner would have refused allowance 
of this claim, as before, because in "A's" patent the door is 



shown and described as being so supported. If, then, "B" re- 
stricts his claim the same as before to a door supported at one 
vertical edge thereof on hinges to rock or swing into position 
to close the door opening, his claim would be allowed, because 
"A's" patent would not show or describe any such structure. 
Moreover, the grant of "A's" patent for the invention defined 
in his claim for the horizontal pole and the sliding door sus- 
pended from it would not prevent "B" from using his invention 
of the hinged door, because "A's" claim does not in this case 
apply to "B's" structure, and the use of "B's" structure would 
not involve appropriation of that which had been exclusively 
secured to "A." 

Suppose, again, that in the first instance "A" had defined as 
his invention in his claim merely the structure of the house 
itself, though showing and describing but not claiming the door. 
Now, when "B" applies for his patent, claiming the door 
broadly, as before, his claim would be refused because the broad 
idea is shown and described in the earlier patent to "A," 
although not claimed therein. When "B" limits his claim to the 
hinged door structure his claim is allowed. In this case he 
is still excluded from using his door construction in connection 
with the house, because the house has been exclusively secured 
to "A," although he is at liberty to sell his door to one who 
buys the right from "A" to use the house, but "A" cannot use 
the hinged door construction without the consent of "B," be- 
cause that is the invention wdiich has been secured exclusively 
to "B." 

In this last case, where "A" defines his invention as the 
house structure, and "B" defines his invention as a hinged door 
structure for the house, it might happen that "A's" application 
for patent might be assigned to one examiner or to one class 
of inventions in the Patent Office, and "B's" application for 
patent for his hinged door structure might be assigned to an- 
other examiner or class for examination. Therefore, when 
"B's" application is first filed with the broad claim for the 
door however supported, the examiner might not think of ex- 
amining the class of house structure patents and so might over- 
look the previously granted patent to "A." In this case "B" 
would get his patent with the broad door claim, but the patent 
would be invalid because the claim granted in "B's" patent 
would apply to what had been previously shown and described 
in "A's" patent. Consequently, if "B" should sue "A," or any 
one else, for infringement of his broad door claim it would be 
a good defense to the suit to bring forth to the court the 
earlier patent to "A." But suppose "B" had defined his door 
invention in two claims, one for the broad door structure and 
another for the hinged door structure, his patent would have 
been good and valid as to the hinged structure, though void 
and invalid as to the broad door structure. 

Coming down to modern times, we find life more complex, 
and we encounter greater refinements and advances in all 
directions. So, too, we find our patents and the inventions they 
define in their claims more complicated and refined. We find 
that they mark narrower steps of advancement and hence in- 
clude a greater number of elements. We also find a wider 
and ever increasing range of prior art to be considered in 
reading and ascertaining the true scope and breadth of our 
patents. The process remains just as simple and easily under- 
stood as originally, but greater care and discrimination are re- 
quired. The great considerations in any case remain just the 
same, and these are: (1) What is defined and particularly 
pointed out in the claims as the invention which is exclusively 
secured to the inventor by his patent? and (2) Is that invention, 
so defined and pointed out, new and useful and a promotion of 
the useful arts? In the solution of these questions many rules 
have been developed of more or less technical character, and 
these rules constitute the test by wdiich each case is measured. 

Perhaps the most fruitful source of trouble in the application 
of the technical rules to ascertain the breadth, scope and 
strength of a patent is the question of proper combination of 
the elements which enter into the invention and are defined in 
the claims as the invention which is secured exclusively to the 
patentee. For a claim to be valid it must be for a true combi- 



January 21, igii 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



nation and not for an aggregation of the recited elements. The 
distinction between these is one that is frequently misunderstood 
and misapplied, although the principles involved are compara- 
tively simple. It is not necessary that all the elements which 
enter into an invention shall be new. Indeed, it is not even 
necessary that any of them shall be new, since invention may 
reside as well in a new combination of old elements as in a com- 
bination of new elements. In fact, most of the inventions of 
modern times, particularly those relating to mechanical struc- 
tures, are made up of elements which are themselves indi- 
vidually old. An inventor of to-day is entitled to call to his 
aid all the knowledge and information which the prior art can 
afford him, and if from this knowledge and information he can 
evolve a new combination which promotes the progress of the 
art in which he is working, and which attains advantages and 
utility not before realized, he has complied with the require- 
ments and is entitled to be secured in the exclusive right to the 
invention he has made, always provided that he has made a 
true combination and has not merely aggregated the various 
elements he has called to his aid. 



REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE CENTRAL 
ELECTRIC TRAFFIC ASSOCIATION * 



BY A. L. NEEREAMER, CHAIRMAM 



Congratulations are due you for the expeditious manner in 
which business has been transacted at the meetings and by 
the committees during the past year and for the peace and 
harmony which have existed. 

The Central Electric Railway Association has a membership 
of 46 interurban lines and one city line representing 3480 miles. 
Out of this, 36 interurban lines, representing 2962 miles, are 
active members of this association and participate in various 
publications. Thirty-three lines, representing 2840 miles, will 
be represented in Joint Passenger Tariff No. 3 when revised. 
Twenty-eight lines, representing 2354 miles, are now party to 
the interchangeable 1000-mile ticket. Twenty-six lines, repre- 
senting 2169 miles, are party to the Official Classification, as 
filed by the chairman. 

During the latter part of the year 1910 the time of the asso- 
ciation has been occupied in revising Joint Passenger Tariff 
No. 3. Part of this work is brought about by slight revisions 
of the various local passenger tariffs, the correction of errors 
made in the original publication and the insertion of new- 
routes and rules for the accommodation of the traveling pub- 
lic as a result of the experience derived during the past year 
from its use. A considerable amount of the work of the re- 
vision is caused by the addition of four new lines which are 
to become party to the new tariff. The inclusion of their sta- 
tions and the opening up of their new routes tend to increase 
the value of the publication. An extension built by one line 
has opened another gateway for the routing of passengers, 
while extensions built by other lines have increased the terri- 
tory and list of stations covered. The work of the revision is 
not yet completed, but at the rate it is progressing it will be 
but a short time until the revised tariff can be placed in the 
hands of the various companies for distribution. Following 
as a natural result of this, the tariffs covering the interchange- 
able 1000-mile ticket and joint and local baggage should be re- 
vised to incorporate the additional lines that are participating in 
the other tariffs. At this point it may be well to call attention to 
the increased demand for the interchangeable 1000-mile ticket. 
During the first two years 7000 of these tickets were ordered 
by the various companies party thereto and placed in the hands 
of their agents. During the past year nearly 5000 additional 
tickets have been disposed of. This is a ratio of over two to 
each mile represented by the lines shown on the cover. 

The first step in the association toward uniformity in 
freight traffic was accomplished this year by the adoption of 

*Report submitted at the annual meeting of the Central Electric Traffic 
Association at Indianapolis, Jan. 18, 191 1. 



Freight Circular No. 1, covering a table of estimated weights 
of standard commodities, and the filing of the Official Classi- 
fication. While but 26 lines are party to the Official Classifi- 
cation, as filed by the chairman, there are quite a number that 
are purchasing the classification through this office in order 
to use a publication that has the association cover. 

At the present time we have in the hands of the various 
committees a number of important subjects which will be de- 
cided within a very short time. These subjects cover an of- 
ficial interurban map, an official interurban guide, a standard 
scale for the transportation of milk and cream and a uniform 
exception sheet. The committees in charge of the above prop- 
ositions have been working faithfully, and the results of their 
investigations will be of great benefit to the association. 

During the past year your chairman has had considerable 
correspondence with various lines outside of the territory re- 
garding information on various traffic propositions which have 
been worked out in our meetings. He has been able to answer 
these communications and give the valuable information re- 
quested. During the same period correspondence was carried 
on with various steam lines and associations regarding the 
exchange of information and recommendations in joint terri- 
tory, and this correspondence has resulted in considerable bene- 
fit to our members. 

In conclusion, the chairman desires to express his sincere 
thanks and hearty appreciation to each and every member for 
the earnest support and co-operation given him during the 
past year in his endeavors to work out the desires and orders 
of this body. Without this support very little would have been 
accomplished and our time would have been spent in va n. 
While the chairman is nominally the executive officer of your 
association, he is in reality nothing but an employee whose 
duty it is to carry out the instructions and orders which you 
give him. Therefore, without the support you have rendered 
the success which has been achieved during the past year 
might have been "weighed in the balance and found wanting." 

You still hold the record of being the only traffic association 
existing among interurban lines, as the associations or- 
ganized in other territories are still in their infancy and have 
not energetically or systematically taken up this important 
branch of interurban operation. 

— 

EXTENSION OF ENGINEERING FORCE OF McKINLEY 
PROPERTIES 



H. E. Chubbuck, vice-president executive of the McKinley 
properties, has just inaugurated a new operating engineering 
department with a staff which will serve to keep his office in 
touch with the local properties operated in the States of Illinois. 
Iowa and Kansas. The new engineering department will have 
headquarters in the Peoria offices. At the head of the de- 
partment is W. H. Thompson, Jr., chief operating engineer, 
and associated with him are F. W. Bedard and R. F. Carley, 
operating engineers. W. J. Achelpohl, auditor of the Western 
Railways & Light Company, will look after the accounting 
of the statistical part of the work of the operating engineers. 
The new operating engineering department will endeavor to 
keep in close touch with the conditions on each of the local 
properties of the Illinois Traction System and the Western 
Railways & Light Company and serve to bring about a uni- 
formity of operating methods on all properties which have 
similar operating conditions. 

The operating engineers just appointed will visit each of the 
railway, lighting, gas and heating properties in Illinois at least 
once every two weeks. The -properties in Iowa and Kansas 
will be visited at least once a month. The engineers will pay 
particular attention to the operating conditions at each plant 
and will submit reports of observations to Mr. Chubbuck, call- 
ing special attention to any unusual conditions. The oper- 
ating engineering department will issue no instructions to the 
various superintendents in charge of the local properties but 
will submit their recommendations to the vice-president of the 



U4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 3. 



company at Peoria; then, if any changes in methods are found 
desirable, instructions to the superintendents of the local prop- 
erties will be issued from Mr. Chubbuck's office. This new de- 
partment and staff also will be available for making special 
reports on power contracts and for similar promotion work. 


TRAIN DISPATCHING ON INTERURBAN ROADS * 



RY C. E. LEWIS, CHIEF TRAIN DISPATCHER NEW YORK STATE KAIL- 
WAYS, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

The safety of passengers and trains is of the first importance 
in railroad operation. To accomplish this on single-track, in- 
terurban railroads where first-class trains are operated at high 
speed on frequent schedules it becomes necessary to have a 
first-class dispatching system and a book of rules which are 
plain, brief and cover all points of train movement in such 
form as to eliminate all chance of doubt as to their interpre- 
tation. 

Train dispatching covers a wide difference of opinion, and as 
the American Railway Standard Code is the result of many 
years of study of experienced and efficient railroad men, it 
seems to me to be the only one to follow. 

Two forms of orders are used on the Rochester interurban 
lines of the New York State Railways: the train clearance order 
and the "31" telephone order. Order offices are situated along 
these lines about 10 miles apart and are positive block stations. 
Trains cannot pass or leave these stations without obtaining 
one of these forms of orders. In the absence of other order 
the train clearance order is used to allow a train to pass a 
positive block station. It is issued by the dispatcher under a 
distinct order number and is recorded in the dispatcher's 
order book with the train number, motor number, time O K.'d, 
station receiving and operator's name. The operator, after 
repeating this order to the dispatcher and receiving the O. K., 
will band >t to the conductor, who will repeat it to the operator, 
the operator giving the "complete." Copies are supplied for both 
conductor and motorman and one is retained by the operator 
for his record. 

When it becomes necessary to make train movements not 
provided for by the timetable the "31" telephone train order 
is used and is issued in the following manner: 

The operator at the station where the order is to be placed 
for the superior train is called and is instructed to copy three 
or as many as are required. Then the operator at the station 
where the order is to be placed for the inferior train is called 
and is given the same instructions. The dispatcher then gives 
the order number and the addresses of the trains in the order 
of their superiority. The order is then transmitted and is 
written in full without abbreviation by the operator. After 
the dispatcher has transmitted the order and the superintend- 
ent's initials, the operator will read it back to the dispatcher 
without abbreviation. The dispatcher will then O. K, the 
order if correct and the operator will give his name and order 
number. 

The operator will hand the order to the conductor <>f the 
train addressed. The conductor will then repeat the order to 
the dispatcher without abbreviation and when he has finished 
he will give his name and train number. The dispatcher will 
complete the order if correct, giving the time and his initials. 
The order is then in full force and effect and a copy is given 
to the motorman by the conductor. The motorman must read 
his order aloud and without abbreviation to the conductor, the 
conductor watching closely to see that the motorman repeats it 
correctly. After the order is fully understood by the conductor 
and motorman they may proceed. 

The requirements where orders are delivered at sidings are 
the same as the foregoing except that the motorman becomes 
the operator and receives the order and O. K. from the dis- 
patcher, the conductor getting the "complete" in the usual man- 
ner. If, for any reason, the conductor or the motorman does 



not understand the order, the dispatcher will be notified at 
once. The responsibility for its correct interpretation must 
not be assumed and the decision of one must not influence the 
other. 

Twelve different forms with numerous examples and ex- 
planations are given for the transmission of the "31" tele- 
phone train order, and these forms must be followed if pos- 
sible. When a train crew is in doubt as to the correct method 
of handling an order or wishes to refer to the rules that 
apply in a particular case, the information is easily found by 
referring to the forms in the book of rules. 

Train dispatching on our lines is a very simple matter when 
.ill trains are running on schedule time because our rules pre- 
scribe that trains in either direction have no superior rights 
over trains of the same class in the opposite direction, but that 
they must meet as per timetable unless other orders are issued 
by the dispatcher. 

The numerous causes of delay, such as motor failure, wire 
down, heavy traffic, etc., require quick, decisive and accurate 
action on the part of the train dispatcher so as to prevent all 
of his trains becoming as late as the one which is in trouble. 
To accomplish this successfully, I believe that a dispatcher's 
office should be roomy, pleasant and well ventilated and that 
the furniture should consist of a switchboard, dispatcher's 
desk, cupboard for stationery, coathook and one chair. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND TREASURER OF THE 
CENTRAL ELECTRIC RAILWAY ASSOCIATION 

UY A. L. NEEREAMER, SECRETARY AND TREASURER 



Your secretary and treasurer has the honor to submit here- 
with his annual report for the year ended Dec. 31, 1910. 

Our railroad membership now consists of 46 interurban lines, 
representing 3480 miles, and one city line, making a total of 47 
lines, a net loss of one interurban line and 51 miles. During 
the past year two lines have withdrawn, causing us a loss of 
189 miles. One new line, covering 44 miles, became a member, 
and a gain of 98 miles was made by the extensions built by a 
number of the member-lines. During the past year we had 
128 supply members, as compared with 121 supply members 
and two associate members in the preceding year, a gain of 
seven supply and the loss of two associate members. 

The receipts and disbursements for the year just past are as 
follows : 

Receipts and Disbursements, Jan. i to Dec. 31, 1910. 



Cash on hand $427.30 

Received from railroads 3.553-15 

Received from city lines 37-50 

Received from supply men 1,024.00 

Received from stationery and printing 587 60 

Received from miscellaneous 9.35 



Total $5,638.90 

Payroll $2,825.66 

Traveling expenses 123.85 

Stationery and printing 877.89 

Postage 230.60 

Telephone and telegraph 83.44 

Office incidentals 32.12 

Taxes and insurance 8.81 

Express 45-20 

Office fixtures 63.75 

Office rent 546-00 

Cash on hand 801.28 



Total $5,638.90 



It will be observed from the above statements that the gross 
receipts and expenditures are less than the same items for the 
preceding year. This is due to the fact that during 1909 "Joint 
Passenger Tariff No. 3," which was a very large publication, 
was issued and no reissue of the tariff has been made since. 
While the gross revenue has decreased the fact still remains 
that we are still just as prosperous as we were during the 
past year. This is borne out by the fact that we now have on 
deposit in bank $801.28, as compared with $427.30 for the year 
preceding. Your attention is also called to the following state- 
ment : 



*Paper presented at a meeting called bv Public Service Commission 
Second District New York, Syracuse, N. Y.. Jan. 19. 



•Report presented at the annual meeting of the Central Electric Railway 
Association. Indianapolis. Jan. 19, 191 1. 



January 21, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



'15 



Assets and Liabilities, Dec. 31, igio. 



Cash on deposit $801.28 

Due from railroad members 44-04 

$845-32 

Liabilities $000.00 

Balance 845.32 



Total assets $845-32 



It is with pleasure that I refer to the ahove statement and 
call special attention to the fact that our bills are all paid and 
our assets are nearly 100 per cent more than in the preceding 
year. Your association is now practically upon a sound finan- 
cial basis with an established standing and can be operated, 
if economy is practised, successfully. 

There is still an opportunity to increase the membership and 
the revenue of the association by active work among the mem- 
ber lines in endeavoring to bring into the fold the rest of 
the lines in the territory covered by this association. The 
territory covered by this association embraces in round num- 
bers some 10,000 miles of interurban lines, of which 3480 miles 
are members of this association. 

Since the last annual meeting the various reports by the 
standardization committee which have been adopted have been 
compiled, published and placed in the hands of our members. 
Special publications have been purchased for use by that com- 
mittee and are now in the secretary's office. 

Your secretary cannot help but to call your attention to the 
claim index bureau. This bureau has been in existence for 
about three years and has now arrived at the point where the 
records are valuable. The support given this bureau has not 
been what it should be, as a number of member lines have 
been negligent in the matter of reporting. There is no expense 
attached to this branch of the association other than the postage 
necessary to send in the reports. The information which can 
be furnished from this office is invaluable. It is to be very 
much desired that this branch of the association will be given 
more attention in the future and that every effort will be made 
to make it one of the leading features. The success during the 
past year is due to the support and co-operation given the 
officers by the various members and committees. 

In conclusion I desire to express to the members and officers 
my heartfelt thanks for their assistance during the past year 
and to call their attention to the fact that such support and 
assistance given to the officers mean the establishing of the 
greatest' association of this kind in the United States. 



HEARING ON ATTLEBORO FARES 



The Massachusetts Railroad Commission on Jan. 12, 191 1. 
heard the petition of the Selectmen of Attleboro for a reduc- 
tion in fare and additional service on the Interstate Con- 
solidated Street Railway. The case of the petitioners was con- 
ducted by Frank I. Babcock. The company was represented 
by F. H. Dewey, president, and Henry C. Page, general man- 
ager. 

The company showed that while the seating capacity was 
frequently exceeded extra cars were run to handle heavy travel 
and that in general the company endeavored so far as possible 
to forestall demands upon its service. The petitioners re- 
quested the establishment of workingmen's tickets at the rate 
of about 35 for $1 good between 5 a. m. and 7 a. m. and 5 p. m. 
and 7 p. m. Mr. Dewey said that this would reduce the average 
fare between these hours to about 3.5 cents. The effect would 
be serious on all the lines of the company, since it would not 
be feasible to discriminate in favor of Attleboro. Counts of 
traffic showed that 15,600 persons used the company's service 
between 5 a. m. and 7 a. m. and 5 p. m. and 7 p. m., which 
would mean a direct loss of $43 per day, or $12,000 per year, 
if the workingmen's tickets were put in force. The company 
paid only 4 per cent dividends and there was little money 
for a surplus to meet contingencies. The company was liberal 
in the extent of its service, since one could ride from 6 miles 
to T2 miles for a 5-cent fare, with a transfer. The board took 
the case under advisement. 



LOGICAL BASIS FOR VALUATIONS OF INTERURBAN 
STREET RAILWAYS* 

BV C. G. YOUNG, CONSULTING ENGINEER, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Much of importance has been said of a mure or less con- 
tradictory nature on the subject of valuations of various classes 
of public utility properties, so that an analysis as affecting the 
investor, the public, the corporation and the government in 
respect to interurban street railways should be of interest to 
everyone seeking a fair and reasonable solution of the present 
perplexing problems involved. 

The writer proposes to assume and maintain an independent 
attitude in dealing with the questions, believing that there is 
something to be said on both sides, and hoping thereby that 
a full discussion may be brought out and definite conclusions 
reached on a basis that will eliminate many of the existing 
contentions between the public utility corporations and the pub- 
lic: therefore, the writer would prefer to regard the govern- 
ment authorities as occupying the neutral, unbiased position. 

To-day there are operating in the United States approxi- 
mately i2,oco miles of interurban electric railways, representing 
an investment of probably $400,000,000. The net earnings are 
possibly $24,000,000, or 6 per cent on the investment, but not 
over 70 per cent of net earnings can be paid out in dividends. 

There is in contemplated construction approximately 2500 
miles of additional interurban railways, every mile of which is 
desired by the public, and which it is conceded would add 
enormous definite financial values in the sections to be served. 

To secure the building of any of these lines requires capital, 
which, for perfectly evident reasons, does not now seem to be 
forthcoming. It, therefore, behooves both the general public 
and the corporations to consider carefully fundamental condi- 
tions. To secure capital for the construction of an interurban 
electric railway it is usually necessary to show, by carefully 
considered examination by competent and experienced engineers 
in whom the investor has faith, that the road will probably earn 
double its fixed charges. The investor requires bonds for his 
investment, and if they be 5 per cent gold bonds they must be 
issued to him at a considerable discount in order to give him a 
minimum return of perhaps 6 per cent from the bonds, and, as 
this return is not guaranteed, he will require in addition a 
considerable portion of the common stock to justify the risk 
he takes by investing in a new property and before the actual 
earnings are demonstrated. In other words, the investor re- 
quires and is entitled to receive, if earned, a return in excess 
of 6 per cent to offset his risks of the actual earnings bringing 
him much less than 6 per cent. 

The differing reasons for the valuation of a public utility 
property have brought about many divergent views held by dif- 
ferent commissions as to the correct and basic method for 
making valuations. The following are some of the principal 
purposes that have been advanced for desiring a valuation of a 
property : 

1. To limit the bond issue to the physical appraisal 

2. To determine a basis for taxation. 

3. To control the issue of stocks and bonds. 

4. To determine the basis of valuation for rate making. 

5. To determine a basis for the sale and purchase of prop- 
erty, or for future government ownership. 

6. To ascertain a basis for rentals on joint operation. 

The purpose of the valuation has a direct bearing on the 
method to be used in the eyes of the commissions and of the 
corporations, as may be noted by their usually diametrically op- 
posite views. It is, therefore, advisable to consider carefully 
what hearing the method of valuation has upon the purpose to 
be accomplished, not to warp one's ideas in considering the 
mater, but to determine definitely just what factors in valua- 
tion should rule. The method of valuation will have a larger 
influence and cause a greater variation in the results than a 
mere guess at the physical appraisal, hence it is of importance 

" Abstract of paper presented at the annual meeting of the Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association, Indianapolis, Ind.. Jan. 10, toil 



n6 

to consider the purpose of the valuation, the method to be 
employed, and the logical and correct plan to be pursued. 

The courts have held that the public service corporations are 
entitled to earn : 

A. Operating expenses. 

B. Expenses of repairs and maintenance. 

C. Taxes. 

D. Sinking fund to cover obsolescence and depreciation. 

E. A reasonable profit on the fair value of the property. 
From this it will be seen that the whole question rests on : 
t. What is a fair rate of return on the investment? 

2. What is a fair value of the property? 

After the above are determined and an analysis made of the 
service necessary and operating details, maintenance of the 
property, taxes and sinking fund, it can be determined what the 
proper tariffs should be to insure a reasonable rate of return 
on a fair value of the property. 

A practical method of determining what is a fair rate of 
return on the investment may be had by considering on what 
basis and on what terms funds can be obtained for the con- 
struction and equipment of a new property. 

The investor in a new property always considers it somewhat 
of a risk even though he has faith in the final result, but his 
experience in the past has shown him that he would not be 
warranted in making an investment unless the examination and 
report, prepared by competent authorities, indicated that the 
probable net earnings above operating expenses, maintenance 
and taxes are approximately equal to perhaps twice the total 
fixed charges, i.e., interest on the bonds issued to produce 
the property. The investor would not be satisfied to go into a 
new property if the return on his investment was to be limited 
to 6 per cent unless that amount were guaranteed, for experi- 
ence shows that he takes a decided risk and may not receive 
even the rate obtainable by investment in "seasoned" or proved 
securities; therefore, he feels justly entitled to participate in 
any expected surplus earnings made above the fixed charges. 
This lias usually been accomplished by issuing common shares 
as a bonus. The promoter, who has generally spent much time 
— perhaps years — as well as money to bring about the establish- 
ment of the enterprise, also feels that he is justly entitled to 
share in any possible surplus through ownership of a portion 
of the common shares. Now, if the public is fully informed 
that the common shares do not represent cash investment, or 
only partially so, no harm or wrong can accrue. 

Should the property not earn its fixed charges, as too fre- 
quently has been the case, the investor would sustain a large 
loss. The property, however, must continue to operate and 
serve the public, and at the expense of the original investor. 
This requirement and obligation of the original investor is 
generally disregarded by the public, but it is an important fac- 
tor and consideration by which, due to there being no minimum 
guarantee of return on the investment, he is reasonably en- 
titled to a return up to the estimated rate on the faith of 
which he undertook the investment. 

A FAIR KATE OF RETURN 

Unquestionably a fair rate of return, or a reasonable profit, 
that can be expected on an investment in any public utility 
property depends principally on the risk involved in the in- 
vestment. 

Where the risk is low, or nil, the rate of return demanded will 
lie a minimum. 

Where the risk is high, the rate of return required will be a 
maximum. 

Between these limits it is possible to classify all public 
utility properties. 

It is not necessary to specify what particular element is the 
greatest factor toward increasing the risk, but anything that 
intimidates capital from investment in public utility properties 
is necessarily a destructive and wasteful condition or policy, 
and it should be the united desire and effort of the general 
public, as well as the management of such corporations, to do 
whatever is needful to re-establish permanently the confidence 
of the investors. Otherwise everyone will have to contribute 



[Vol. XXXVII. No. 3. 

in one way or another to pay for the higher rate of return 
justly demanded by capital supplied under unfavorable con- 
ditions. 

merely as suggestions and without attempting to say that 
they should be adopted, the writer gives the following tenta- 
tive percentages as a fair rate of return on invested capital that 
would not seem unreasonable under the conditions named : 

( 1 ) 5 per cent where the interest and principal are guaranteed 
by the government. 

(2) 6 per cent on extensions of large properties showing 
substantial surplus earnings. ' 

(3) 7 per cent on extensions of large properties showing 
small surplus earnings. 

(4) 8 per cent on extensions of small properties showing 
substantial surplus earnings. 

(5) 9 per cent on extensions of small properties showing 
small surplus earnings. 

(6) 10 per cent on new properties where the estimated net 
earnings for the first year of operation under certain accepted 
methods are from 8 per cent to 10 per cent on the total cost of 
organization, construction and development. 

(7) 12 per cent on new properties where the estimated net 
earnings under accepted methods would not pay 5 per cent on 
the cost of organization, construction and development during 
the first three years, but where ultimately it is estimated that 
the property would earn good dividends. 

(8) A variable percentage on existing properties. 

Taking the case of a proposed new interurban electric rail- 
way or any other proposed new public service utility, it may 
be reasonably certain that investors cannot be found for any 
new public service property unless the estimated expected net 
earnings are likely to show from jy 2 per cent to 10 per cent on 
the total cost of the organization, construction and develop- 
ment, therefore, if by government action the rate of return 
is likely to be unduly limited to less than what can be ob- 
tained in other investments there will be no investment capi- 
tal available for public utility properties. 

The construction of an interurban railway certainly adds 
greatly to the convenience of the public and greatly enhances 
the value of the land throughout the territory served. In 
fact, the actual enhancement in value of the, tributary land 
might aggregate more than the total cost of the railroad and 
the investor would frequently make more profit by buying up 
land along the projected railroad than he could possibly make 
by investment in the securities of said railway even though his 
return was not limited to even less than 15 per cent. 

A prominent builder of steam railways has very pertinently 
said that in the case of a new steam railroad built through 
new territory, causing the land to increase in value 1000 per 
cent or more, as is usually the case, no objection is made by 
the public, the purchasers of the land or the government, 
and no attempt is made to hold the value of the land down to 
its original total cost value ; yet the steam railroad that has 
created these enormous values in land and added great and 
needed facilities for the people is told that it cannot be per- 
mitted to maintain tariff rates which would enable it to re- 
ceive a return of 10 per cent to 15 per cent on its total cost, 
nor to permit its total valuation to increase by reason thereof 
in proportion to the risk taken by the investor, and certainly it 
would not be permitted to increase its capitalization in pro- 
portion to the increase in the value of the lands brought about 
by the funds invested in the railroad. 

In addition the public utility property must continue its 
operations and serve the public even though its expected 
earnings are not realized, and if it cannot pay its fixed charges 
the court intervenes, assumes charge and continues to operate 
the property for the benefit and service of the public, and this 
is necessarily so and right, and no corporation can dispute it, 
but the fact remains that in such cases the original investor is 
generally a heavy loser and the property is rebuilt, if necessary, 
out of funds obtained by the receiver, by giving the new funds 
preference in the distribution of the earnings, and the property 
continues to operate to serve the public. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



January 21, 191 1.] 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



117 



The question of physical appraisal has been rather fully cov- 
ered during the last few years, and the writer finds no great 
difficulty, by eliminating the theoretical ideas, in harmonizing 
the various practical methods used or suggested in arriving 
at the present physical value of any property. However, very 
grave questions arise in the use of any basis of physical valua- 
tion to prove the real worth or value of a property. In other 
words, physical valuation of a property does not establish its 
worth or value. This 'holds true whether it be a new interurban 
electric railway which does not earn more than operating ex- 
penses, nothing toward interest, or a railway operated and 
maintained in first-class physical condition and earning a sub- 
stantial surplus above fixed charges. 

In the case of a property originally non-productive during 
several years of the development period and perhaps requiring 
to be reconstructed by investment of new capital, thus dupli- 
cating the original investment before it reaches the time when 
it can earn interest charges, it has been suggested and ap- 
proved by at least one of the State public service commissions 
that a proper valuation would include its duplicate investment or 
cost of development and also the accumulated deficit capital- 
ized, due allowances being made for charges against interest, 
depreciation, etc. In other words, it was assumed and granted 
that since the property was first constructed it was entitled to 
credit in a valuation to a fair rate of return on the investment 
from the beginning, in addition to a proper amount for de- 
preciation, and, therefore, if not earned and paid out the 
company would be entitled to calculate the accumulated deficit 
and add the capitalized amount to the valuation. 

All public utility properties, like private industrials, are en- 
titled to the benefits of good creative judgment, good engineer- 
ing and all the advantages accruing to the utilization of talent 
in their investment. If this is not conceded, then the govern- 
ment must step in and guarantee a certain and definite return 
for all investments alike, whether made with good judgment or 
otherwise, and manifestly this cannot be accepted nor would it 
be prudent or advisable. 

The principal methods used in valuations of properties are : 

1. Valuation based on the earning power. This basis is 
generally used in the purchase and sale of properties between 
private interests. 

2. Valuation based on market value of securities. This 
method will appeal practically to business men as indicating a 
commercial going value, but it should be noted that the market 
value of securities depends largely upon the earnings, and the 
earnings depend very largely upon the tariff rates in vogue, so 
that such a valuation may be directly affected by either a pro- 
posed or an actual change in tariff rates and is also subject to 
speculative movements. 

3. Valuation based on original cash cost of organization, 
construction and development, less depreciation and plus ap- 
preciation. This method has great merit in arriving at a fair 
valuation of the property on which to calculate a reasonable 
rate of return commensurate with the original and su&equent 
risks. 

4. Valuation based on the cost of reproducing the property 
new to-day. This basis of valuation has certain merit, but is 
considered not so equitable as No. 3. 

5. Valuation based on an inventory of the physical property 
at estimated cost of production less depreciation and plus ap- 
preciation. This method is that usually employed by appraisers 
and its results depend very largely upon the personal equation 
of the men directing the appraisal and the previous experience 
of the staff employed. Its errors are principally of omission. 
All things considered, it is not so reasonable, reliable or fair a 
basis except for limiting a bond issue as outlined in method 
No. 3. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTY VALUATION 

It is advisable to consider what should be included in the 
appraisal of physical property. 

1. Legal expenses, including that for right-of-way, fran- 
chises, permits, organization, construction, etc. 

2. Cost of promotion, covering expenses of preliminary in- 



vestigations and reports, preliminary surveys, expenses of 
conducting a large number of possible investors, local authori- 
ties and others over the line, in addition to the legal expenses. 

3. Brokerage expenses for securing the necessary funds dur- 
ing the construction period. 

4. Interest on carrying charges, on all money expended up to 
the time the property goes into complete operation. 

5. Engineering and supervision. 

6. Total cost of construction, including contractors' profits 
on material and labor. 

7. Total costs of right-of-way. 

8. Accidents and damages, including all insurance premiums, 
fidelity, casualty, fire, boiler or other insurance and allowances 
for contributions to charitable and hospital funds. 

9. Cost of complying with conditions of franchises, etc. 

10. Overhead charges, including management, office rents and 
supplies. 

11. Working capital. 

12. Costs of organizing the business, securing customers, 
testing-out